CH2- NOTES

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  • WHAT IS AFOODBORNE ILLNESS?A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people by food.A foodborne-illness outbreak is when two or more people get the same illness after eating the same food.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there will be 76 million cases of foodborne illness in the United States each year.

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  • COSTS OF FOODBORNE ILLNESSESCost to Establishment*

  • HIGH RISK POPULATIONSHigh-risk populations have a higher risk of getting a foodborne illness than others. Examples:

    Elderly Infants and pre-school age children Pregnant women People with cancer or on chemotherapy, people with HIV/AIDS, and transplant recipientsThe immune system is the bodys defense against illness. When the system is weak, it cannot fight off illness as easily as a healthy system. *

  • FORMS OF CONTAMINATIONA hazard is something with the potential to cause harm. In the preparation of food, hazards are divided into three categories: biological, chemical, and physical. Contamination means that harmful things are present in food, making it unsafe to eat.

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  • FOOD CAN BECOME UNSAFE THROUGH:

    Poor personal hygieneTime-temperature abuse Food staying too long at temperatures good for pathogen growthCross-contamination Pathogens transferred from one surface or food to anotherPoor cleaning and sanitizingPurchasing from unapproved suppliers *

  • BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATIONPathogens- the microorganisms that cause illnessThe four types of pathogens that can contaminate food and cause foodborne illness are:

    VirusesBacteriaParasitesFungiMicroorganisms are small, living organisms that can be seen only through a microscope.*2.1Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

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    6 conditions needed for bacteria to growBacteria will double every 20 minutes if conditions are right.FFood- Carbohydrates and proteins encourage more growthAAcidity- Foods that contain little or no acid. TTemperature- 41F-135F is ideal. (Temperature Danger Zone)TTime- After 4 hours, food will grow to levels high enough to make someone sick.OOxygen- Some need oxygen, some need no oxygenMMoisture

  • TCS FOODS & READY-TO-EAT FOODSFood that is most vulnerable for pathogen growth is food that needs time and temperature control for safety, or TCS food for short.To control temperature, foodhandlers must keep TCS food out of the temperature danger zone.Ready-to-eat food, or food that can be eaten without further preparation, washing, or cooking, also needs careful handling to prevent contamination.Ready to eat TCS food prepared in house and stored at 41 F or below must be thrown out after 7 days.

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    Foods most likely to become unsafeMilk and dairy productsMeat: beef, pork, and lambEggs (except those that were pasteurized)PoultryFishShellfish and crustaceansBaked potatoesHeat-treated plant food, such as cooked rice, beans, and vegetablesTofu or other soy proteinSprouts and sprout seedsSliced melons and cut tomatoesUntreated garlic and oil mixtures

  • BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION VIRUSESViruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness. Viruses can be transferred from person to person, from people to food, and from people to food-contact surfaces.The best prevention for viruses is to stay home if youve been vomiting or have diarrhea or have jaundice, to wash your hands, and to avoid using bare hands to handle ready-to-eat foods.Viruses can survive refrigerator and freezer temperatures.Ex. Hepatitis A and Norovirus

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  • BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION BACTERIABacteria also cause many foodborne illnesses. If FAT TOM conditions are right, bacteria can double their numbers every 20 minutes. Some bacteria create toxins in the food as they grow and die. (Toxins=poisons) Cooking may not destroy toxins.

    Example: Salmonella spp., shiga toxin-producing E.coli, and Clostridium botulinum

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  • BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION PARASITES & FUNGIParasites cannot grow in food. They must live in a host organism to grow. They also may live in water. These are not as common in US. Most important to tip to prevent is to buy from a reputable supplier.

    A host is a person, animal, or plant on which another organism lives and feeds.Examples Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis Fungi can cause illness, but usually they cause food to spoil. Fungi are found in air, soil, plants, water, and some food.

    Mold that is visible to the human eye is actually a tangled mass of thousands of tiny mold plants. It spoils foods and may produce toxins. Some cheeses are molded intentionally. Yeast can spoil food quickly. The signs of spoilage include the smell or taste of alcohol, white or pink discoloration, slime, and bubbles.*2.1Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

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  • BIOLOGICAL TOXINSBiological toxins are made by pathogens or they occur naturally in certain plants and animal.Seafood toxinsMushroom toxinsUndercooked kidney beans

    To prevent, purchase foods from a reputable supplier.

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  • CHEMICAL CONTAMINATIONFoodservice chemicals can contaminate food if they are used or stored in the wrong ways. This includes cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, and machine lubricants.Store chemicals in a separate area away from food, utensils, and equipment used for food.To prevent toxic-metal poisoning, only use utensils and equipment, including kettles, pots, serving ware and pans, that are made for handling food.

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  • PHYSICAL CONTAMINATIONPhysical contamination happens when objects get into food. Contaminants can be naturally occurring, such as the bones in fish, or result from accidents and mistakes. Throw away any food near broken glass. Common physical contaminants include:

    Metal shavings from cansGlass from broken lightbulbsFingernails, hair, and bandagesJewelryFruit pitsMost physical contamination can be prevented by inspecting food closely, practicing good personal hygiene, and following preparation procedures.

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  • ALLERGENSEmployees should be aware of major allergens and the menu items that contain them. Cross-contact occurs when allergens are transferred from food containing an allergen to the food served to the customer.Common Food Allergy Foods- Dairy, Eggs, Fish, Peanuts, Shellfish (shrimp, crab, lobster), Wheat, Soy, Tree nuts (pecans/walnuts)

    A food allergy is the bodys negative reaction to a food protein.*2.1Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

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  • U.S. REGULATIONOF FOOD SAFETYMost regulations that affect restaurant and foodservice operations in the United States are written at the state level, but federal, state, and local governments are all involved.The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) writes the FDA Food Code, which recommends specific food safety regulations for the restaurant and foodservice industry.

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  • HOW FOODHANDLERS CAN CONTAMINATE FOODFoodhandlers are not just the people who prepare food. Servers and even dishwashers are considered foodhandlers.Food handlers can contaminate food by

    Having a foodborne illnessHaving wounds that contain pathogensHaving contact with a person who is illTouching hair, faces, or bodies and NOT washing handsTouching anything that may contaminate their handsHaving symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, jaundiceEating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco near food.*2.2Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

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  • PERSONAL CLEANLINESSAND WORK ATTIRETo avoid spreading foodborne illnesses, foodhandlers should:

    Always cover their hair.Remove aprons and store them in the right place when leaving prep areas.Wear clean clothing every day.Remove jewelry from hands and arms before preparing food or when working around prep areas. Personal cleanliness is an important part of personal hygiene. Pathogens can be found on hair and skin that arent kept clean. All foodhandlers must bathe or shower before work and keep their hair clean.*2.2Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

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  • HANDWASHINGWash hands for 20 seconds, making to scrub hands and arms for 10-15 seconds. Wash hands with water as hot as you can stand. Foodhandlers must wash their hands before they start work and after:

    Using the restroomHandling raw meat, poultry, or seafoodTouching the hair, face, or bodySneezing, coughing, or using a tissueEating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobaccoHandling chemicals that might affect food safetyTaking out garbageClearing tables or busing dirty dishesTouching clothing or apronsHandling moneyTouching anything else that may contaminate hands** Remember hand sanitizers only sanitize, they do not remove dirt.*2.2Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

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  • HAND MAINTENANCEKeep fingernails short and cleanDont wear false nailsDont wear fingernail polishWear a bandage over wounds on hands and arm.Wash hands before putting on gloves/changing gloves.Change gloves at least every 4 hours as well as after touching raw meats, before handling ready to eat foods, after becoming dirty or torn. Make sure gloves fit hands properly. **Use gloves, tongs, and/or deli tissue to handle ready-to-eat foods to prevent risk of contaminating it.*2.2Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

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  • WHEN ARE YOU TOO SICK TO WORKIf a food handler has a sore throat with fever, they cant work with or around food and should not be in the operation if the operation serves mostly high-risk customers.If the food handlers is vomiting, has diarrhea, has jaundice (yellowing of the skin), or has b