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Transcript of Beethoven: His Life and Music - OLLI Spring/Beethoven - His... · PDF fileThat young...

  • Beethoven: His Life and Music

    Kelli McQueenPhd student University of Illinois

  • Ludwig van BeethovenBonn, Germany

    baptized: Dec. 17, 1770

    died: March 26, 1827

    Beethovens BirthplaceBonngasse 20

    Beethoven Haus Museum

    Kurfrstiches Schloss: Prince-Electors Palace

  • Holy Roman Empire

  • Electorate of Cologne18th century map

  • Ludwig van Beethoven, elder1712: Born in Belgium

    1717: choir boy church St. Rombaut

    1725: keyboard and figured bass

    1731: choir director in Louvain

    1732: Cathedral of St. Lambert, Lige

    1732: Elector of Cologne

    1761: Kappelmeister in Bonn

    1773: died

  • Cathedral of St. Lambert, Lige

  • Bonn, Germany 18th Century painting by Granger

  • Johann van Beethoven

    c. 1740-1792

  • Maria Magdalena Keverich

    1746-1787

  • Little Ludwig

    Baptized Dec. 17, 1770

    13 year oldc.1783

  • She was such a good, kind mother to me and indeed my best friend.

    Oh! Who was happier than I, when could still utter the sweet name of mother and it was answered.

    And whom shall I say it to now? To the dumb likeness of her which my imagination fashions for me?

    letter Sept. 17, 1787

  • Ludwig, performerSea-green frock cast, green knee breeches with buckles, stockings of white or black silk, shoes with black bowknots, embroidered vest with pocket flaps, the vest bound with real gold cord, hair curled and with queue, crush hat under left arm, sword on the left side with silver belt.

  • Christian Gottlob Neefe

    BeethovenHorneman portait 1803

    Christian Gottlob Neefe1748-1799

  • Sonata FormExposition

    Theme 1: Home (tonic key: I)

    Theme 2: Contrasting key (dominant V, or relative minor)

    Development

    Modulation, variation of ideas

    Recapitulation

    Repeat of Theme 1 and 2 in the home key

  • Early WorksOctet for Wind ensemble Op. 103

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8w-JZMzWiQ

    Piano Sonata in F minor WoO 47, no 2https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=whcOslx068U

    Cantata for the Death of Emperor Joseph IIhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1btZWhbbLE

    http://www.raptusassociation.org/cantatas.html : LYRICS

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8w-JZMzWiQhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=whcOslx068Uhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1btZWhbbLEhttp://www.raptusassociation.org/cantatas.html

  • EnlightenmentRousseau: sensibilit, nature and emotions over culture

    Kant: reason combined with experience

    Jane Austin: Sense and Sensibility

    Classical aesthetics valued

    simplicity, balance, form, diversity within unity, seriousness of purpose, restrained use of ornamentation

    The Music Party By Jean Antoine Watteau

    1718

  • Classical musical aesthetics

    Galant style: elegant, courtly, bucolic, flirtatious, naturalness

    Empfindsam style: to feel, intimate, sensitive, subjective

    Strum und Drang: storm and urge, turgid emotions break free of rationalism

    German Romantic Poets: Goethe, Schiller

    Creature of PrometheusOp. 43, ballet 1801

    Dedicated to Princess Christiane von Lichkowskihttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MqIStpvkOrY

  • Beethoven as Prophet

    Joseph Willibrord Mhler1804-1805

    1792: off to Vienna

  • Count Ferdinand von WaldsteinBorn in Vienna

    Served the Elector of Cologne in Bonn

    Patron of Beethoven

    Pianist and composer

    Went broke trying to fight French

  • The Genius of Mozart is mourning and weeping over the death of her pupil. She found refuge but no occupation with the inexhaustible Haydn; Through him she

    wishes to form a union with another. With the help of you assiduous labor you shall receive

    Mozarts spirit from Haydns hands.

    Count Waldstein

  • Baron Gottfried van SwietenDiplomat and Imperial Librarian

    Patron to Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven

    Introduced them to Late Baroque composers

    Prunksaalhall of splendorAustrian National

    Library

  • Prince Karl LichnowskyBorn in Vienna, title Prussian

    Musician, composer, collected Bach manuscripts

    Supported Beethoven with housing, 600 florin annuity

    Dedicatee of the Sonata Pathtique

    one of my most loyal friends and promoters of my artBeethoven

  • Franz-Joseph Haydn

    Choir boy until voice changed

    Free-lance musician

    Kapellmeister of Princes Esterhzy

    Famous as Father of the Symphony

    Invitations to London (while teaching in Vienna)

    (1732-1809)

  • Concert culture ~18th century

    Aristocratic Patronage

    No public concerts

    Benefit concerts, subscription

    Contests

    Muzio Clementi

    Johann Baptist Cramer

    Joseph Wlffl

    Johann Nepomuk Hummel

    Daniel Steinbelt

    Abb Joseph Gelinck

    That young fellow Beethoven must be in league with the DeviAbb Joseph Gelinck

  • Sonata PathtiquePiano Sonata in C minor, op. 13

    1797-98, publisher Joseph Eder Grand sonata pathtique

    ancient Greek:

    Pathos (suffering) vs. Ethos (natural emotions)

    Schiller essay On the Pathetichttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79gzdskOGu4

  • Heiligenstadt Testament

    Written in 1802, to be read after his death

  • Heiligenstadt Testament

    Written in 1802, to be read after his death

    http://music-toronto.com/beethovens-heiligenstadt-testament-with-audio/

    Letters to friend Wegeler

    http://www.raptusassociation.org/freundewegeler_e.html

    http://music-toronto.com/beethovens-heiligenstadt-testament-with-audio/http://www.raptusassociation.org/freundewegeler_e.html

  • Eroica, Symphony no. 3

    Originally dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte

    Take the symphony in a New direction

    Some day all will, be well is our hope; all is well today, is illusion Voltaire

  • Fideliohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI-CF_rOApI

    Theater an der Wien

  • Immortal Beloved

    http://www.lettersofnote.com/2011/06/immortal-beloved.html

    http://www.lettersofnote.com/2011/06/immortal-beloved.html

  • Immortal Beloved?

    Countess GiuliettaGuicciardi(1782-1856)

  • Immortal Beloved?

    CountessJosephine von Brunsvik

    (1779-1821)

  • Immortal Beloved?

    Therese Malfatti(1792-1851)

  • Immortal Beloved?

    Antonie Brentano(1780-1869)

  • Immortal BelovedAn die Ferne Geliebte, (To the Distant Beloved ) ~1816

    Song cycle: Leiderkreiss

    Lyrics by Alois Jeittles (1794-1858)

    young medical student

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOk7EWYbyqk

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOk7EWYbyqk

  • Family Life

    1812: Nikolaus Johann and Therese marry

    Nikolaus Johann van Beethoven (1776-1848)

  • Family Life1813-1815: Carl Casper grows ill and dies of consumption

    Wife: Johanna ReiQueen of the Night

    Son: Karl

    Karl van Beethoven (1806-58)

  • Wellington's Victory op. 91

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-NQ55Qp78mo

    (1813)

    National and International fame on par with Haydn

    Thayer: a stupendous musical jokea gigantic professional frolic

    Contemporary Newspaper: applause rose to the point of ecstasy

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-NQ55Qp78mo

  • The Last Decade1816-1819: lowest creative output of adult life

    1820: signs of jaundice from cirrhosis of the liver

    1822-23: Johann Sporschil one of the most active men who ever lived

    1823-27: more family conflict and reconciliation

  • Late Period WorksSynthesis of Baroque masters: Bach, Handel, Palestrina with Classical Style and personal works

    Fugue: contrapuntal composition with a subject unfolding in imitation

    33 Diabelli Variations ~1819-1823

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAI4-9yc6kA&t=304s

    Publisher Brendel labeled #24 Pure spiritVariation 24: Fughetta (Andante)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAI4-9yc6kA&t=304s

  • Late Period WorksSynthesis of Baroque masters: Palestrina

    Missa Solemnis

    Composed: 1819-1823, premiered 1824

    Gloria: 3/4 time, shifting textures, 2 fugue sections

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3u1EduLH7L8&t=2291s

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3u1EduLH7L8&t=2291s

  • Late Period Works

    String Quartet in A minor, Op.132 No.15

    3rd movement: Sacred Song of Thanksgiving of a Convalescent to the Godhead in the Lydian Mode

    Feeling New Strength: dance-like section

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyDs0wb3FAE

    indecipherable, uncorrected horrors. Louis Spohr

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyDs0wb3FAE

  • Death: March 26, 1827

    http://www.sjsu.edu/beethoven/

    http://www.sjsu.edu/beethoven/

  • Symphony no. 9violinist Karl Holz When I think of the music of Beethoven, I am happy to be alive.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rOjHhS5MtvA

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rOjHhS5MtvA

    Beethoven: His Life and Music Ludwig van BeethovenHoly Roman EmpireElectorate of CologneLudwig van Beethoven, elderSlide Number 6Bonn, Germany 18th Century painting by GrangerJohann van BeethovenMaria Magdalena KeverichLittle LudwigSlide Number 11Ludwig, performerChristian Gottlob NeefeSonata FormEarly WorksEnlightenmentClassical musical aestheticsSlide Number 18Count Ferdinand von WaldsteinSlide Number 20Baron Gottfried van SwietenPrince Karl LichnowskyFranz-Joseph HaydnConcert culture ~18th centurySonata PathtiqueHeiligenstadt TestamentHeiligenstadt TestamentEroica, Symphony no. 3FidelioImmortal BelovedImmortal Beloved?