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LIBRARY OF

WELLES LEY COLLEGE

PURCHASED FROMALUMNAE GIFT

BUDDHIST PARABLES

By

the

same author:

Buddhist Legends. Translated from the Dhammapada Commentary. Three Volumes. Harvard Oriental Series, 28-30. Harvard University Press.

BUDDHIST PARABLESTRANSLATED

FROM THE ORIGINAL PALIBY

EUGENE WATSON BURLINGAMEFELLOW OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES LECTURER IN PALI (1917-1918) AT YALE UNIVERSITY

A

parable,

O

monks, I here give unto you,the

that ye

may understand

meaning of thei.

matter.

Majjhima Nikaya,

117, 155.

NEW HAVENYALE UNIVERSITY PRESSLONDON

HUMPHREY MILFORD>

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

MDCCCCXXII

b

MH*

225 e PG

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS

8LNIO8?

TO MY GRANDMOTHER

WHO WHEN

I

WAS A BOY TAUGHT ME LETTERS

AND TOLD ME STORIES MANY AND VARIOUS

CONTENTSPrefacexixxxiii

Acknowledgments Introductory NoteNote on Pali NamesBibliographical Note

xxvxxviii

xxviii

Chapter

I.

Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous

Existences on the gratefulness of animals and the ungratefulness of man1.

The grateful elephant Where there's a will,

Ja. 156:there's a

ii.

17

1

wayJa. 73:i.

2.

Grateful animals and ungrateful man Driftwood is worth more than some

322

6

men11

3.

Ja. 72 :i. 319 Elephant and ungrateful forester The whole earth will not satisfy an ungrateful man

Chapter

II. Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences and from the Book of Discipline, on unity and discord4.

Quail, crow,

fly,

frog,

and elephants

Ja. 357:

iii.

174

1618

The5.

biter bit

Quails and fowler In union there is strength

Ja. 33:

i.

208

6.

7.

Vin. i. 342 Brahmadatta, Dighiti, and Dighavu (cf. 7) Love your enemies Dighavu and the king of Benares (cf. 6) Ja. 371 iii. 211 Love your enemies:

2028

Chapter8.

III. Parables

from the Book of the Buddha's PreviousJa.1

Existences on divers subjects

Two

caravan-leaders (cf. 45)

:

i.

95

30 3641

\

9.

Adhere to the Truth Vedabbha and the thieves

Ja. 48

:

i.

252 272

10.

A

Cupidity is the root of ruin Buddhist Tar-baby (cf. 21)

Ja. 55:

i.

Keep

the Precepts

viii

Contents11.

Two

dicers (cf. 47)

Ja. 91

:

i.

379

4445

\-i

12.

^-i

13.

Take care! Brahmadatta and Mallika Overcome evil with good King Dadhivahana

Ja. 151

:ii. 1

Evil communications corrupt good manners Ja. 186: Part 1. Gem, hatchet, drum, and bowl Part 2. Corrupt fruit from a good tree Ja. 186: 14. Antelope, woodpecker, tortoise, and hunter Ja. 206: In union there is strength Ja. 322 15. A Buddhist Henny-Penny

ii.ii.

101

4951

104152

ii.

5355

:

iii.

74

Much ado

about nothing

Chapter IV. Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences in early and late forms16.

Partridge, monkey, and elephant Reverence your elders

A. Canonical versionB. Uncanonical version17.

Vin.

ii.

161

The hawk (cf. 21) Walk not in forbidden groundA. Canonical versionB. Uncanonical version

18.

Snake-charm

A blessing upon all living beings! A. Canonical versionB. Uncanonical version19.

Dragon Jewel-neck (cf. 20) Nobody loves a beggarA. Canonical versionB. Uncanonical version

Chapter V. Parables from early sources on divers subjects20.

The

birds (cf. 19)

Vin.

iii.

147 148

73

21.

22.

Nobody loves a beggar The monkey (cf. 10 and 17) Walk not in forbidden ground Blind men and elephantAvoid vain wrangling

S. v.

7475

Udana, 66S.i.

23.

The anger-eating ogreRefrain from anger

237

77

Contents

IX

Ja. 44:

i.

Contents39

The

blind

manchild

D.

Why40

do not the virtuous commit suicide?

The woman with

cannot see the soul after death 41. cannot see the soul during life The dead are heavier than the living 42 Heat makes things light

We We WeWe

cannot see the soul

43. Villagers

and trumpet

4445

cannot see the soul The search for fire Wilful persistence in error

Two caravan-leaders (cf. 8) Wilful persistence in error 46. Dung for fodder Wilful persistence in error4748

Two

dicers (cf. 11)

Wilful persistence in error Giving up better for worse

Conversion of the unbeliever

Contents55.

xi

KhemaNanda

(cf.is

Beauty56.

(cf.is

56) but skin-deep 55)but skin-deep

A. cm. 205A. cm. 217

176178

Beauty

^

Chapter X. Parables from early sources on the Doctrine 57. The sower S. iv. 315 Like the soil of the earth is the soil of the heart 58. The Buddha and Ananda D. ii. 138 Whoever walks in righteousness, honors the Buddha 59. The Buddha and Vakkali S. iii. 119

180182 182

60.

Whoever sees the Truth, sees Me Whoever sees Me, sees the Truth The Buddha and the sick man Vin. i. 301 He that would wait upon Me, let him wait upon thesick

184

61.

The snakeGrasp the Scriptures aright Walking on the water (cf. 54) Behold the fruit of faith!

M.Ja. 190:

i.

133Ill

185

62.

ii.

186

63.

The Beginningless Round

of Existences (cf. 78-80)S.ii.

178 (synopsis)

188

Uproot Craving, the Eye of Existence64.

v65.

The relays The Religious Life The Great Ocean

M. 24:is

i.

147 197

190

only a means to an end

A.Vin.

iv.ii.

237

193

Udana, 5366.

The Doctrine tastes only of Deliverance The Buddha and the herdsman DhaniyaSo

Sn. No. 2

197199

67.

The

thou wilt, rain, axe in the mouthifis

god!Sn. No. 36in his

Every man

born with an axe

mouth

Chapter XI. Similes and short parables from the Questions of Milinda1. There 68. Chariotis

no permanent individualityno continuous personal identitychild

Miln.

2. 69. 70.71.

There

is

Embryo and

Lamp and3.

flame

Milk and butter

What, then,

is

Name-and-Form

reborn? is reborn

xii

Contents72.

Miln.

XIV132. Deliverance 133. Insight 134. Analytical136. General shop

ContentsMiln. 338 Miln. 338 Miln. 339Miln. 340

240 240241

Powers

135. Prerequisites of Enlightenment

Miln. 341Practices

242 243

13.

The Pure

137-162. Twenty-six similes

Miln. 353

244

Chapter XII. Parables from the Long Discourses on the Fruitsof the Religious Life163.

Removal of the Five Obstacles Payment of a debt

D.

2:

165. Release

from a sickness from prison 166. Emancipation from slavery 167. Return from a journey The Four Trances First Trance164. Recovery

168. Ball of lather

Second Trance169. Pool of water (cf. 179

and 203)

Third Trance170. Lotus-flowers

Fourth Trance171. Clean

garment

Insight172.

Threaded gemCreation of a Spiritual Body

173. Reed, sword, snake

The Six Supernatural Powers Magical power 174. Potter, ivory-carver, goldsmith The Heavenly Ear 175. Sounds of drumsMind-reading176. Reflection in a mirror

Recollection of previous states of existence177. Recollection of a journey

The Heavenly Eye178.

Mansion

at cross-roads

Knowledge

of the

means of destroying the Three Conand 203)

taminations: Nibbana179. Pool of water (cf. 169

ContentsChapter XIII. Parables from the Medium-length Discourses on two kinds of herdsmen180.

xv

Mara, the Wicked HerdsmanDestruction of the

Eye

of

Mara

i. The Four Trances Knowledge of the means of destroying the Three Contaminations M. 25 :i. 160 M. 19: i. 114 181-183. The Buddha, the Good Herdsman I M. 19: i. 114 How Gotama mastered his thoughts 181. Herd of cows M. 19: i. 115 M. 19: i. 116 How Gotama concentrated his thoughts M. 19: i. 116 182. Herd of cows How Gotama attained Enlightenment M. 19: i. 117 The Four Trances M. 19: i. 117 Recollection of previous states of existence M. 19: i. 22 The Heavenly Eye M. 19: i. 22 of the means of destroying the Three ConKnowledge taminations M. 19: i. 23 183. Herd of deer M.19:i.ll7 The Buddha, the Good Herdsman M. 19: i. 118 184. The Buddha, the Good Herdsman II M. 34: i. 225

M. 25 :i. 151 M. 25: i. 159 M. 25: 159

258 263 263

264 264 265 265 266 266 267 267 267 268268 269

270 270

Chapter XIV. Parables from the Medium-lengt