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Transcript of Baroque Music
SonataA work for solo piano, or a solo instrument accompanied by harpsichord. Often the basso continuo would also be played by a cello/Viola de Gamba. From the Classical period onwards a sonata was a work for piano or solo instrument accompanied by piano.Audio ClipAudio ClipBassoContinuo
ConcertoWork for solo instrument and orchestra, e.g. a flute concerto is written for solo flute and orchestra. Audio ClipAudio Clip
Concerto GrossoA type of concerto in which a group of soloists (concertino) is combined and contrasted with a larger group (ripieno). Audio ClipRipienoConcertino
Concerto GrossoThere are two sections in a Concerto Grosso.The section played by the soloists (concertino) is called the concertante .The section played by the larger group (ripieno) is called the ritornello.Audio ClipRipienoConcertinoRitornello
The ritornello can also be a brief introduction or interlude in a vocal composition, or for a brief instrumental passage between scenes in a 17th-century opera.RitornelloAudio ClipRitornello BeginsRitornello Ends
SuiteA set of dances or a collection of pieces which are part of a larger scale work.Dances contained in the suite include.
GigueAudio clipAudio clipAudio clipAudio clipAudio clipAudio clipA piece of orchestral music which introduces a large-scale work such as an opera, an oratorio, or a musical.J S Bach
PassacagliaVariations over a ground bass. Audio File
ChaconneVariations over a repeated progression of chords.Audio Clip
FugueA contrapuntal piece based on a theme (subject) announced in one voice part alone,then imitated by other voices in close succession.
The following slides will describe different aspects of the fugue. See Episode, and Stretto.
ExpositionThe exposition is the opening section of a fugue. It is made of 3 main ideas.
SubjectThe subject is the opening and main melody of a fugue. subject
AnswerThe answer is the same melody as the first subject but at a higher or lowerPitch. The answer can be either real (an exact copy by interval) or Tonal (the intervals may change slighly to fit with the harmony)Answer
Counter SubjectOnce the subject has been played the instrument will continue by playinga continuation of the melody called a counter subject.Counter subject.
Note how these 3 feature fit together in the opening two lines of this fugue.subjectAnswerAnswersubjectCounter subject.Counter subject.
StrettoWhere voices or instruments enter very quickly one after the other, as in Fugue. Each entry or part enters closely after the previous part, thus adding tension and excitement.
Now watch a video clip of this fugue and look at how these ideas link together.It is also worth noting the pedal note near the coda (the extra section at the end) as this is a common feature in fuguesAudio Clip
EpisodeIn some Fugues an episode can be used as a modulating link between entries of the subject and is frequently based on fragments from the subject or Countersubject.This fugue is in C minor. Listen for the tierce di picardie (major chord) at the end.Audio Clip
Chorale PreludeAn extended composition for organ based on a chorale melody. The melody can be treated in a wide variety of ways, e.g. fugal style and variation form. Audio Clip
Da Capo AriaAn aria in Ternary form (A B A), found in opera and oratorio in the 17th and 18th centuries. The third section is not written out but the instruction Da capo (from the beginning) is given instead. The repeat of the A section was performed with the solo ornamented. In the Baroque section B was often in the relative minor or major.
Audio ClipSection AIntroduction in BbSection BG minor Relative MinorGo back toSection A
Basso ContinuoSometimes referred to as Continuo. In the Baroque period, the continuo part consisted of a bass line (basso continuo) played by cello, bass, viola da gamba or bassoon. In addition the harpsichord, organ or lute player was expected to fill in harmonies built on that bass line.