Chapter Fifteen: The Seventeenth Century: The Baroque Era

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Chapter Fifteen: The Seventeenth Century: The Baroque Era. Culture and Values, 8 th Ed. Cunningham and Reich and Fichner-Rathus. The Counter-Reformation Spirit. Council of Trent (1545-1563) Redefined doctrines, reaffirmed dogmas Assertion of discipline, education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Chapter Fifteen: The Seventeenth Century: The Baroque Era

  • Chapter Fifteen:The Seventeenth Century:The Baroque Era

    Culture and Values, 8th Ed.Cunningham and Reich and Fichner-Rathus

  • The Counter-Reformation SpiritCouncil of Trent (1545-1563)Redefined doctrines, reaffirmed dogmasAssertion of discipline, educationNew artistic demands, purposeSociety of Jesus, JesuitsIgnatius Loyola (1491-1556)Missionaries, educational improvement

  • Seventeenth-Century BaroqueDecentralized stylesArt for the middle-classRich, ornate, elaborate, fanciful EmotionalismPsychological explorationNew techniques, virtuosity

  • 15.4 Saint Peters faade, Rome, Italy

  • The Baroque Period in ItalyBaroque Sculpture and Architecture in RomeGian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)Chief architect of Counter-ReformationFountains, palaces, churchesConflict with BorrominiReligious-themed sculpturesBaldacchinoDavid (1623)The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1645-1652)

  • 15.6 Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, 1624-1633

  • 15.7 Gian Lorenzo Bernini, David, 1623

  • 15.8 Gian Lorenzo Bernini, The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy

  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini,Pluto and Proserpina, marble, 1621-22 (Galleria Borghese, Rome)

  • The Baroque Period in ItalyBaroque Sculpture and Architecture in RomeFrancesco Borromini (1599-1667)Brooding, melancholyObsessive elaboration of designHighly complex structuresChurch of San Carlo alle Quattro FontaneSinuous curves and counter-curvesConcave and convex walls

  • Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, begun 1638, faade finished 1667. Exterior faade 38 (11.58 m) wide. Rome, Italy.

  • 15.10 Francesco Borromini, the dome of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1638-1641

  • The Baroque Period in ItalyPainting in RomeAnnibale CarracciExtreme emotion, realism of detailExuberant life, movement, sensualityGalleria of the Palazzo Farnese

  • Annibale Carracci,The Loves of the Gods, 15971601. Ceiling frescoes in the gallery of the Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy.

  • The Baroque Period in ItalyPainting in RomeCaravaggio (1573-1610)Dramatic naturalism, realismBrutal, pessimisticEmotional, psychologicalTenebrismThe Calling of St. Matthew (1600-1602)Judith and Holofernes (1598)Artemisia GentileschiJudith Decapitating Holofernes (1620)

  • 15.12 Caravaggio, The Calling of Saint Matthew, 1600-1602

  • Caravaggio,Depositionoil on canvas,c. 1600-04 (Pinocateca, Vatican)

  • Caravaggio,The Crowning with Thorns, 1602-04, oil on canvas, 165.5 x 127 cm (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)

  • The conversion of Saint Paul 1601

  • 15.14 Artemesia Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, ca. 1620

  • Caravaggio,Judith and Holofernes, ca. 1598. Oil on canvas, 57 77 (145 cm 195 cm). Galleria Nazionale dArte Antica, Palazzo Barberini, Rome, Italy.

  • The Baroque Period Outside ItalySpainDiego Velzquez (1599-1660)Vitality of sceneLives of ordinary peopleLas Meninas (1656)ColorSpaceReality of detail

  • 15.15 Diego Velazquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656

  • Diego Velzquez,The Surrender of Breda, 1634-35, oil on canvas, 307 cm 367 cm / 121 in 144 in (Museo del Prado, Madrid)

  • The Baroque Period Outside ItalyFlandersPeter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)The Rape of the Daughters of LeucippusRestless energy, sense of actionFemale nudity, ample proportionsAnthony Van Dyck (1599-1641)Formal portraitsRefined tastes, noble patrons

  • 15.16 Peter Paul Rubens, The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, 1617

  • Peter Paul Rubens,The Elevation of the Cross,1610, oil on wood,

  • Anthony van Dyck,Marchesa Elena Grimaldi, Wife of Marchese Nicola Cattaneo, ca. 1623. Oil on canvas, 84 48 (242.9 138.5 cm). National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

  • The Baroque Period Outside ItalyThe Dutch Republic (Holland)Frans Hals (c. 1580-1666)Group portraitsJan Vermeer (1632-1675)Inner contemplation, reposeLight, stillness

  • 15.18 Frans Hals, Banquet of the Officers of the Civic Guard of Saint George at Haarlem, 1616

  • 15.26 Jan Vermeer, Young Woman With a Water Jug, 1665

  • The Baroque Period Outside Italy The Dutch Republic (Holland)Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)Spiritual matters, problems of existenceThe Night Watch (1642)Self-understanding through self-portraitsPsychologically reflectiveTragic nature of human destinyEmotionality through virtuosity

  • 15.21Rembrandtvan Rijn,The Sortieof CaptainFransBanningCocqsCompanyof theCivic Guard (The NightWatch), 1642

  • 15.19 Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait, 1652

  • Rembrandt van Rijn,The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 67 85 (170 217 cm). The Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, The Hague, The Netherlands.

  • The Baroque Period Outside ItalyFranceNicolas Poussin (c. 1594-1665)Protest against baroque excessesNostalgic yearning for idealized pastGeorges de La Tour (1590-1652)Restrained mood, repressed emotionality

  • 15.27 Nicholas Poussin, The Rape of the Sabine Women, ca. 1636-1637

  • 15.28 Georges de La Tour, The Penitent Magdalen, ca. 1640

  • The Baroque Period Outside ItalyFranceThe Palace of VersaillesLouis XIV = the Sun KingPolitics, psychologyGrandiose symbolismBaroque extremes + Classical simplicity

  • Hyacinthe Rigaud,Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, oil on canvas, 1701 (Muse du Louvre, Paris)

  • 15.29 Palace of Versailles, begun 1669

  • 15.30 Hall of Mirrors (Galerie des Glaces), begun 1676, Palace of Versailles

  • The Baroque Period Outside ItalyNew EnglandAnne BradstreetThomas Smith

  • 15.31 Thomas Smith, Self-Portrait, ca. 1680

  • Baroque MusicEmphasis on rhythm and melodyListening pleasure and glory of GodSacred music with universal appealGrowing interest in secular music

  • Baroque Music:The Birth of OperaPlay in which text was sung, not spokenAristocratic and middle-class audienceFlorentine CamerataObjected to polyphonic styleMonody, recitative Inspired by Greek drama, traditionJacopo Peri: Dafne, Euridice

  • Baroque Music:The Birth of OperaClaudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)LOrfeoDramatic instinct, emotionality of musicAcademic principles of CamerataOpera housesAudience appealLavish stage spectacles, arias

  • Baroque Instrumental and Vocal MusicOratoriioDietrich Buxtehude (1637-1707)Chorale fantasies, suites for harpsichordDomenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)Harpsichord virtuoso, sonatasGeorg Frideric Handel (1685-1759)Oratorios (Messiah)Operas

  • Baroque Instrumental and Vocal Music:Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)Virtuoso of composition, performanceComplexity of musical thoughtPolyphony, fugue, counterpointExpression of deep religious faithChorale preludes, cantatasBrandenburg ConcertosAntonio VivaldiConcerto grosso (Vivaldi)

  • Philosophy and Science in the Baroque PeriodComing of age of modern philosophyPhilosophy as independent disciplineObjective demonstration vs. abstract generalizationSupernatural explanations insufficient

  • Philosophy and Science in the Baroque PeriodGalileo Galilei (1564-1642)Astronomy, physicsHeretical denunciation of Ptolemaic viewSupport of Copernican theoryExperiment, observationTelescopeMotion

  • Philosophy and Science in the Baroque PeriodRen Descartes (1596-1650)Father of Modern PhilosophyCriteria for defining realityCogito, ergo sumWhat is clearly perceived must existArgument for the existence of God

  • Philosophy and Science in the Baroque PeriodThomas Hobbes (1588-1679)MaterialismLeviathanTheory of society, no divine lawOffended theologians, rationalistsPersonal liberty vs. security

  • Philosophy and Science in the Baroque PeriodJohn Locke (1632-1704)Predecessor to the EnlightenmentNature of ideasPerceptions, personal propertyLimitations of human knowledgeSignificance of experience

  • Seventeenth-Century:French Baroque Comedy and TragedyMolire (1622-1673)Comedic drama deflates pretense, pomposityPierre Corneille (1606-1684)Eternal truths about human behaviorJean Racine (1639-1699)Themes of self-destructionPsychological explorations

  • Literature in the Seventeenth Century:The Novel in Spain: CervantesPicaresque novelDon QuixoteSatire of medieval chivalric romancesReality vs. IllusionRelationship between art and lifeSynthesis of comedy and tragedy

  • Seventeenth-Century Literature:The English Metaphysical PoetsKing James version of the BibleMetaphysical concern with self-analysisJohn Donne (1572-1631)Richard Crashaw (1613-1649)Andrew Marvell (1621-1678)

  • Seventeenth-Century Literature:John Miltons Heroic VisionParadise Lost (1667)justify the ways of God to menBiblical and Classical referencesHumanist principles + Christian doctrineDramatic fervor, psychological insight

  • Chapter Fifteen: Discussion QuestionsIn what ways does Berninis sculpture of David highlight the characteristics of the Baroque period? Compare Donatellos David and Michelangelos David with that of Bernini. What cultural and/or historical statements can be made about each of the David sculptures if they are viewed as signs of their times? Why would these artists choose David as their subject? Why does each artist depict him differently? Explain.Despite the French dislike of the Baroque, how did the style permeate the art and architecture of France? Cite specific examples that illustrate the characteristics of the Baroque in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century France.What contributed to the lack of wealthy and/or noble patrons of Baroque art in Northern Europe? In what ways did the