Bloom's Taxonomy

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Transcript of Bloom's Taxonomy

  • 1. Presented by Denise TarlintonPupil Free Day Monday 14 July, 2003

2. The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be ignited.(Plutarch) 3. Overview Blooms Taxonomy and higher-order thinking Take a walk down memory lane Investigate the Revised Taxonomy New terms New emphasis Explore each of the six levels See how questioning plays an important rolewithin the framework (oral language) Use the taxonomy to plan a unit Look at an integrated approach Begin planning a unit with a SMART BloomsPlanning Matrix 4. Productive PedagogiesA guide to Productive Pedagogies: Classroom reflection manual lists three degrees of incorporation of Higher-order thinking skills in a Continuum of practice: Students are engaged only in lower-order thinking; i.e. they receive,or recite, or participate in routine practice. In no activities during thelesson do students go beyond simple reproduction of knowledge. Students are primarily engaged in routine lower-order thinking for agood share of the lesson. There is at least one significant questionor activity in which some students perform some higher-orderthinking. Almost all students, almost all of the time are engaged in higher-order thinking. (Department of Education, Queensland, 2002, p. 1) 5. What is Higher-orderthinking?A guide to Productive Pedagogies: Classroom reflection manual states that:Higher-order thinking by students involves the transformation of information and ideas. This transformation occurs when students combine facts and ideas and synthesise, generalise, explain, hypothesise or arrive at some conclusion or interpretation. Manipulating information and ideas through these processes allows students to solve problems, gain understanding and discover new meaning. When students engage in the construction of knowledge, an element of uncertainty is introduced into the instructional process and the outcomes are not always predictable; in other words, the teacher is not certain what the students will produce. In helping students become producers of knowledge, the teachers main instructional task is to create activities or environments that allow them opportunities to engage in higher-order thinking. (Department of Education, Queensland, 2002, p. 1) 6. Blooms RevisedTaxonomy Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives 1950s- developed by Benjamin Bloom Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds ofthinking Adapted for classroom use as a planning tool Continues to be one of the most universally appliedmodels Provides a way to organise thinking skills into six levels,from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking 1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisitedthe taxonomy As a result, a number of changes were made (Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, pp. 7-8) 7. Original Terms New Terms EvaluationCreating Synthesis Evaluating AnalysisAnalysing Application Applying Comprehension Understanding Knowledge Remembering (Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8) 8. Change in Terms The names of six major categories were changed from nounto verb forms. As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking andthinking is an active process verbs were more accurate. The subcategories of the six major categories were alsoreplaced by verbs Some subcategories were reorganised. The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is aproduct of thinking and was inappropriate to describe acategory of thinking and was replaced with the wordremembering instead. Comprehension became understanding and synthesis wasrenamed creating in order to better reflect the nature of thethinking described by each category. (http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003) ; Pohl, 2000, p. 8) 9. Change in Emphasis More authentic tool for curriculumplanning, instructional delivery andassessment. Aimed at a broader audience. Easily applied to all levels of schooling. The revision emphasises explanation anddescription of subcategories. (http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003; Pohl, 2000, p. 10). 10. BLOOMS REVISED TAXONOMYCreatingGenerating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of actionChecking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judgingAnalysingBreaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, findingApplyingUsing information in another familiar situationImplementing, carrying out, using, executingUnderstanding Explaining ideas or conceptsInterpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering Recalling informationRecognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding 11. A turtle makes progress when it sticks its neck out.(Anon) 12. RememberingThe learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information. Recognising Listing Describing Identifying Retrieving Naming Locating Finding Can you recall information? 13. Remembering cont List Listen Memorise Relate Group Recall or Show Choose recognition of Locate Recite specificinformationDistinguish ReviewGive example Reproduce Quote Quote Record Repeat MatchProducts include: Label Recall Select Quiz Label Know Underline Definition List Group Cite Fact Workbook Read Sort Worksheet Reproduction Write Outline TestVocabulary 14. Classroom Roles forRememberingTeacher rolesStudent roles Directs Responds Tells Absorbs Shows Remembers Examines Recognises Questions Memorises Evaluates Defines Describes Retells Passive recipient 15. Remembering: PotentialActivities and Products Make a story map showing the main events ofthe story. Make a time line of your typical day. Make a concept map of the topic. Write a list of keywords you know about. What characters were in the story? Make a chart showing Make an acrostic poem about Recite a poem you have learnt. 16. UnderstandingThe learner grasps the meaning of information byinterpreting and translating what has beenlearned. Interpreting Exemplifying Summarising Inferring Paraphrasing Classifying Comparing Explaining Can you explain ideas or concepts? 17. Understanding cont Restate Describe Identify ReportUnderstanding Discuss Recogniseof giveninformation Retell Review Research Observe Outline Annotate Account forProducts include: Translate Interpret Recitation Example Give examples of Give main Summary Quiz Paraphraseidea Collection List Reorganise Estimate Explanation Label Associate Define Show and tell Outline 18. Classroom Roles forUnderstandingTeacher rolesStudent roles Demonstrates Explains Listens Describes Questions Outlines Compares Restates Contrasts Translates Examines Demonstrates Interprets Active participant 19. Understanding: Potential Activities and Products Write in your own words Cut out, or draw pictures to illustrate a particular event in the story. Report to the class Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events in the story. Write and perform a play based on the story. Write a brief outline to explain this story to someone else Explain why the character solved the problem in this particular way Write a summary report of the event. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Make a colouring book. Paraphrase this chapter in the book. Retell in your own words. Outline the main points. 20. ApplyingThe learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. Implementing Carrying out Using Executing Can you use the information in anotherfamiliar situation? 21. Applying cont Translate Paint Manipulate ChangeUsing strategies, Exhibit Compute concepts, principles and theories in new Sequencesituations Illustrate Show Calculate Solve Interpret Collect Make Demonstrate Products include: Practice Dramatise Photograph Presentation Construct Illustration Interview Apply Use Simulation Performance Operate Adapt Sculpture Diary Interview Draw Demonstration Journal 22. Classroom Roles for ApplyingTeacher roles Student roles Shows Solves problems Facilitates Demonstrates use of Observesknowledge Evaluates Calculates Organises Compiles Questions Completes Illustrates Constructs Active recipient 23. Applying: Potential Activitiesand Products Construct a model to demonstrate how it looks or works Practise a play and perform it for the class Make a diorama to illustrate an event Write a diary entry Make a scrapbook about the area of study. Prepare invitations for a characters birthday party Make a topographic map Take and display a collection of photographs on a particulartopic. Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic. Write an explanation about this topic for others. Dress a doll in national costume. Make a clay model Paint a mural using the same materials. Continue the story 24. AnalysingThe learner breaks learned information into itsparts to best understand that information. Comparing Organising Deconstructing Attributing Outlining Finding Structuring IntegratingCan you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships? 25. Analysing cont Distinguish Compare Question Contrast Appraise Survey Breaking Experiment Detectinformation down into its component InspectGroupelements Examine Order Probe Sequence Separate Test Inquire Debate Arrange Analyse Products include: Investigate Diagram Graph Survey Sift Relate Spreadsheet Database Research Dissect Calculate Categorise Checklist Mobile Criticize Discriminate Chart Abstract Outline Report 26. Classroom Roles for AnalysingTeacher rolesStudent roles Probes Discusses Guides Uncovers Observes Argues Evaluates Debates Acts as a resource Thinks deeply Questions Tests Organises Examines Dissects Questions Calculates Investigates Inquires Active participant 2