Cadmium Lacey Brandt

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Cadmium Lacey Brandt. Cadmium properties. Transition metal Solid Silvery grey Oxidation state- +2, +1 Atomic weight- 112.4g/mol Density-8.65g/cm³. No reaction with water Malleable Ductile. History and production. 1817- Cd discovered- impure ZnCo3- color and heat - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • CadmiumLacey Brandt

  • Cadmium propertiesNo reaction with waterMalleableDuctileTransition metalSolidSilvery greyOxidation state- +2, +1Atomic weight- 112.4g/molDensity-8.65g/cm

  • Freidrich StromeyerGerman chemist1817- Cd discovered- impure ZnCo3- color and heat1850- Cadmium pigments- yellow, red1899- NiCd rechargeable battery1907- production in the united states1900s- corrosion-protection steel coatingAfter 1945- wide spread useHistory and production

  • stabilizer- PVCalloyspesticidescurrent useNi-Cd batteriesprotective coatingspigments

  • Cadmium isotopes

    isotopeNatural abundance Life106Cd1.25%9.51017 years107Cdsynthetic6.5 hours108Cd0.89%6.71017 years109Cdsynthetic462.2 days110Cd12.49% stable111Cd12.8%stable112Cd24.13% stable113Cd12.22%7.71015 years113mCdsynthetic14.1 years114Cd28.73%>9.31017 years115Cdsynthetic53.46 hours116Cd7.49%2.91019 years

  • CADMIUM SALTS- different solubility, toxic levels

    CdHCdFCdCl CdBr CdICdO CdSCdSeCdTeCdN

  • CADMIUM ENTRY INTO ENVIRONMENT

    weatheringerosionriver runoffdiatom depositionoccurs naturally

  • Food consumptionRespirationFiltrationCadmium enters and accumulates in many marine organisms

  • TOXICITY TO MARINE ANIMALS

    Salinity and Cd toxicity Inversely proportional Cl binds with CdFree Cd toxic

  • Toxicity Category LC50 (ug/L) Very highly toxic 100,000

    Summary of Acute Toxicity for Organism GroupOrganism groupAverage Acute ToxicityAmphibiansVery Highly Toxic AnnelidsSlightly Toxic CrustaceansModerately Toxic FishModerately Toxic InsectsSlightly Toxic Marine benthic communityHighly Toxic MolluscsModerately Toxic Nematodes/FlatwormsSlightly Toxic PhytoplanktonNot Acutely Toxic ZooplanktonHighly Toxic

  • All Toxic Effects for Organism Group Organism Group Effects Noted Amphibians Accumulation, Biochemistry, Mortality Annelida Accumulation, Biochemistry, Genetics, Growth, Mortality, Reproduction AquaticPlants Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Development, Growth, Physiology, Population, Reproduction Crustaceans Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Development, Enzyme(s), Growth, Histology, Mortality, Physiology, Reproduction Echinoderms Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Development, Enzyme(s), Genetics, Reproduction Fish Accumulation, Avoidance, Behavior, Biochemistry, Cell(s), Development, Enzyme(s), Feeding Behavior, Genetics, Growth, Histology, Hormone(s), Immunological, Injury, Intoxication, Morphology, Mortality, Physiology, Reproduction Insects Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Development, Feeding Behavior, Growth, Mortality, Physiology, Population, Reproduction MarineBenthicCommunity Mortality Molluscs Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Cell(s), Development, Enzyme(s), Growth, Histology, Mortality, Physiology, Reproduction NematodesandFlatworms Accumulation, Histology, Mortality Phytoplankton Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Cell(s), Ecosystem Process, Enzyme(s), Growth, Mortality, Physiology, Population Zooplankton Accumulation, Behavior, Biochemistry, Development, Enzyme(s), Feeding Behavior, Genetics, Growth, Intoxication, Mortality, Physiology, Population, Reproduction

  • Trophic transfer[Cd ]of the water is not indication of food safety

    Fish growth affected

  • Penaeid shrimp Penaeu japonicusIncreased tolerance with development nauplii48h LC50=124ug/LZoea96 LC50=10-30ug/LPost-larvae96 LC50= 200-3500ug/LJuvenile96LC50=5500ug/LDecreased osmoregulation

  • Chronic protracted toxicity testMysidopsis bahia17 day life cycle test10.6 ug/L @ 20 / Breeding cycle # of young released Sensitive crustacean LC50 ~ 15

  • Eastern oyster- Crassostrea virginicaPhysiological effects intracellular localizationGills- mitochondria-> Respiration-> metabolismHepatopancreas- lysosomes -> lysosome damage

  • A DEEPER LOOK..

    Mutagenic - DNAClastogenic- chromosomesCarcinogenic-cancerTeratogenic-birth defects

  • Cd Break DNA directlyBreak DNA indirectlyOxidative stress- free radicalsInhibits glutathione ROS scavengerResponse= DNA breakage/ recoveryCd impairs DNA repair- compete with zinc

    GENOTOXICITY

  • MECHANISMS OF DETOXIFICATIONMetallothioneins (MT) low mw proteinscytosolsaturation- bind to critical sites

    Sequestering- Vesicles- lysosomes, other structuresSaturation-> lysosome damage

    FOUNDRY COVE/ SOUTH COVE STUDY oligochaete Limnodrilus sp. Used both mechanisms

    MTs transfer to lysosomes

  • Bambang, Y., Charmantier, G., Thuet, P., and Trilles, J.P. (September 1995). Effects of cadmium on survival and osmoregulation on various developmental stages of the shrimp Penaeus japonicus (crustacea: Decapoda). Marine Biology, 123 (3), 443-450.Binary compounds. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Cd/comp.htmlCadmium. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from http://www.cadmium.org Engel, D.W., Fowler, B.A. (February 1979). Factors influencing Cadmium accumulation and its toxicity to marine organisms. Environmental health perspectives, 28, 81-88Mechanisms of Metal Detoxification. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/fc.8.detoxification.htmlNimmo, D.R., Rigby, R.A., Sheppard, J.M. (January 1978). The acute and chronic effects of cadmium on the estuarine mysid. Mysidopsis bahia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 19(1) 80-85.Pan Pesticides database. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33703#EcotoxicologyPruski, A.M., Dixon, D.R. (2002). Effects of cadmium on nuclear integrity and DNA repair efficiency in the gill cells of Mytilus edulis L. Aquatic Toxicology, 57, 127-137.Risso-de Faverney, C., Devaux, A., Lafaurie, M., Girard, J.P., Bailly, B., and Rahmani, R.(2001) Cadmium induces apoptosis and genotoxicity in rainbow trout hepatocytes through generation of reactive oxygen species. Aquatic Toxicology, 53, 65-76.Ruangsomboon, S., Wongrat, L. (June 2006). Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton(Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus. Aquatic Toxicology, 78 (1), 15-20.Sokolova, I.M., Ringwood, A.H., and Johnson, C. (September 2005). Tissue-specific accumulation of cadmium in subcellular compartments of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae). Aquatic Toxicology, 74 (3), 218-228.Wikipedia. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org