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Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders (Independent and non-papal) © 2006-2007 Mgr Philippe Laurent De Coster, B.Th., DD Apostolic Successions of Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson and Archbishop Philippe Laurent De Coster Edition Eucharist and Devotion Gent – Belgium © 1993 - 2007

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Ecumenical Apostolic Succession of Archbishop Philippe Laurent De Coster, B.Th., DD, through consecrator Archbishop Nils Bertil Persson and co-consecrators, June 25, 1995 for ecumenical reasons: One Church, One Baptism, One faith, all brothers and sisters alike in the face of the Almighty God.Archbishop Philippe L. De Coster was first received, ordained and consecrated in 1974 (France) by the late Patriarch Roger Caro.

Transcript of Bertil Persson

Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders(Independent and non-papal) 2006-2007 Mgr Philippe Laurent De Coster, B.Th., DD

Apostolic Successionsof Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson and Archbishop Philippe Laurent De Coster

Edition Eucharist and Devotion Gent Belgium 1993 - 2007

The Armenian Church(The Apostolic Orthodox Church of Armenia) The origins of The Church of Armenia are traced to The First Enlighteners of Armenia, two of the Twelve Apostles: St. Thaddeus (martyred in 66 A.D. in Armenia) and St. Bartholomew (martyred in 68 A.D. in Armenia). It is St. Gregory, however, who is credited with converting first King Tiridates of Armenia to Christianity and then the whole Armenian nation. The Kingdom of Armenia was the first nation to become Christian in the whole world. Soon after the King's conversion, St. Gregory was consecrated a Bishop. In obedience to a vision from Our Lord, Bishop Gregory built the first Christian Cathedral in the world in 303 A.D. with the support of the King. This cathedral was built in Vagharshapat, the capital of Armenia, not far from Mt. Ararat. In memory of the vision from our Lord to build this cathedral, the cathedral was named Holy Etchmiadzin (i. e., the place where The Only-Begotten Descended). Holy Etchmiadzin is still the official Seat of the head of the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church. The Church of Armenia participated in the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea (325 A.D.), with St. Aristakes, the younger son of St. Gregory the Enlightener, representing his ailing father. The Patriarch of Armenia was the first to use the title Catholicos, a practice since adopted by many neighboring jurisdictions in the Near East. In 485 A.D. the Seat of the Armenian Catholicos was moved from Holy Etchmiadzin to Divn , where a Synod of Armenian, Georgian, and CaspioAlbanian Bishops in 506 A.D. confessed The Faith of the Third Ecumenical Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) while rejecting Nestorianism and the acts of the Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.). When Dvin was sacked by the Muslims in 927 A.D., the Catholicos' Seat was moved first to Aghtamar in Lake Van then to the fortified city of Ani. When Ani was captured by the Greeks in 1045 A.D., the Catholicos' Seat was moved to Romkla on the Euphrates River, then again transferred (c. 1293 A.D.) to Sis, the capital of the Cilician Armenian Kingdom. In 1441 A.D. the Seat was returned to Holy Etchmiadzin. Several subsidiary Armenian Patriarchates emerged over the centuries. During the occupation of Armenia by the Arabs in the 7th century, the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem was recognized. Bishop Abraham was the first Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem (638--669 A. D.). The Patriarchate of2

Aght'amar was established as the result of a schism within the Church of Armenia in 1113 A.D. The Armenian Patriarchate of Sis was created in 1441 A.D. The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople was created in 1461 A.D. by the Ottoman government soon after their conquest of Turkey. The Catholic Armenian Patriarchate of Cilicia was created by Rome in 1742 A.D. The Patriarchates of Aght'amar and Albania (which was semi-independent from the earliest of times) have lapsed. All the Armenian Patriarchates (except the Catholic Patriarchate of Cilicia) acknowledge The Patriarch of Holy Echmiadzin as first among equals. The Turkish genocide against Armenian nationals in 1890--1915 A.D. dealt a severe blow to The Armenian Church and decimated the Armenian population in Eastern Turkey. Of the 5,000 priests living before the Turkish massacres of Armenians, only 400 were still alive at the end of World War I. Because of this loss of population, the Patriarchate of Aght'amarian was abandoned. The Patriarchal See of Sis was confiscated by the Turkish government (c. 1920) . The Catholicos/Patriarch of Sis, Sahak II, with the help of the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem and the French, moved south to Antelias, north of Beirut, Lebanon. The Primate of The Church of Armenia bears the title: Patriarch and Catholicos of All the Armenians.

Apostolic Succession from The Church of ArmeniaGregory Petros VIII, Catholicos-Patriarch of Cilicia of The Armenians, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Leon Chorchorunian on 7 April 1861 A.D. as Titular Archbishop of Malatia. Archbishop Chorchorunian consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Leon Chechemian on 23 April 1879 A.D. as "a Bishop at Malatia, Asia Minor". Bishop Chechemian consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: James Martin on 2 November 1890 A.D. as Archbishop of Caerleon-upon-Usk. Archbishop Martin consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Benjamin Charles Harris on 25 July 1915 A.D. as Bishop of Essex. Bishop Harris consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

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Charles Leslie Saul on 17 November 1944 A.D. at St. Paul's Church, Outwood, near Radcliffe, Manchester, England. On 8 September 1945 A.D. Bishop Saul was given the title and position of Archbishop of Suthronia in the Eparchy of All the Britons. Archbishop Saul consecrated s.c. to the sacred Episcopate: Herman Philippus Abbinga on 28 November 1946 A.D. as Missionary Bishop for Holland and Indonesia, assisting Mar Georgius of the Catholic Apostolic Church and Bishop Richard Kenneth Hurgon of The Order of Christ Our Most Holy Redeemer and King. Bishop Abbinga consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate: Perry Nikolaus Cedarholm on 31 May 1953 A.D. in Oslo, Norway, as Bishop of Scandinavia for The Apostolic Episcopal Church. Bishop Cedarholm consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Nils Bertil Alexander Persson on 12 December 1971 A.D. with the title of Mar Alexander, Titular Bishop of Smyrna. Bishop Persson is Director of St. Ephrem's Institute for Eastern Christianity Studies (founded in 1896 A.D.). He was enthroned as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 7 November 1986 A.D. Archbishop Nils Bertil Persson consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate, on June 25, 1995 in London (UK), with co-consecrators, Bishops Hans Dieter Sauerlandt, and George Boyer: Philippe Laurent De Coster, Archbishop of the Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders (non-papal).

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The Apostolic Succession from The Russian Orthodox Church(Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov)

In the ninth century the Rus (or Varangians) became masters of what is now western Russia and the indigenous Slavic population. Their chief centres of population were Novgorod, in the north, and Kiev, in the south (now part of the Ukraine). This ruling minority of mostly Swedish Vikings soon adopted the Slavonic tongue and customs of their subjects. Tradition credits Saint Andrew The First-Called with planting the seeds of Christianity in the area about Kiev. These seeds were nurtured by the ministry of Saints Cyril & Methodius, now known as the Apostles of the Slaves, in The Ukraine beginning in AD 864, using the native language. They invented a Slavic alphabet (based upon the Greek), which is still used today. The north shore of The Black Sea had been settled by Christians at least as early as the fourth century. The Khazars, rulers of what is now southern Russia, had adopted Judaism. However, the missionary efforts supported by Patriarch Photius of Constantinople to the Khazars was so successful that they soon asked for a Bishop of their own. Just a few years later Emperor Basil I ("The Macedonian") and Patriarch Ignatius commissioned a missionary Bishop to the Russians, who made many converts. The first known Christian ruler over the Kievan State is Saint Olga (Olha), dowager regent, who received Christian baptism in AD 950. Although she sent to Emperor Otto I of Germany for missionaries, they seemed to have had no marked success. It is Saint Vladimir (Volodymyr The Great), the grandson of St. Olga, who accepted baptism himself about AD 986 and then in AD 988 commanded the Christianization of his entire State, who is recognized as having initiated the conversion of Russia. Although St. Vladimir received delegates from The Pope and sent representatives to Rome, it was The Church of Constantinople which won his support. At the time of his death, in AD 1015, there were three bishoprics in his domains; based upon the foundations laid by St. Vladimir, Christianity continued its gradual, steady spread throughout Russia. The Metropolitan of Kiev, for centuries the administrative head of The Russian Church, was appointed by the Patriarch of Constantinople; he was usually a Greek, unfamiliar with The Faithful of Russia. The clergy were poorly trained and almost always too few for the size of the country. The priests were

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chosen by their parishioners, while the bishops (a substantial minority of whom were also foreigners with little understanding of the customs or language of their flocks) were selected by the local princes. The establishment of an independent Russian Church coincided with the decline of The Byzantine Empire, and the simultaneous rise of The Russian Empire. This process was helped when Kiev was destroyed during the Tartar invasion, and the Metropolitan consequently forced to move to Moscow (AD 1320). After the Grand Duke of Moscow (Ivan III) married a daughter of the nearest relative of the last Emperor of Constantinople, he claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Emperors. He even adopted the double-headed eagle, symbol of Imperial Byzantine power. Later, beginning in AD 1547, the princes of the Russian State, as successors of the Byzantine Emperors, began calling themselves Czar (i.e., "Caesar"). It was only natural that they would seek the prestige of a self-governing independent Church in order to bolster their own temporal claims. Although the Russian Church claimed autocephaly from AD 1448, when the Russian Bishops began electing their own Primate (the Metropolitan of Moscow), official recognition of this independence by the ancient and historic patriarchates was not secured until AD 1590 (one year after Jeremiah II, Patriarch of Constantinople, was persuaded to invest Iob, the 46th Metropolitan of Moscow, as the first Russian Patriarch -- although Iob had been promoted to the rank of Patriarch by the Russian Bishops in AD 1453) at a meeting in Constantinople of all the Patriarchs of the historic Sees. When Constantinople fell to the Moslems on 29 May 1453, Russia became the only nation where the freedom of The Orthodox Church remained unrestricted; this favorably influenced their claim for an independent Patriarchate. The Time of Troubles (civil war) which began in AD 1598 upon the death of Czar Fedor (Theodore), the childless son of Ivan IV, increased the Patriarch's political influence. It reached its height under Patriarch Filaret, whose son, Michael, at the age of sixteen, became the first Czar of the Romanov Dynasty. When Patriarch Adrian died in AD 1700, Czar Peter The Great refused to allow the election of a new Patriarch, leaving Stefan Iavorskii as Locum Tenens for 21 years. In AD 1721 Czar Peter finally promulgated a new constitution for The Church, which suspended the office of Patriarch and placed the governance of The Church under an Holy Synod. Copying the example of Henry VIII of England, the government-imposed new Church constitution made The Czar the Head of The Church of Russia. It went further than King Henry, however, by providing for a Lay Procurator (a government official) to administer The Church's day-to-day affairs. This "constitutional" subjugation of The Church to the Russian State established the precedent of direct governmental control over and interference in all the affairs

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of The Russian Orthodox Church -- a practice continued until the end of the 20th century by the atheistical government of the U.S.S.R. After the overthrow of Czar Nikolai II in March of AD 1917, The Russian Orthodox Church immediately convened a national Sobor to reform The Church and revive the Patriarchate of Moscow, which Czar Peter The Great had suspended. Metropolitan Tikhon, who had earlier been Russian Archbishop in America, won the election and assumed the office of Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia in November of that year, almost simultaneously with the outbreak of the Communist Revolution. This All-Russian Council (Sobor) attempted to restore sobornost -- the active participation of the whole Church (bishops, clergy, and laity) in every aspect of the Church's life, in contrast to the bureaucratic centralization which had ruled The Church under the secular and often hostile government of Russia since the creation of The Holy Synod by Czar Peter The Great. The new rectionary Communist government of Russia immediately placed severe restrictions upon the revitalized and reforming Church of Russia. In view of the vigorous anti-religion activities of the new Russian government, Patriarch Tikhon issued a statement in AD 1917 urging The Russian Faithful to act independently to preserve The Church. Some of the Bishops of The Russian Church attempted to heed The Patriarch's advice by establishing a separate independent Church administration in southeastern Russia. The advance of the Bolsheviks, however, forced these faithful shepherds into exile. In November of 1920 these refugee Bishops organized The Supreme Church Administration for Churches Outside of Russia in Istanbul (Constantinople), with the approval of The cumenical Patriarch. At the invitation of The Patriarch of Serbia, The Supreme Church Administration moved to Yugoslavia. Twelve of these Bishops, with representatives of the clergy and laity, organized a Sobor at Sremski Karlovtsi, Yugoslavia, on 21 November to 2 December 1921, under the presidency of Anthony Khrapovitski, Metropolitan of Kiev and Galich and under the canonical authority of an ukase (i.e., an Edict having the force of law) issued in AD 1920 by Patriarch Tikhon. The result of this meeting was the organization of The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, sometimes called The Synodal Church. Patriarch Tikhon, who vigorously opposed the inhumane and atheistic policies of the revolutionary regime, was cruelly imprisoned on 9 May 1922. The Communists refused to permit an election for his successor when he died in AD 1925. Metropolitan Petr of Krutica became Locum Tenes (Patriarchal Vicar), but he, too, was almost immediately imprisoned. He was succeeded later that year by Sergii, the Metropolitan of Nizhni-Novgorod, who tried to make peace with the new Soviet government. Although he suffered temporary imprisonment7

(December AD 1926 to April 1927), he issued a declaration in July of AD 1927 changing The Church's official stance towards the Communist government from one of hostility to one of praise and coperation. Outside observers have called this declaration of The Metropolitan either the great betrayal or the great salvation of The Russian Church. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia naturally disapproved of the coperation between the Patriarchal Church and the atheistic Communist government in Russia, as first formulated in the letters issued by Metropolitan (later Patriarch) Sergii in AD 1926 and AD 1927. Because of the inappropriate influence seemingly exercised by the anti-religious government of Russia, The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia refused to recognize The Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia in any way on the grounds that the Communist government completely controlled the patriarchate. With the invasion of Mother Russia by the Nazis (Russia's former ally in the partition of Poland at the beginning of World War II), the political climate changed in Moscow. Metropolitan Sergii urged The Faithful to sincerely support the Russian war effort against the Nazis; he issued calls to arms, organized fund raising rallies, and did everything possible to ensure the protection of his people and the defense of The Church. By 1 October 1944 The Church had donated 150,000,000 rubles, as well as gifts "in kind," to the Communist government. These many sacrifices and contributions for Russia gained him the favorable attention of the then current Communist Dictator, Josef Stalin, who finally granted the Metropolitan's request for new patriarchal elections. Sergii was elected Patriarch on 7 September 1943; he unfortunately died within six months. After that The Kremlin permitted subsequent elections within a year of each vacancy and had made The Orthodox Church of Russia one of the few officially recognized Christian organizations in the Soviet Union -- following the precedent established by Czar Peter The Great. The Sobor to elect the new Patriarch was held 31 January to 2 February 1945. The Patriarch of Alexandria, Patriarch of Antioch, and the Catholicos of Georgia attended this Sobor, together with 44 Russian Bishops, 126 clergy, and representatives of the laity. The Sobor elected Alexis as the new Russian Patriarch. They thus established a "working model" for the other European Communist countries to follow in dealing with Religion. However, all other potential national Orthodox jurisdictions within the then-U.S.S.R., with the exception of the ancient and historic patriarchates of Armenia and Georgia, were merged into the Moscow Patriarchate, as were some Eastern-Rite Roman Catholics and many other Christian jurisdictions and sects. The Orthodox Church of Russia has been increasingly active in international Orthodox and ecumenical affairs during the last few decades of the 20th Century.

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She has been particularly vocal before the World Council of Churches and elsewhere in encouraging anti-nuclear and anti-war movements throughout the world. The Primate of The Church of Russia bears the title: Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. The official language of The Church is naturally Russian. Metropolitan Antonii became the first head of The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, with his Seat at Geneva, Switzerland. He was succeeded in AD 1936 by Metropolitan Anastasii (who died in AD 1965), who was followed on his retirement by Metropolitan Filaret, in 1964. The chief See of the Metropolitan was moved during World War II to Munich, Germany, and in AD 1952 to New York City. Since then The Synodal Church has attracted The Faithful from other exiled jurisdictions, particularly those with origins in the formerly communist-controlled nations of eastern European. The recent collapse of communism has not resulted in any rapproachment between the exilejurisdictions and their mother churches.......yet. With the Moscow Patriarchate's vigorous pursuit of the return of Church property in foreign lands which has been administered since the Communist Revolution in Russia by The Synodal Church, the rift between the Synodal Church and the Moscow Patriarchate may never be healed.

Apostolic Succession from The Russian Orthodox Church through Saint PeterBishop Aleksij (Sergiy Vladimirovich Simanskij, 1877-1970) was consecrated 28 April 1913 by Patriarch Gregorios IV of The Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East in Russia as Bishop of Tichvin. In 1945 he was elected Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. Patriarch Aleksij, assisted by Metropolitan Nikolaj (Boris Dorofeevic Jaruevic), Archbishop Makarij (Sergej Konstantinovic Daev), Archbishop Jurij (Vjaeslav Michaijlovic Egorov), Bishop Aleksij (Viktor Aleksandrovic Konoplev) and Bishop Pimen (Sergij Izvekov), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop John (Konstantin Nikolaevich Wendland, 1909-1989), Patriarchal Exarch of The Russian Orthodox Church in America, on 28 December 1958. On 3 August 1963 Bishop John became Metropolitan of The Russian Orthodox Church in America. He was recalled to Russia on 10 July 1967. Metropolitan John, assisted by Bishop Dositheus (Michail Ivanchenko of The Russian Orthodox Church in America), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:9

Bishop Joseph (Joseph John Skureth, 01/08/1933 -- ), as Exarch, The Western Orthodox Catholic Church in America, Exarchate of The Patriarchates of Moscow and Antioch (a Western Rite body within The Russian Orthodox Church in America) on 17 April 1966. Bishop Dosifej (Dositheus/Michail Ivanchenko) had ordained Bp. Joseph priest on 3 July 1963. Exarch Joseph is also affiliated with The Syrian-Antiochian Orthodox Church. Bishop Joseph, assisted by Archbishop Francisco de Jesus Pagtakhan (The Philippine Independent Catholic Church, Manila) and Bishop Lawrence Lee Shaver (The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Bertil (Nils Bertil Alexander Persson, 11/10/1941 -- ) as Archbishop of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 28 February 1989. Archbishop Nils Bertil Persson consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate, on June 25, 1995 in London (UK), with co-consecrators, Bishops Hans Dieter Sauerlandt, and George Boyer: Philippe Laurent De Coster, Archbishop of the Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders (non-papal).

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Apostolic Succession from The Russian Orthodox Church through Saint AndrewBishop Makarij (Michael Nevskij, 1835 - 02/16/26) was consecrated in 1884 by Bishop Nikon of The Russian Orthodox Church. He was elected Archbishop in 1906 and served as Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomenskoe from 19121917. Bishop Makarij consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Evdokim (Basil Michaelovic Meschersky, 1869 - 1935) as Vicar Bishop, Diocese of Moscow, on 4 January 1904. Bishop Evdokim became the Archbishop of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1914. Archbishop Evdokim consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Aftimios (Abdullah Ofiesh, 1880 - 1966) as Bishop of Brooklyn on 13 May 1917. Bishop Aftimios became Archbishop of The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1923. Archbishop Aftimios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Sophronios (Sophronios Bishara, 1888 - 1940) as Bishop of Los Angeles on 26 May 1928, assisted by Elias, Metropolitan of Tyre and Sidon (The Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East) and Bishop Emmanuel (Rizkallah Abo-Hatab, The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church). Bishop Sophronios became Archbishop of The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1933. Archbishop Sophronios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Chrysostomos (John M. More-Moreno, + 1958), assisted by Archbishop-Exarch Benjamin (Ioann Athenasievich Fedchenkov of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church, in November of 1933. Bishop Chrysostomos became the Ruling Bishop of The Holy Eastern Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church in North America . Bishop Chrysostomos consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Mar Nikolaus (Perry Nikolaus Cedarholm, 05/18/1890 - 08/06/1979) as Bishop of Brooklyn and Staten Island for The Apostolic Episcopal Church, assisted by Rev'd Fr. David Leondarides, The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, on 6 December 1949. Mar Nikolaus returned to Sweden in 1951 and was acknowledged as a Bishop by the Church of Sweden. He was enthroned as

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Bishop of Scandinavia for The Apostolic Episcopal Church in 1953 by Bishop Herman Philippus Abbinga of the Osterns Apostoliske Episkopale Kirke. In 1969 he assumed the position of Archbishop of The Apostolic Episcopal Church. Mar Nikolaus consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Mar Alexander (Nils Bertil Alexander Persson, 11/10/1941 -- ) as Titular Bishop of Smyrna on 12 December 1971. Mar Alexander succeeded Archbishop Nikolaus (Cedarholm) as Archbishop of Scandinavia of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 22 July 1977. He was enthroned as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church by Archbishop Wallace David de Ortega Maxey on 7 November 1986. Archbishop Persson also serves as the Missionary General for Scandinavia and All Europe for both the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Catholic Church, confirmed 15 June 1988; this is a member jurisdiction of The Anglican Communion) and the Igreja Catlica Apostlica Brasiliera (Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, confirmed 14 June 1987). Archbishop Nils Bertil Persson consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate, on June 25, 1995 in London (UK), with co-consecrators, Bishops Hans Dieter Sauerlandt, and George Boyer: Philippe Laurent De Coster, Archbishop of the Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders (non-papal).

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Apostolic Succession from The Russian Orthodox Church through Archbishop Theophanies Fan Stylian NoliBishop Makarij (Michael Nevskij, 1835 - 02/16/26) was consecrated in 1884 by Bishop Nikon of The Russian Orthodox Church. He was elected Archbishop in 1906 and served as Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomenskoe from 19121917. Archbishop Makarij (Macarius) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Evdokim (Basil Michaelovic Meschersky, 1869 - 1935) as Vicar Bishop, Diocese of Moscow, on 4 January 1904. Bishop Evdokim became Archbishop of Alaska and North America for The Russian Orthodox Church in 1914. Archbishop Evdokim consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Aftimios (Abdullah Ofiesh, 1880 - 1966) as Bishop of Brooklyn on 13 May 1917, assisted by Bishop Stephen Alexander Dzubay of Pittsburgh and Bishop Alexander Alexandrovich Nemolovksy, Bishop of Canada. Bishop Aftimios became Archbishop of The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1923. In 1927, urged on by the chaotic conditions in Russia, the canonical Russian Patriarchial Bishops in the U.S.A. acted upon instructions and advice issued earlier by Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow, and emphasized by his successor, the Locum Tenens (Sergius), and Commissioned Bishop Aftimios to be Archbishop and to found and head an autocephalous American Orthodox Catholic Church. Archbishop Aftimios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Sophronios (Sophronios Bishara, 1888 - 1940) as Bishop of Los Angeles on 26 May 1928, assisted by Elias, Metropolitan of Tyre and Sidon (The Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East) and Bishop Emmanuel (Rizkallah Abo-Hatab, The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church). Bishop Sophronios became Archbishop of The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1933. Archbishop Sophronios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Christopher Kontogiorgios (Contogeorge; 1894 - 8/30/50) on 10 February 1934 at St. John the Baptist Church in New York City, assisting Theophanies Fan Stylian Noli, Archbishop of The Albanian Orthodox Diocese

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in America (consecrated 4 December 1923 in St. George's Cathedral in Korcha, Albania, by Metropolitan Kristofor Kissi [Bishop of Syradon] and Metropolitan Hierotheos [Andon Yahd, Bishop of Korcha & Plenipotentiary Exarch of the Patriarchate of Constantinople] as Metropolitan of Durazzo, Gora & Shpata; Primate & Exarch of All Illyria, of the Western Sea & of all Albania; 1924: President of Albania) as Metropolitan of Pentapoleos. Bishop Kontogiorgios was appointed Exarch of the Greek Orthodox Catholic Church under the Patriarchate of Alexandria in 1947. Exarch Kontogiorgios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Archbishop Konstantin Jaroshevich in 1949, assisted by Archbishop Arsenios Saltas (consecrated 25 August 1934 by Abp. Kontogiorgios and Abp. Theophan Noli) and with the blessing and concurrence of Metropolitan Theophan Noli. In 1954 Abp. Jaroshevich was appointed Exarch of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa in the United States. Archbishop Jaroschevich consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Peter Andreas Zhurawetsky (12/07/01 - 1994) in Sts. Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church of Springfield, Massachusetts, on 15 October 1950, assisting Patriarch Joseph Klimovich (of the American Holy Orthodox Catholic Eastern Church; Ptr. Klimovich was consecrated 14 October 1930 by Constantine Kuryllo of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church) together with Metropolitan Nicholas Bohatyretz (of the Ukrainians in the Orthodox Catholic Church in America; Met. Bohatyretz was consecrated 16 November 1913 by Bp. Paulo Louis Prota Guirleo Miraglia Gulotti, Bishop of Piacenza of the Italian National Episcopal Church), Metropolitan Joseph Zielonka (Polish Old Catholic Church of America and Europe) and Bishop Peter M. Williamowich (consecrated by Met. Fan Noli), as Suffragan Bishop, The Polish Old Catholic Church. In December 1960 Bp. Zhurawetsky succeeded Metropolitan Zielonka and immediately changed the name of this jurisdiction to Christ Catholic Church of the Americas and Europe, and taking the name of Peter II. In 1978, His Beatitude, Pope Nikolaus VII of Alexandria and All Africa wrote a letter recognizing Abp. Petros Zhurawetsky as a canonical Orthodox bishop. Patriarch Peter II consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Robert Gerald John Schulyer Zeiger (01/01/29 - 1998) in the Russian Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity and St. Olga, New Brunswick, New Jersey, on 1 July 1961, assisted by Primate Hubert Augustus Rogers, Bishop Julian Lester Smith, and Bishop James Hubert Rogers (all of The North American Old Roman Catholic Church) as Bishop for The Orthodox Catholic Patriarchate of America. He later left Ptr. Zhurawetsky's jurisdiction in 1961 and founded the American Orthodox Catholic Church. In 1964 he resigned as Primate of that jurisdiction while remaining Archbishop Metropolitan of

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Denver. On 10 August 1976, Abp. Zeiger was consecrated at St. Paul's Monastery, La Porte, Indiana, by Abp/Primate Joseph John Skureth (Western Orthodox Catholic Church) assisted by Bishop Joseph Gabriel Sokolowski, O.S.B. (Abbot General, St. Paul's Monastery, La Porte, Indiana; consecrated 16 March 1970 by Abp. Joseph John Skureth & Bp. Frank Blevins). Abp. Zeiger consecrated sub conditione to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Andre Leon Zotique Barbeau (11/22/12 - 2/14/94) on 8 August 1976, assisted by Bishop Gordon Albert Da Costa (Anglican Church of the Americas; consecrated 19 June 1971 by Bp. Benjamin C. Eckardt of the Free Protestant Episcopal Church, assisted by Bp. Charles Kennedy Samuel Steward Moffat and Bp. Albert J. Fuge). He was earlier consecrated on 14 May 1968 at the ProCathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Mirabel, Quebec, Canada, by Bp. Charles Brearley (Old Holy Catholic Church; consecrated 16 June 1954 by Marziano II, Basileus of Constantinople and of All the Christian Orient {Prince de Deols, Alessandro Licastro de la Chastre Grimaldi-Lascaris}, claimant to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire of the Orient as the 269th Emperor) and later on 26 July 1973 by Bishop Garry Robert Armstrong (Liberal Catholic Church International; consecrated 8 October 1972 by Bp. William Henry Daw of the Liberal Catholic Church International). He was further consecrated sub conditione on 19 August 1976 by Abp. Josef Maria Thiesen (Alt Roemisch Katholische Kirche in Germany; consecrated 17 April 1949 by Bp. Aloysius Stumpfl) and on 12/12/76 s.c. at the Cite de Marie, Mirabel, Quebec, Canada by Bp. George Bellemare (Eglise Universelle de la Nouvelle Alliance; consecrated 7 July 1975 by Bp. Roger Caro, assisted by Bp. Maurice Auberger and Bp. Patrick LeBar). Patriarch Barbeau consecrated sub conditione to the Sacred Episcopate:

Summary:Bishop Andr Barbeau, consecrated (sub conditione) on December 12, 1976: Bishop Georges Bellemare, who consecrated (sub conditione) on June 27, 1977: Archbishop Roger Caro (Pierre Phoebus, later Stephanos), who consecrated on June 30, 1979: Archbishop Philippe Laurent De Coster (Philippus-Laurentius).

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Apostolic Succession from the Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch and All The EastCyrillos VIII Jeha (Petros Geha, 1840--1916), the Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Athanasios (Melece Saouaya/Sawoya, 3/15/1870 -- 4/6/1919) on 5 February 1905 in The Chapel of St Michael at Cairo, Egypt, as Metropolitan Archbishop of Beirut and Gebeil, Lebanon. Abp. Athanasios (Sawoya) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Antoun Anid (Anthony Aneed, 2/27/1881 -- 8/24/1970) on 9 October 1911 in New York as Assistant Bishop (although not recognized by Rome, this consecration was later recognized by Patriarch Kirillus IX Mughabghab of The Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch). On 1 January 1946 Bishop Anid was enthroned as Patriarch of The Byzantine Universal (Catholic) and Orthodox Church of the Americas. Patriarch Anid, together with Primate Lowell Paul Wadle (The American Catholic Church), Bishop Henry Joseph Kleefisch (The Byzantine Universal Orthodox Church), and Bishop Charles H. Hampton (The Old Roman Catholic Church), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Mar David I (Wallace David de Ortega Maxey, 02/22/1902 - 03/12/1992) on 23 August 1945. He became the Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church in America on 7 July 1948 but later resigned from that office, not returning to The Apostolic Episcopal Church in America until the early 1970's. Mar David, assisted by Primate Robert Ronald Ramm (The Apostolic Episcopal Catholic Church), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson and enthroned him as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 7 November 1986. Abp. Persson succeeded Abp. Robert Ronald Ramm on 11 November 1986 as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Catholic Church. Archbishop Persson also serves as the Missionary General for Scandinavia and All Europe for both the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Catholic Church, confirmed 15 June 1988; this is a member jurisdiction of The Anglican Communion) and the Igreja Catlica Apostlica Brasiliera (Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, confirmed 14 June 1987). Archbishop Nils Bertil Persson consecrated to the Sacred

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Episcopate, on June 25, 1995, in London (UK), with co-consecrators, Bishops Hans Dieter Sauerlandt, and George Boyer: Philippe Laurent De Coster, Archbishop of the Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders (non-papal).

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The Apostolic Succession from The Church of CyprusThe Church of Cyprus was founded, according to Tradition, by St. Barnabas (mentioned in The New Testament). In A.D. 431 She was recognized as autocephalous under an independent Archbishop. During the Crusades, Cyprus was seized by Richard I, King of England. King Richard gave the island to Guy of Lusignan, titular King of Jerusalem, c. 1191 A.D., who placed the Orthodox Bishops of Cyprus under the Latin Archbishop of Nikosia. Finally, when Orthodox Archbishop Germanos died ( c. 1275 A.D.), The Church of Cyprus was not allowed to elect a new Primate. Venice took control of Cyprus in 1489 A.D., but still did not allow the election of a new Primate. The Ottoman Empire gained control of Cyprus in 1571 A.D. , at which time the Orthodox Faithful began instigating for a new Primate. In 1572 A.D., Turkey finally allowed the election of a new Archbishop of New Justiniana and All Cyprus. In 1821 A.D. they murdered the Archbishop (Kyprianos) and his three Bishops for aiding the Greek rebels on the mainland. At the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1877-78), fearing Russian expansion, Turkey turned complete control of Cyprus over to the British for a rental of c. $500,000 a year (with Turkey retaining nominal title to the island). In the 20th century, Cyprus has been continuously plagued with fighting: between the Greek and the Turkish populations, between the British administration and those seeking union with Greece and those seeking total independence. The Archepiscopal throne was vacant several times during this period (e.g., 19001909, 1933-1947). The Primate of The Church of Cyprus bears the title Archbishop of New Justiniana and All Cyprus and resides in Nikosia.

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Apostolic Succession from The Church of CyprusMakarios II, Archbishop of New Justiniana and All Cyprus, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Makarios III (Mikhail Christodolou Mouskos Kykkotis, 8/13/13--8/3/77) on 13 June 1948. Bishop Kykkotis was elected Primate of Cyprus in 1950. Archbishop Makarios III consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Theoklitos Kantaris as Bishop of Salamis, Cyprus. Bishop Kantaris consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Wolodymyr I (Walter Myron Propheta, 1912--8/10/72) on 30 March 1965 as Archbishop of the American Orthodox Catholic Church with the title of Patriarch Wolodymyr I, assisted by Abp. Theodotus (Stanislaus de Witow). (Bishop Propheta was first consecrated on 3 October 1964 by Patriarch Joachim Souris of the True Orthodox Church of Greece, assisted by Abp. Theodotus. Some view the 1965 elevation as not a consecration to the Office of Archbishop but merely an installation into that Office.) Patriarch Wolodymyr I consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate: Homer Ferdinand Roebke on 4 March 1967 as Archbishop for The American Orthodox Catholic Church. Archbishop Roebke consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate: Paul Christian G. W. Schultz (4/10/31--9/13/95) on 7 May 1975. Archbishop Paul Christian G.W. Schultz consecrated as co-consecrator (assisting, cooperating, and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration) to the Sacred Episcopate Nil Bertil Alexander Persson as follows: November 7, 1986, with the consecrator Archbishop and Primate Wallace de Ortega Maxey, assisting as co-consecrators the bishops Daniel Nelson McCarty, Emile Rodriguez Fairfield, Robert Ramm, Arthur Garrow, Jrgen Bless, and Paul Christian G.W. Schultz. June 14, 1987, with the consecrator Bishop Forest Ernest Barber, assisting as coconsecrators the bishops Emile Rodriguez Fairfield, and Paul Christian G.W. Schultz, for the Igreja Catlica Apostlica Brasileira (Mission Scandinave)24

June 15, 1988, with the consecrator Archbishop Francisco J. Pagtakhan, with coconsecrators de bishops Emile Rodriguez Fairfield and Paul Christian G.W. Schultz, for the Independent Catholic Church of the Philippines (Archdiocese of Europe) on the request of the Supreme Bishop Monsignor Dr. Macario V.Ga, DCM, STD: Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson, who consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate, on June 25, 1995 in London (UK), with co-consecrators, Bishops Hans Dieter Sauerlandt, and George Boyer: Philippe Laurent De Coster, Archbishop of the Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders (non-papal).

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The Apostolic Succession from Iglesia Filipina Independiente (The Philippine Independent Catholic Church)With a membership well in excess of one million members, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente has long been considered one of the largest Catholic jurisdictions not under obedience to Rome. Sometimes called the "Aglipayan" Church, this national Church is the daughter Church of The Roman Catholic Church of The Philippines rather than a result of the movement to restore Orthodoxy to the Occidental Church of Europe during the Middle Ages. Her history, however, is firmly linked to the history of Spain. Almost four centuries ago the power of Spain overshadowed all other European nations in the Americas. In the same year that Cortes conquered Mexico, Magellan discovered the Philippines in the Pacific - which Spain governed, robbed, and oppressed for three hundred and seventy-five years (until she lost control on May 1, 1898, when the U.S. fleet, under Commadore George Dewey, sailed into the Bay of Manila and won a victory as complete and astonishing as that of Cortes in Mexico). Spain's misrule in her colonies (Magellan began his rule in The Philippines by decapitating the beloved native ruler) produced a chronic state of insurrection; one after another, her colonies slipped from her grasp (Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, The Argentine, Mexico, Louisiana, Florida, and the greater part of the East Indies). She ceded Louisiana to France in 1800, Florida to the United States in 1819, and a few years later Mexico achieved her independence. Yet Spain still had the rich islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico in the West Indies and The Philippines in the East Indies; but these were quickly lost after her humiliating defeat by the Americans. Just as the Spanish colonial government had oppressed the Filipino people, so also the Church of Rome (thru the rule of the local parishes by the Friars) greatly oppressed the native population. When Commadore Dewey won The Battle of Manila and occupied the city, he had to set up an American defense force to protect the former Spanish colonial rulers (civil and religious) and allow them to leave the islands. The National Philippine Militia was at the gates of Manila and had vowed to kill all Spaniards. Commadore Dewey was later26

commended by most European powers for the honorable way in which he had handled this matter. It was not that The Church of Rome and Her clergy, even the Friars, had worked in vain. The native population had been brought the hope of The Gospel, which survives today in the vigorous folk devotion in the villages and the equally vigorous intellectual life of the larger cities of The Philippines. Never the less, the Spanish colonial system, which identified The Church of Rome with the official colonial government (State), had put into the hands of the religious a tempting power which bore seeds of abuse and corruption. By the nineteenth century, the Spanish Friars enjoyed such a suffocating monopoly on farmland that they became the main target of the revolutionary literature which finally united the Filipino people in armed rebellion in 1896. Within the Church of Rome in The Philippines, the Filipino clergy agitated against the arbitrary power of the foreign Friars. They also suffered from what might be called "racial discrimination" in that native clergy always occupied second-rate positions, and none were ever elevated to the episcopal rank. In 1872 three native priests were executed for taking an anti-friar stand, an act not forgotten by the native clergy. But Commadore Dewey's arrival in Manila Bay revived the stalemated native Filipino-Spanish hostilities. After the Battle of Manila and the occupation of Manila by Dewey, Father Gregorio Aglipay (of Illocos Norte) was appointed Vicar General of the Revolutionary Army by General Emilio Aguinaldo. In addition, the Spanish Bishop Jose Hevia Campomanes, a prisoner of the Filipino forces, named Fr. Aglipay the Ecclesiastical Governor of Nueva Segovia, a huge Episcopal See covering all of Northern Luzon. The growing ranks of rebel native priests, now led by Fr. Aglipay, petitioned the Papal Nuncio for a native episcopacy. He promptly told them that "the Pope would never agree because . . . Filipinos were not capable of episcopacy." The same day the Filipino native clergy received the insulting dictum of the Papal Nuncio in 1901, they announced their withdrawal from The Church of Rome under the slogan "An Independent Church in an Independent Philippines." The fiery Don Isabelo de los Reyes, a journalist, folklorist and labor organizer who led the lay delegates of the native clergy (and whose son some fifty years later was to become the Obispo Maximo of the Independent Church) urged an independent Church be founded immediately.27

After some days of deliberation, the native clergy proceeded to elect seventeen native clergy as bishops and Fr. Gregorio Aglipay as The Supreme Bishop (Obispo Maximo). Thus was born the Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente, which is also termed the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. At the time of its formation the language of the realm was Spanish. In the English language the Church is known as The Philippine Independent Catholic Church or The Independent Catholic Church of The Philippines. Father Aglipay, who was now called Monsignor Aglipay by his followers, was not only a loyal patriot but also a priest in Holy Orders of The Church of Rome. Although he realized that, in Rome's view, he could transmit to new priests valid presbyterial orders and thus establish a valid priesthood, he sought for a "regular" consecration to the episcopacy that would bring in line the Apostolic Succession of the ancient and truly Catholic Church. He corresponded with the Old Catholics of Europe, the Episcopalians of the United States, and The Apostolic Episcopal Church of Bishop Wolfert Brooks of New York without success. The native Church, however, grew rapidly, and was encouraged by the American presence in The Philippines. Governor-General William H. Taft was appointed and accepted the position of Honorary President of the Independent Church before he left for the United States in 1903. The two million Filipinos who had joined Msgr. Aglipay in his revolt against The Church of Rome took possession of the buildings in which they had been worshipping for generations. Challenged by The Church of Rome in U.S. courts, all properties were taken away from the people and handed back to The Church of Rome. Starting all over again, the Independientes nevertheless built Chapels and Churches throughout the country. Yet compared to The Church of Rome, they were a Church in poverty and could provide no Church-operated colleges or seminaries for their people. Nationalism was the vitality that held the Philippine Independent Church together through many trials and setbacks. Religiously the average Aglipayan lost nothing and gained little, for although he gave up worship in the beautiful buildings of his forefathers, he continued to hear a generally unreformed Mass and enjoyed the close fellowship of a minority Church. In addition, the clergy seemed more able to understand the problems of living because almost all of them were married. Except for the fact of a married clergy, not subject to the discipline of Roman obedience, the Church had changed little.28

It was still The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church of Christ Jesus for the Filipino faithful. Although controversialists said this independent Church would fail, some fifty years later it still had in excess of two million members, and the Government Census taken each decade (which also polls religious preference) consistently shows that one seventh of the Filipinos prefer membership in the Independent Church. While no men of good will, Protestant or Catholic, would question the validity of the apostolate of The Independent Church, the question of the lack of a traceable Apostolic Succession (which was raised by Msgr. Aglipay himself) continued to be asked. The Protestant Episcopal Church in The United States of America provided the answer in 1948. The Protestant Episcopal Church, looking back on its history, found that it had completely missed the mark when it refused to establish a vital episcopacy in Mexico in the late 1920's. After an assignation attempt on the life of the Mexican President and his cabinet members (allegedly traced to the Roman Catholic prelates and clergy in Mexico), Presidente Plutarco Elias Calles vowed to establish a Mexican National Catholic Church separate from and independent of Rome. The Protestant Episcopal Church in the USA turned down the Mexican request and Presidente Calles finally obtained the Apostolic Succession for the Mexican National Catholic Church from Msgr. Carmel Henry Carfora, Archbishop of Chicago of the Old Roman Catholic Church. Although three Bishops were consecrated to initiate the Mexican hierarchy (Jose Joaquin Perez y Budar, Antonio Lopez Sierra and Dr. Macario Lopez Valdes), the "Nationalistas" (as they were called), failed to replace The Church of Rome in Mexico and today only one remnant parish in Mexico and the East Los Angeles parish of Bishop Emil F. Rodriquez y Fairfield remain. Unlike the Filipinos, the Mexicans demanded continued celibacy in their national independent Church and were unable to recruit new priests. Near the turn of the nineteenth century, some Protestant Episcopal Bishops (such as Charles Chapman Grafton, who became Bishop of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin in 1888), espoused the so-called "Three Branch Theory" of the Church. The idea was that one branch was The Church of Rome, another branch was the Orthodox Church under Constantinople, and the third branch was The Church of England. Thus, it was thought, the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A. would eventually become the TRUE American Catholic Church; and in a

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time before The Church of Rome was firmly established in the United States, PECUSA had high hopes. It was the echo of this Branch Theory of Bishop Grafton that prevented the PECUSA from acting in the case of Mexico, and thus lost to the non-papal Christians the whole country of Mexico which, having cast out The Church of Rome and Her clergy, might have brought into the country the enlightenment that PECUSA claimed was Hers. But they did nothing until it was too late to do anything. The ideal was one branch only per country, and this idea blinded PECUSA's eyes at that time. PECUSA did not again want to miss the opportunity for missionary advancement. When, after several years of correspondence, Isabelo de los Reyes, Jr., became the leader of the Philippine national Church, PECUSA set aside the Branch Theory for one of "side-by-side" jurisdictions in the same land. On April 7, 1948, Isabela de los Reyes, Jr., and two other native bishops were consecrated to the Sacred Episcopacy by Bishop Norman S. Binstead of the PECUSA Missionary District of The Philippines, assisted by his suffragan (Bishop Robert F. Wilner) and the Rt. Rev'd Harry S. Kennedy (PECUSA Bishop of Honolulu). The three newly consecrated Philippine prelates then consecrated all the other native Bishops and ordained all priests and deacons according to the PECUSA rite. The Apostolic Succession obtained by the Philippine Independent Church was that of PECUSA - from The Church of England. A few years later, when European Old Catholics assisted in Filipino Episcopal consecrations, the Old Catholic Lines of the European Bishops were added. For many years the Independents and the Philippine Episcopalians walked side by side in harmony. However, over the years, differences developed. The "High Church" versus the "Low Church" problems of the Episcopalians in the USA did not appear as such in The Philippines, the conflicting parties rather seemed to be grouped as Pro-Protestant (or Pro-PECUSA) and Pro-Catholic. More recently groups have favoured former President Ferdinand Marcos who, as an infant, was baptized into the Independent Church by Msgr. Gregorio Aglipay himself. President Marcos had helped finance the Aglipay National Shrine which served as the Cathedral of Bishop Manuel Lagasca. Even as President Marcos often favoured the Independent Church until his conversion and political position as a Roman Catholic; so also many of the older "Pro-Catholic" Independent Bishops and clergy also supported Marcos when he was in office.30

The Pro-Protestant groups of younger priests and bishops within the Independent Church often tried (and succeeded) to overshadow the "war horse" bishops and priests who had been with the Independent Church from Her founding. One example: On May 8, 1961, the Pro-Protestant party won enough support to force the Constitution and Canons of The Philippine Independent Church to be amended to read, concerning Holy Orders, that "No bishop shall maintain seminarians in his convent or within his diocese on the ground that there is an official seminary, St. Francis Theological Seminary, Quezon City, recognized by the Church, where provision is made for the education of those who have a vocation to the priesthood. It is absolutely prohibited that any bishop ordain men to the priesthood . . . without certification issued by the dean of the seminary ..." What this meant for The Independent Philippine Church is that, if a man graduated from Yale Divinity School or Union Theological Seminary or Concordia Theological Seminary or Harvard University (just to name a few schools from which that priests of the Los Angeles Diocese of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas have graduated), they would be unable to be ordained as priests in The Independent Church. Also, the many Roman Catholic priests who, after having married, wanted to work as priests within The Independent Church, would have to be refused. The older bishops of The Church never obeyed this canon, which they said turned their postulants over to a PECUSA-controlled seminary and the heresies of modernism which trickled down from PECUSA even to the Philippines. Also, these Church Fathers did not approve of PECUSA's sole control over the seminary and their postulants. These older Bishops refused to give up their diocesan training centres for clergy and continued the practice of accepting former Roman priests. Msgr. Isabela de los Reyes, Jr., had been elected the Obispo Maximo (Supreme Bishop) in 1948, and continued to be re-elected every four years until his death. He was succeeded by Bishop Macario V. Ga, of the Diocese of Negros Oriental. Msgr. Ga has since been re-elected every four years. It is remarkable that many of the men who were with The Independent Catholic Church in The Philippines when She received Apostolic Succession from PECUSA are still serving and still in office. The vision of formally extending The Philippine Independent Catholic Church to the United States was primarily carried to fulfillment through the efforts of Dr. Thomas Gore. Dr. Gore graduated from Nashotah House ( a PECUSA seminary in Wisconsin) in 1976 and was ordained a priest within PECUSA by the Rt. Rev'd Charles Bennison (Bishop of Western Michigan) in 1968. He continued his education and received the Doctor of Medicine degree from the31

Autonomous University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Licensed both in Texas and Mexico as a medical doctor, he currently practices psychiatry in Lubbock, Texas. Fr. Gore was a representative when Bishop Pagtakhan of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church (assisted by Bp. Sergio Mondala and Bp. Lupe Rosete) consecrated Robert Kennaugh, Ogden Miller and C. Wayne Craig to the Sacred Episcopate for the continuing Anglican jurisdictions in the USA. Dr. Gore, however, desired a more direct link with the mainland Independent Church. After visiting the Philippines and winning the approval of Obispo Maximo Macario Ga and Archbishop Pagtakhan, Dr. Gore was consecrated on April 20, 1986, by Abp. Pagtakhan, Bp. Bayani Mercado and Bp. F. Barber. Bishop Gore then caused the American diocese of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church to be incorporated in the State of Texas as the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas with Abp. Francisco Pagtakhan serving as President of the Diocese/Corporation. It was Bishop Gore's hope that this new American jurisdiction could serve as a refuge for all traditional Episcopalians in the U.S.A. seeking valid sacraments, holy orders, and recognition by the International Catholic Community through its relation to the mainland Philippine Church -- which is a full member in good standing of The Anglican Communion. The Philippine Independent Catholic Church has been in existence in the USA for about ten years (as of this writing). The small candle that was lighted by Dr. Thomas Gore in Texas has burned brighter each year, enhanced by the rainbow beams of the Philippines. Known for more than a century as the "Jewel of the Orient" from a folk-lore tradition that a Pearl from the Holy Grail was taken to the Philippines, an old tale says that the Philippines will bring the "Light of Understanding" to the Orient and bless the whole Christian world with the advancement of The Gospel of Jesus Christ. The Iglesia Filipina Independiente, led by men such as Obispo Maximo Ga, Archbishop Francisco Pagtakhan, Archbishop Bartolome Remigio, Bishop Armando de la Cruz, and Bishop Manuel Lagasca, have given to the United States the great tradition of a conservative Independent Catholic Church. Yet it is not their work alone, it is the work of God.

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Apostolic Succession from The Philippine Independent Catholic ChurchRobert Kilgour, Bishop of Aberdeen & Primus of The Episcopal Church of Scotland, assisted by Bishop Coadjutor John Skinner of Aberdeen and Bishop Arthur Petrie of Ross & Caithness, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 November 1784: Dr. Samuel Seabury (11/30/1729 - 2/25/1796), as Bishop of Connecticut. Bishop Seabury graduated from Yale University in 1748 (B.A.; M.A., 1751) and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh (1752 - 1753). He was ordained a Deacon by Bishop Dr. John Thomas of Lincoln on 12/21/1753 and a priest by Bishop Dr. Richard Osbaldiston of Carlisle on 12/23/1753. In 1775, after a brief imprisonment in New Haven for being a British Loyalist, he fled to New York City (which remained loyal to the King) where he supported his family by practicing medicine and serving through the war as Chaplain of the King of England's American Regiment, under commission of Sir Henry Clinton (14 February 1778); after the Revolutionary War, he received a pension from the King for the rest of his life. In 1777 Bishop Seabury received the Doctor of Divinity degree from the University of Oxford. On 18 November 1790 he was also made Bishop of Rhode Island. Bishop Seabury, assisted by Bishop William White of Pennsylvania, Bishop Samuel Provoost of New York and Bishop James Madison of Virginia, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 September 1792: Dr. Thomas John Claggett (1742 - 1816) as Bishop of Maryland (and the first canonical Episcopal/Anglican Bishop consecrated on American soil) and installed at Trinity Church at the foot of Wall Street in New York City City. On 27 November 1800, as the U.S. Senate completed its move to permanent quarters in Washington, D.C., the Rt. Rev'd Thomas John Claggett was elected as that body's third Chaplain. Bp. Claggett, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 May 1797: Edward Bass (11/23/1726 - 9/10/1803) as Bishop of New Hampshire and Massachusetts in Philadelphia. He graduated from Harvard in 1744 and received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of Pennsylvania in 1789. He was ordained both Deacon and Priest by Bishop Dr. Sherlock of London in May 1752. With the death of Bp. Seabury, Bishop Bass was requested to assume responsibility and jurisdiction over the Churches in Rhode Island; he also was33

given jurisdiction over the Churches in New Hampshire about the same time. Throughout his entire episcopacy, he also continued to serve as Rector of St. Paul's Church, Newburyport, Massachusetts. Bishop Bass, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 18 October 1797: Abraham Jarvis (3/26/1770 - 1813) as the second Bishop of Connecticut, succeeding Bishop Samuel Seabury. Bishop Jarvis, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 29 May 1811: John Henry Hobart (9/14/1775 - 9/12/1830) as Assistant Bishop of New York (succeeding Bishop Benjamin Moore and becoming Diocesan in 1816). He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton University (graduating in 1793). He was ordained a Deacon in 1798 and a Priest in 1801. As Bishop, he initiated mission work among the Oneida Indians, was one of the founders of the General Theological Seminary and a renewer of Geneva (now Hobart) College. Bishop Hobart, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop James Kemp (2nd Bishop of Maryland, consecrated in 1814), consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 25 October 1827: Henry Ustick Onderdonk 3/16/1789 - 12/6/1858) in Christ Church, Philadelphia, as Assistant Bishop of Pennsylvania (becoming Diocesan in 1836 upon the death of Bishop William White). He graduated from Columbia University in 1805 and studied medicine in London and the University of Edinburgh (M.D.). He studied theology and was ordained Priest in Trinity Church, New York, on 11 April 1816 by Bishop John Henry Hobart. In 1827 he also received the degree of S.T.D. from Columbia University. Bishop Onderdonk, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Dr. Benjamin T. Onderdonk (Bishop of New York, consecrated in 1830), consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 January 1834: Dr. James Hervey Otey (1/27/1800 - 4/23/1863) in Christ Church, Philadelphia, Penn., as the 1st Bishop of Tennessee and the 30th Bishop in the PECUSA Succession, with parishes in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida and Tennessee. He was ordained both Deacon and Priest in Warrenton, North Carolina, by Bishop John S. Ravenscroft. Together with Louisiana Bishop Leonidas Polk (with whom he earlier founded Columbia Institute, a school for girls), he laid the groundwork for The University of the South at Suwanee, Tennessee, and served as the university's first Chancellor. Today a PECUSA parish on University Avenue in Suwanee bears the good Bishop's name. Bishop Otey, assisted by Bishop Leonidas Polk (1st Bishop of Louisiana; previously 1st Bishop of Arkansas; consecrated in 1838) and Bishop Nicholas H. Cobbs (1st

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Bishop of Alabama, consecrated in 1844), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 24 February 1850: Dr. William Mercer Green (5/2/1798 - 2/13/1887) in St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Jackson, Mississippi, as the 1st Bishop of Mississippi. He graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1818 (studying theology) and was ordained a Deacon on 29 April 1821 by Bishop Richard C. Moore of Virginia in Christ Church, Raleigh, North Carolina. He was ordained a Priest on 20 April 1822 by the same bishop in St. James' Church, Wilmington, North Carolina. In 1845 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of Pennsylvania. He served as Fourth Chancellor of The University of the South at Suwanee, Tennessee, beginning in 1867. Bishop Green, assisted by Bishop Joseph W. B. Wilmer (2nd Bishop of Louisiana; consecrated in 1866) and Bishop John W. Beckwith (2nd Bishop of Georgia; consecrated in consecrated in 1868), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 17 January 1875: William Forbes Adams (1/2/1833 - 1920) in St. Paul's Church, New Orleans, as Missionary Bishop of New Mexico & Arizona, becoming the 2nd Bishop of Easton (Maryland) in 1887. He was ordained a Deacon on 15 December 1859 and a Priest in St. Andrew's Church, Jackson, Mississippi, on 29 July 1861 by Bishop William Mercer Green. Bishop Adams, assisted by Bishop Alfred M. Randolph of Southern Virginia (consecrated in 1883) and Bishop Dr. William Paret of Maryland (consecrated on 1/8/1885), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on The Feast of St. Michael and All Angels (29 September), 1909: John Gardner Murray (8/31/1857 - 10/3/29) as Coadjutor Bishop of Maryland, becoming Diocesan in 1911 (to 1929) and the first elected Presiding Bishop of PECUSA on 1 January 1926. Presiding Bishop John G. Murray, assisted by Bishop John McKim (1st Bishop of North Kwanto, consecrated in 1893) and Bishop Henry St. G. Tucker (consecrated in 1912 by Bp. John McKim, Bishop Norman Henry Tubbs of Rangoon in Burma and Bishop Arthur Lea of Kyushu, Japan) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 3 December 1928: Norman Spencer Binsted (1890 - 1961), as Missionary Bishop of Tohoku, The Central Philippines, for The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Bishop Binsted, acting for the Presiding Bishop of PECUSA (Henry Knox Sherril), assisted by Bishop Robert Franklin Wilner (Suffragan Bishop of the Missionary District of the Philippines) and Bishop Harry Sherbourne Kennedy (Bishop of the Missionary District of Honolulu, Hawaii), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 7 April 1948: Isabelo de los Reyes, Jr (1900 - 1971) as Obispo Maximo of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (being elected to this office in 1946). Obispo Maximo de los35

Reyes, assisted by Bishop Manuel N. Aguilar and Bishop Alejandro Remollino (Iglesia Filipina Independiente) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 22 September 1957: Francisco de Jesus Pagtakhan (1916 - ) as Bishop of Zambales in Maria Clara Christ Church, Manila. Bishop Pagtakhan was elevated to the office of Archbishop of the Cagayan Valley and The Americas, and appointed Archbishop Secretary for Missions, Ecumenical Relations and Foreign Affairs on 8 May 1984. Archbishop Pagtakhan, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield (Primate, Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana) and Bishop Paul G. W. Schultz (Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate sub conditione on 15 June 1988: Nils Bertil Alexander Persson (11/10/41 - ) as Missionary General for Scandinavia and All Europe for the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, who consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on June 25, 1995 in London (UK), with co-consecrators, Bishops Hans Dieter Sauerlandt, and George Boyer: Philippe Laurent De Coster, Archbishop of the Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders (non-papal).

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The Apostolic Succession from The Church of England and The Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.The Church of England was planted in North America in 1607, at the foundation of the Jamestown Colony. It achieved quasi-establishment in Maryland and Virginia, and was "tolerated" in the other colonies, with the exception of New England, where the few Anglicans living there were bitterly persecuted and harassed. The foundation for control of the Church by the laity (congregational form of polity) was firmly laid at this time. The appointment of clergy to serve parishes was almost totally in the hands of the laity who refused to allow priests a title to the benefits of their office which appointment/installation would allow, but preferred to pay Chaplains whom they could "fire" at will. This resulted in the ranks of the clergy being filled with very unworthy men and reduced the priest to the position of being an hireling/employee of the laity, consequently resulting in the laity's contempt. As there were no resident bishops in North America, the Anglican parishes here were under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, who governed them by means of commissaries. The power of the laity was so strong, however, and the class of men willing to serve as hirelings rather than priests so inferior, that the spiritual state of Anglicanism in the American colonies was very weak. At the close of The War of Independence, Episcopalians, as they were then commonly called, realized that The Church must have a national organization if it was to prosper and grow. The biggest obstacle to creating a National Church was the lack of a national hierarchy. In Connecticut, the former Congregational converts to Anglicanism considered a bishop to be of absolute necessity. The Connecticut clergy therefore elected the Rev'd Samuel Seabury as their Bishop and gave him the mandate to go abroad and obtain valid Apostolic Orders. The Anglican Bishops in England could not by law consecrate any one who would not take the Oath of Allegiance to the Monarch of the Realm, however. It

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would have been impossible, therefore, for Bishop-elect Seabury to return to America if he had received consecration as a British subject who had sworn allegiance to the King of England. With the refusal of the English bishops to bestow episcopal consecration, Fr. Seabury proceeded to Scotland. After prolonged negotiations with the Nonjuring bishops of Scotland, he finally obtained their consent to confer Apostolic Succession upon him. The Nonjuring Bishops of Scotland were the remnant of the Church which the Stuarts had endeavored to establish in Scotland but which had lost the protection of the State as well as all Church endowments by remaining supporters of James II. The average Scotsman considered them to be almost as obnoxious as Roman Catholics and certainly just as dangerous. The Nonjuring Bishops of Scotland were extremely High Church. They abandoned the Calvinistic doctrine of the Holy Eucharist espoused in The 39 Articles of The Church of England and returned to the "Lutheran" doctrine of the 1549 Articles. They used Holy Chrism in Confirmation, were considered firm believers in the sacerdotal character of the Holy Priesthood, and adamant in the necessity of Apostolic Succession and Episcopal Ordination. Dr. Seabury was consecrated by the Nonjuring Bishops on 14 November 1784. Immediately after his consecration to the office and work of Bishop, he signed a Concordat with the Nonjurors (on 15 Nov. 1784) agreeing to introduce the liturgical and doctrinal beliefs and practices of the Nonjurors into the Episcopal Church in Connecticut. He specifically promised to persuade the American Church to use the Prayer of Consecration taken largely unchanged by The Episcopal Church of Scotland from the 1549 Book of Common Prayer. Upon his return to Connecticut he organized and governed his Diocese according to the doctrine and practice of his Consecrators. The "children" were no longer allowed to rule and control The Church. Bishop Seabury governed and ruled the Episcopal Church in Connecticut according to Biblical and ancient canonical practices; the laity was excluded from all deliberations, ecclesiastical councils and control of ecclesiastical affairs. In effect, Bishop Seabury is the Father of the traditional High Church party within PECUSA, marked by evangelical piety united with high sacramental ideals. In stark contrast to the understanding of The Church adopted by Bishop Seabury in Connecticut, a very non-Catholic and non-historic view of Church polity was adopted in New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Dr. William White, Rector of Christ Church, believed that the Episcopal Church must assent to and adopt the secular, non-Biblical principle of "representative government." He was even willing to employ the practice of Presbyterian Ordination until such time as a valid Apostolic Succession could be obtained from The Church of England. Surprisingly, Presbyterian Ordination found little favor among the Faithful of39

Pennsylvania. Fortunately an Act was passed in the English Parliament allowing English bishops to confer the Episcopacy upon men not subject to the British Crown. Consequently, Dr. William White (Bishop-Elect of Pennsylvania) and Dr. Samuel Provoost (Bishop-Elect of New York) were consecrated at the hands of the 88th Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. John Moore, on Septuagesima Sunday, 4 February 1787. Upon the return of Bishops White and Provoost to the United States, there were so many differences between the Connecticut Church and that of the Middle and Southern States, that a merger or union could not be immediately effected. When Dr. James Madison was elected to be Bishop of Virginia, he was forced to go to England to be consecrated since Bishop Provost of New York (perhaps the Father of what later came to be known as the Broad Church party within PECUSA) refused to act in conjunction with the Bishop of Connecticut. (Bishop White might be considered the Father of the Evangelical party within PECUSA, with its belief in the desirability -- rather than the necessity -- of Apostolic Succession and its desire to closely coperate with all other churches of the Reformation.) The foundation for differing doctrines of The Church were already evident at this early time within The Protestant Episcopal Church. The union was finally cemented in 1792, when Dr. Thomas John Claggert was elected Bishop of Maryland. There were now three "valid" Anglican bishops in the U.S.A. (excluding Dr. Seabury). Bishop Provoost of New York therefore withdrew his objections to allowing Dr. Seabury to participate in Dr. Claggert's consecration. Had Bishop Seabury not been invited to participate in the consecration of Dr. Claggert, the result would have been a schism between Connecticut and the other States.

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The Apostolic Succession from The Church of England and The Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.POPE St. NICHOLAS I (consecrated in 858) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 864: FORMOSUS (Bishop of Porto; Pope 891) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 891: St. PLEGMUND (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 909: ALTHELM (as Bishop of Wells; 914 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate 914: WULFHELM (as Bishop of Wells; 923 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 927: ODO (as Bishop of Ramsbury; 942 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 957: St. DUNSTAN (as Bishop of Worcester; 960 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 984: St. AELPHEGE (as Bishop of Winchester; 1005 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 990:

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ELFRIC (as Bishop of Ramsbury; 995 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1003: WULFSTAN (as Bishop of Worcester and York) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 13 November 1020: ETHELNOTH (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1035: EADSIGE (as Bishop of St. Martin's, Canterbury; 1038 Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 April 1043: STIGAND (as Bishop of Elmham; 1052 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1058: SIWARD (as Bishop of Rochester) assisting William, Bishop of London and Giso, Bishop of Wells (consecrated 15 April 1061 by Pope Nicholas II) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 29 September 1070 Bl. LANFRANC (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1070: THOMAS (as Archbishop of York) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 December 1094: St. ANSELM (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 26 July 1108: RICHARD de BELMEIS (as Bishop of London) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 18 February 1123:42

WILLIAM of CORBEUIL (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 November 1129: HENRY of BLOIS (as Bishop of Winchester) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 June 1162: St. THOMAS BECKET (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 23 August 1164: ROGER of GLOUCESTER (as Bishop of Worcester) assisting Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of London Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 November 1176: PETER de LEIA (as Bishop of St. David's, Wales) assisting Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury John Cumin, Archbishop of Dublin Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 29 September 1185: GILBERT GLANVILLE (as Bishop of Rochester) assisting Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury Bernard, Archbishop of Ragusa (consecrated 19 November 1189 by Pope Clement III) Philip of Poictou, Bishop of Durham (consecrated 20 April 1197 by Pope Celestine III) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 23 May 1199: WILLIAM de SAINTE MERE L'EGLISE (as Bishop of London) assisting Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury (consecrated 17 June 1207 by Pope Innocent III) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 October 1214:

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WALTER de GRAY (as Bishop of Worcester; 1216 Archbishop of York) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 December 1249: WALTER KIRKHAM (as Bishop of Durham) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 February 1255: HENRY (as Bishop of Whithern) assisting William Wickwane, Archbishop of York (consecrated 17 September 1279 by Pope Nicholas III) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 9 January 1284: ANTHONY BECK (as Bishop of Durham; 1306 Patriarch of Jerusalem) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 September 1292: JOHN of HALTON (as Bishop of Carlisle) assisting Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 27 June 1322: ROGER NORTHBOROUGH (as Bishop of Lichfield) assisting Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 July 1330: ROBERT WYVIL (as Bishop of Salisbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 12 March 1340: RALPH STRATFORD (as Bishop of London) assisting John Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 May 1346: WILLIAM EDENDON (as Bishop of Winchester)44

Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 20 March 1362: SIMON SUDBURY (as Bishop of London; 1375 Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 12 May 1370: THOMAS BRENTINGHAM (as Bishop of Exeter) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 January 1382: ROBERT BRAYBROOKE (as Bishop of London) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 February 1398: ROGER WALDEN (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 July 1398: HENRY BEAUFORT (as Bishop of Lincoln; 1405 Bishop of Winchester) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 May 1435: THOMAS BOURCHIER (as Bishop of Worcester; 1443 Ely, 1454 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 31 January 1479: JOHN MORTON (as Bishop of Ely; 1486 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 21 May 1497: RICHARD FITZJAMES (as Bishop of Rochester; 1503 Chichester; 1506 London) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 25 September 1502: WILLIAM WARHAM (as Bishop of London; 1503 Cant) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 May 1521: JOHN LONGLANDS (as Bishop of Lincoln) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 30 March 1533: THOMAS CRANMER45

(as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in June 1536: WILLIAM BARLOW (as Bishop of St. David's, Wales; 1549 Bath; 1559 Chichester) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 December 1559: MATTHEW PARKER (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 21 December 1559: EDMUND GRINDAL (as Bishop of London; 1570 York; 1576 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 21 April 1577: JOHN WHITGIFT (as Bishop of Worcester; 1583 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 8 May 1597: RICHARD BANCROFT (as Bishop of London; 1604 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 December 1609: GEORGE ABBOT (as Bishop of Lichfield; 1610 London; 1611 Canterbury) assisted by Marc Anthonio de Dominis, (Dean of Windsor and former Roman Abp. of Spolatro & Primate of Dalmatia) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 December 1617: GEORGE MONTAIGNE (as Bishop of Lincoln; 1621 London; 1628 Durham; 1628 York) assisted by John Howson (Bishop of Oxford) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 18 November 1621: Bl. WILLIAM LAUD (as Bishop of St. David's, Wales; 1626 Bath; 1628 London; 1633 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 June 1638: BRIAN DUPPA (as Bishop of Chichester; 1641 Salisbury; 1660 Winchester) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 28 October 1660 (see note 5):46

GILBERT SHELDON (as Bishop of London; 1663 Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 6 December 1674: HENRY COMPTON (as Bishop of Oxford; 1675 London) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 27 January 1678: WILLIAM SANCROFT (as Archbishop of Canterbury) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 25 October 1685: THOMAS WHITE (as Bishop of Peterborough, who was deposed in 1690 as a non-juror) Under Royal Warrant from the exiled King James II Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 24 February 1693: GEORGE HICKES (as Bishop of Thetford) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 24 February 1712: JAMES GADDERAR (consecrated without a See because of penal conditions; later Bp. of Aberdeen and Moray) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 June 1727: THOMAS RATTRAY (as Bishop of Dunkold) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1741: WILLIAM FALCONAR (as Bishop of Ross and Caithness) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 21 September 1768: ROBERT KILGOUR (as Bishop of Aberdeen) assisted by Bishop Coadjutor John Skinner (Aberdeen) & Bishop Arthur Petrie (Ross & Caithness) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 November 1784: SAMUEL SEABURY47

(as Bishop of Connecticut) assisted by Bishop William White, Bishop Samuel Provoost and Bishop James Madison Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 September 1792: THOMAS JOHN CLAGGETT (as Bishop of Maryland) assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 May 1797: EDWARD BASS (as Bishop of Massachusetts) assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 18 October 1797: ABRAHAM JARVIS (as Bishop of Connecticut) assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 29 May 1811: ALEXANDER VIETS GRISWOLD (as Bishop of the Eastern Diocese) assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Nathaniel Bowen Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 31 October 1832: JOHN HENRY HOPKINS (as Bishop of Vermont) assisted by Bishop Benjamin B. Smith and Bishop Lee Henry Washington Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 November 1866: GEORGE DAVID CUMMINS (as Assistant Bishop of Kentucky) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 December 1873: CHARLES EDWARD CHENEY (for the Reformed Episcopal Church) assisted by Bishop George David Cummins48

Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 24 February 1876: WILLIAM RUFUS NICHOLSON (Reformed Episcopal Church) assisted by Bishop Samuel Fallows Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 22 June 1879: ALFRED SPENCER RICHARDSON (Reformed Episcopal Church) assisting nd Bishop Charles Isaac Stevens (2 Patriarch, The Ancient British Church) Consecrated sub conditione to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 May 1890: LEON CHECHEMIAN (as Mar Leon, Abp. of Selsey; sometime Armenian Uniate Titular Bishop of Malatia) assisted by Bp. James Martin (Abp. of Caerleon-upon-Usk) Bp. Frederick Boucher & Bp. George W. L. Maaers (Iglesia Espaola Reformada Episcopal) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 2 November 1897: ANDREW CHARLES ALBERT McLAGEN (as Titular Bishop of Claremont) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 June 1922: HERBERT JAMES MONZANI HEARD (as Mar Jacobus II, Archbishop of Selsey; 1930 Primate, Free Protestant Episcopal Church) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 13 June 1943: WILLIAM BERNARD CROW Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Wisdom (as Mar Bernard, Bishop of Santa Sophia) (17 October 1943: Mar Basilius Abdullah III, Sovereign Prince Patriarch of Antioch) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 10 April 1944: HUGH GEORGE de WILLMOTT NEWMAN (as Mar Georgius I, Metropolitan of Glastonbury and Catholicos of the West) assisted by Abp. John Sebastian Marlow Ward (Archbishop of Olivet)49

Bishop Richard Kenneth Hurgon (Titular Bishop of Mere [Somerset]) Bishop John Syer (Mar John, Bishop of Verulam) Bishop Charles Leslie Saul (Mar Leofric, Archbishop of Suthronia in the Eparchy of All the Britons) Bishop Francis Ernest Langhelt (Mar Francis, Bishop of Minster) Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 6 June 1946: WALLACE DAVID de ORTEGA MAXEY (as Mar David I, Patriarch of Malaga, Apostolic Primate of all the Iberians, & Supreme Hierarch of the Catholicate of the West in the Americas) assisted by Abp. Robert Ronald Ramm (Archbishop-Primate, The Apostolic Episcopal Catholic Church) Consecrated sub conditione to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 November 1986: NILS BERTIL ALEXANDER PERSSON (as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church) who consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on June 25, 1995 in London (UK), with co-consecrators, Bishops Hans Dieter Sauerlandt, and George Boyer: Archbishop Philippe Laurent De Coster, of the Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders.

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The Apostolic Succession from The Mexican National Catholic Church(Iglesia Ortodoxa Catlica Apostlica Mexicana)Bishop Carmel Henry Carfora was consecrated in the Chapel of St. Dunstan's Abbey in Waukegan, Illinois, by Archbishop Rudolf Franziskus Eduard de Landas Berghes et de Rache assisted by Bishop William Henry Francis Brothers, on 4 October 1916 as Archbishop of Canada. In 1919 Abp. Carfora became Primate of The North American Old Roman Catholic Church. Abp. Carfora consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Jos Macario Lpez y Valdes on 17 October 1926 in Chicago, Illinois, as Bishop of Puebla de Zaragoza, Mexico, for the Iglesia Ortodoxa Catlica Apostlica Mexicana. Bishop Valdes consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Alberto Luis Rodriguez y Durand on .27 March 1930 "Por Autoridad del Patriarca de la Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana" in the Old Catholic Orthodox Church of St. Augustine of the Mystical Body of Christ in Lost Angeles, California, USA, as Bishop Ordinary of Los Angeles and Regionary Bishop in Alto California. Bp. Rodriguez y Durand consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate: Bishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield on 12 March 1955 in the Church of St. Augustine of the Mystical Body of Christ in Los Angeles, California, USA, as Bishop for Alta California. In 1983, with the death of Bp. Jos Cortes y Olmas, Bp. Rodriguez y Fairfield became the sole living possessor of episcopal orders from the Iglesia Ortodoxa Catlica Apostlica Mexicana. On 13 September 1983 he was installed as the Archbishop/Primate of the Iglesia Ortodoxa Catlica Apostlica Mexicana and head of the only remaining parish of that Church in East Los Angeles. Bishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield, was co-consecrator of Archbishop Nils Bertil Persson on June 15, 1988, consecration by coconsecrator (assisting, cooperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration in unison), as follows: June 15, 1988, with the consecrator Archbishop Francisco J. Pagtakhan, with coconsecrators de bishops Emile Rodriguez Fairfield and Paul Christian G.W. Schultz, for the Independent Catholic Church of the Philippines (Archdiocese of

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Europe) on the request of the Supreme Bishop Monsignor Dr. Macario V.Ga, DCM, STD: Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson, who consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate, on June 25, 1995 in London (UK), with co-consecrators, Bishops Hans Dieter Sauerlandt, and George Boyer: Philippe Laurent De Coster, Archbishop of the Latin Old Roman Catholic Church of Flanders (non-papal).

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Apostolic Succession from The Syrian Patriarchate of Antioch, The Apostle Peter first Apostolic Throne And its valid Gnostic Branch as from 1918.Christian Gnosticism: The last few years have brought to the fore a considerable number of organizations bearing the name "Gnostic". The principal reason for this was the discovery in 1945 and the publication in fully translated form in 1977 of the Nag Hammadi Library of Coptic Gnostic scriptures -- the largest collection of Gnostic writings ever discovered. The Nag Hammadi Library has not only brought the name "Gnostic" into prominence but has also convinced many persons in our culture that Gnosticism is more than a peculiar ancient heresy of mainly antiquarian interest. On the contrary, Gnosticism now stands revealed as a fascinating and creative early variant of Christianity that possesses many features of contemporary relevance. Gnostic Christianity is the key to discovering Jesus' logos/logic teachings. In addition, how that discovery can set us free. Gnostic Christianity also offers fact-based solutions to countless Biblical and spiritual mysteries. Scholars refer to Jesus' private teachings as his "logos," logic or oral tradition. Gnostics and Mystics refer to those teachings as Jesus' lost or secret teachings. The important thing to remember about Jesus' public and private teachings is that both are his. Jesus used his public teachings to inspire us, through mystical awe and spiritual insight, to love one another. He used his private/Gnostic teachings to provide us with the foundations for a non-judgemental system of logic that makes it reasonable for us to relate ideas in ways we now think of as spiritual and loving. The key to understanding the goal of Jesus' ministry is to first know how the apostle John uses the Greek term logos. Jesus does not use logos in the sense of the statement or the "word" of God recorded in the Bible. Logos, for Jesus, refers to divine logic/reason of God, in man. This definition is Hellenized Judaism's adaptation of the classical Greek concept of logos as "world soul" (274) meaning the mind of God. We stand on the edge of a revolution in consciousness, as momentous as any in history. Knowledge of Jesus' Gnostic/logos teachings is the key to that

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revolution. The second coming of Jesus is not Jesus in person, but his form of higher consciousness within us all. To those of us who are committed to the Gnostic Tradition, these developments have brought both satisfaction and concern. Understandably, we are encouraged by the increase of interest in our tradition. It is also gratifying for us to note that today, unlike some years ago, the use of the name "Gnostic" is considered advantageous by many. At the same time we are compelled to recognize that many avail themselves of the name "Gnostic" without adequate justification. Just as not all is gold that glitters, so not all who call themselves "Gnostic" have a just claim to this name. The Emperor is long dead. We no longer need to live in the dark ignorance of Constantine's shadow. We can now examine for ourselves every aspect of Jesus' outlawed Gnostic teachings, and bring back into our lives that part of Jesus' ministry which Constantine stole from us. We can continue teaching religious values from only a mystical perspective, or we can intellectually support those values by teaching our children to reason lovingly. A truly better future for our children depends upon what we teach them now. Hopefully, religious leaders will consider Jesu