Behavior Assessment He Did What?
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Behavior AssessmentHe Did What?Wanda Y. Wade, MEd., MBA, MSBAEEX 32211Advanced Organizerhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0fJKvdjQgs&feature=relatedBehaviorBehavior Intervention ProcessFunctional Behavior AssessmentData CollectionBehavior Techniques2Remember. Haim GinottI have come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom.Its my personal approach that creates the climate and it is my daily mood that makes the weather.As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a childs life miserable or joyous.I can be a tool of torture or inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal.In all situations, it is my response that influences whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized.Teacher and Child, 1972
3Why Do We Observe Students?Observations can provide information about students:Academic skillsMotor skillsCommunication skillsSocial skillsOverall attitude or demeanor
4What is Behavior?Dead Mans Test Can a dead man do it?; e.g., Not swearing at peers vs talking to peers without swearingBehavior-something someone does that is observable and measureable and can be verbal or nonverbal; behavior must be clearly defined and have a beginning and an ending (Maag, 1999)
5What happens when teachers do not attend to behavior problems?Disrupts students academic progress.
Decreases the amount of academic engaged time.
Hinders the identification of other academic problems.
6Behavior Intervention Process7Behavioral Intervention ProcessIdentify the LearnerIdentify the Target behaviorIdentify Conditions of InterventionIdentify Criteria for Acceptable performance
8Identify the LearnerBe specificSteve will say the sight words without spending more than 10 seconds on each word.. Jason will be able to complete an outline map of Pennsylvania, including the major cities and rivers introduced in class.Stacey will paraphrase Dr. Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" address, mentioning .Michelle will underline all the words that are verbs.
9Identify the Target BehaviorState what the student will dobe specificdecrease the use of aggressive behaviors such as kicking, hitting, spitting, pulling hair, throwing objects (books, pencils, chair) biting and scratching, threatening and/or aggressive comments to staff and peers, and destruction of property. say the sight words without spending more than 10 seconds on each word.decrease the use of profanity.10Identify the Conditions of the InterventionVerbal request or instructionsJosh, pick up the blue cup.Written instructions or formatDraw a line to the items that match.DemonstrationThis is how you pick up the blue cup.Materials to be usedBlue cup, red cupWorksheet with ten items that match.Environmental setting or timingIn the lunchroomDuring independent work timeManner of assistanceIndependentWith partial physical assistanceWith verbal prompts
Identify Criteria for Acceptable PerformanceTypes of Criterion statements:Number or Percentage of Correct Responsesat least 60% completed and 75% attempted in class for at least 3 of 4 weeks.Duration length of time student performs the behaviorno more than 2 incomplete assignments per week for 3 consecutive weeks.Latency length of time between the instruction and student performs the behaviorno more than an average of 4 incidents per week for 3 consecutive weeks.
12Behavioral Objectives ChecklistIs the behavior observable? Can I count the number of times it occurs?Can I count for how long it occurs?Will a stranger know exactly what to look for?Can I break down the target behavior into smaller behavioral components to make it more specific and observable?13Do excercise - see handout 1Stop and ThinkWhats Wrong With These Objectives?Charles will expand his knowledge of the U.S. capitols.Laura will gain an appreciation of friendships and will get along with her peers.Steven will learn the vocabulary words presented in the Acme reader.When presented with menu, Alan will order a meal.For three weeks, Jackson will get out of bed on time.Beatrice will be ready for bed each night for 1 month.After watching the nightly news, Madeline will work on her homework for 1 hour.14Functional Behavior Assessment15What is an FBA?A process in which one examines the circumstances (or context) around the problem behavior and formulates a hypothesis as to the function the behavior is serving for the child (ONeil et. Al., 1997)A process of gathering information that can be used to develop an effective Individualized Behavior Intervention plan (BIP)16When do you do an FBA?When a behavior impedes learning or the learning of others.Documented unsuccessful classroom interventions.When considering a more restrictive environment due to behavior concerns.When a student has received 10 days of suspension.The behavior cannot be addressed solely through the classroom management plan.An individualized behavior support plan is needed17Data Collection18Data CollectionDimensions of Behavior to consider when choosing an observational systemFrequency: How oftenDuration: How longRate: Number of times per unit of timeLatency: Length of time between request and behavior
19Data Collection SystemsStructuredAnecdotal reportsEvent recordingTime SamplingDuration recordingLatency recording
20Anecdotal RecordsABC =Antecedent-Behavior-ConsequenceDefine behaviorMeasure frequencyIdentify reinforcers and punishersIdentify pattern
21Event RecordingObserve the student involved in behavior each event recordedCount behavior for specific length of timeUsed with behaviors you can see discrete behaviors are obvious or have an agreed upon definitionNot used for very high frequency behaviors
22Interval RecordingDefine behaviorSpecify time period for observation (tape of beep every ten seconds)Specify the length of the intervalThe shorter the interval the more accurate the dataRecord behavior seen + on record sheet; not seen uses on record sheet.
23Time SamplingRequires equal intervals of time during which the behavior is observed.Similar to interval but usually minutes long interval rather than seconds.Allows observation of behavior over longer periods of time.Observer notes on data sheet whether or not the behavior occurred during the interval.
24Recording Data Comparison Sheet25Duration RecordingEmphasizes measures of time rather than instance of behavior.Primarily concerned about the length of time the behavior is exhibited.Suitable for behaviors that have identifiable beginning and ending.Average duration or total duration are basic ways to record.
26Latency RecordingMeasures how long a student takes to begin a behavior when given the prompt to begin
27Duration & Latency Data SheetsIncludes:Same information as other recording techniques Duration recording also includes Time between when the response was initiated and when it endedDuration of time between the twoLatency recording also includes Time between delivery of prompt and initiation of responseLatency is time between the two
28Factors that may affect data collectionReliability between observersReactivity observer in settingObserver drift change in definition while observing unbeknownst to observerComplexity of coding systemExpectancy
29Stop & ThinkIn Groups of 2-3:Using your text book, internet, personal experiences or other resources as a guide, prepare an observation recording sheet for:Frequency data collectionInterval data collectionTime sampling data collectionDuration data collectionLatency data collection
30Behavior Assessment Techniques31Checklists and Rating Scales32No observation required. An informant will report on the childs behavior. When this information is used with direct observation, the teacher can design accurate intervention.Be careful on biased information. Gender can play an important role in the interpretation of social behavior. Informants include parents, peers, and child. It is based on perceptions not direct observation.Questionnaires and Interviews:Questions about a students behavior or academic concerns, which may be answered by the student, parent, or teacher.May be conducted by different members of the multidisciplinary team.Formal/informal Structured/unstructured.33
Sociograms & Ecological Assessment
Enables the teacher to obtain information about group dynamics and structure of the classroom.Questions are designed so all members of the class will be asked to answer them.Can identify class stars, social isolates, etc.
Analyzes the students total learning environment.Includes the students interaction with the teacher and others, the teachers interaction with other students, and the physical environment, among others.
SociogramEcological34Summary of an Interview Should Include: Perceptions of the primary problem and its cause,Attempts that have been made to solve/address the problem,Recent changes in the problems severity.Student strengths and weaknesses.35Projective Assessment Techniques36Sentence Completion InstrumentsScored more subjectivelyStems or beginnings of sentences that the student is required to finish.Comments analyzed for themes rather than analyzing each sentence independently.
37Drawing TestsAttempt to screen the students feelings about self, home, and family.Examples include Draw-A-Person, House-Tree-Person, and Kinetic Family Drawings.Newer versions of scoring systems include standardization and developmental information.38Apperception TestsA set of picture or story cards that have been designed to elicit responses about emotional issues.Examples include: Children's Apperception Test (CAT) and Roberts Apperception Test for Children.39Adaptive Behavior Scales40Discussion QuestionA student who functions within the sub-average range of intelligence but who exhibits age-appropriate b