Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments in Mixed Traffic

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    TRANSIT COOPERATIVE

    RESEARCH PROGRAMTCRPSYNTHESIS 83 Sponsored by the Federal

    Transit Administration

    Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments in

    Mixed Traffic

    A Synthesis of Transit Practice

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    TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT SELECTION COMMITTEE*

    CHAIR ANN AUGUST Santee Wateree Regional Transportation

    Authority

    MEMBERS JOHN BARTOSIEWICZ

    McDonald Transit Associates MICHAEL BLAYLOCK

    Jacksonville Transportation Authority LINDA J. BOHLINGER

    HNTB Corp. RAUL BRAVO

    Raul V. Bravo & Associates JOHN B. CATOE, JR. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit

    Authority GREGORY COOK Veolia Transportation TERRY GARCIA CREWS StarTran KIM R. GREEN GFI GENFARE ANGELA IANNUZZIELLO

    ENTRA Consultants JOHN INGLISH Utah Transit Authority JEANNE W. KRIEG

    Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority JONATHAN H. M CDONALD Stantec Consulting GARY W. M CNEIL GO Transit MICHAEL P. MELANIPHY

    Motor Coach Industries FRANK OTERO PACO Technologies KEITH PARKER VIA Metropolitan Transit PETER ROGOFF FTA JEFFREY ROSENBERG

    Amalgamated Transit Union RICHARD SARLES

    New Jersey Transit CorporationMICHAEL SCANLON San Mateo County Transit District BEVERLY SCOTT

    Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority JAMES STEM United Transportation Union FRANK TOBEY First Transit MATTHEW O. TUCKER

    North County Transit District PAM WARD Ottumwa Transit Authority ALICE WIGGINS-TOLBERT Parsons Brinckerhoff

    EX OFFICIO MEMBERS WILLIAM W. MILLAR

    APTAROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TRB JOHN C. HORSLEY

    AASHTO VICTOR MENDEZ FHWA

    TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR LOUIS SANDERS

    APTA

    SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS TRB

    *Membership as of June 2010.

    TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT SELECTION COMMITTEE*

    CHAIR ANN AUGUST Santee Wateree Regional Transportation

    Authority

    MEMBERS JOHN BARTOSIEWICZ

    McDonald Transit Associates MICHAEL BLAYLOCK

    Jacksonville Transportation Authority LINDA J. BOHLINGER

    HNTB Corp. RAUL BRAVO

    Raul V. Bravo & Associates GREGORY COOK Veolia Transportation TERRY GARCIA CREWS StarTran ANGELA IANNUZZIELLO

    ENTRA Consultants JOHN INGLISH Utah Transit Authority SHERRY LITTLE Spartan Solutions, LLC JONATHAN H. M CDONALD

    HNTB Corporation GARY W. M CNEIL GO Transit MICHAEL P. MELANIPHY

    Motor Coach Industries BRADFORD MILLER

    Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority FRANK OTERO PACO Technologies KEITH PARKER VIA Metropolitan Transit PETER ROGOFF FTA JEFFREY ROSENBERG

    Amalgamated Transit Union RICHARD SARLES Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority MICHAEL SCANLON San Mateo County Transit District

    MARILYN SHAZORSouthwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority JAMES STEM United Transportation Union GARY THOMAS

    Dallas Area Rapid Transit FRANK TOBEY First Transit MATTHEW O. TUCKER

    North County Transit District PAM WARD Ottumwa Transit Authority ALICE WIGGINS-TOLBERT Parsons Brinckerhoff

    EX OFFICIO MEMBERS WILLIAM W. MILLAR

    APTA

    ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR.TRB JOHN C. HORSLEY

    AASHTO VICTOR MENDEZ FHWA

    TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR LOUIS SANDERS

    APTA

    SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS TRB

    *Membership as of July 2010.

    TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE*

    OFFICERS Chair: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of

    Governments, Arlington Vice Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board

    MEMBERS

    J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern

    Corporation, Norfolk, VA WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California,

    Los Angeles EUGENE A. CONTI, JR., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and

    Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc.,

    St. Louis, MO BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid

    Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy;

    Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis

    KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of

    Texas, Austin

    EX OFFICIO MEMBERS

    PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute,

    Smyrna, GA GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute

    of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC

    ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of

    the Interior, Washington, DC EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and

    Transportation Officials, Washington, DC DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT

    VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of

    Homeland Security, Washington, DC CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety

    Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,

    U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding

    General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC

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    TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD

    WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010

    www.TRB.org

    T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M

    TCRP SYNTHESIS 83

    Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation

    S UBSCRIBER C ATEGORIES

    Design • Operations and Traffic Management • Public Transportation

    Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments

    in Mixed Traffic

    A Synthesis of Transit Practice

    C ONSULTANT

    ALAN R. DANAHER PB Americas, Inc.—Transit and Rail Systems

    Orlando, Florida

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    TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environ- mental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is nec- essary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations

    into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it.

    The need for TCRP was originally identied in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, pub- lished in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000 , also recognized the need for