Axial Skeleton: Appendicular .§Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular

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Transcript of Axial Skeleton: Appendicular .§Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular

  • Axial Skeleton: Skull, ribs, spine, and

    sternum

    Appendicular Skeleton: Arms, legs, scapula,

    clavicle, pelvis

  • Provide a framework which muscles can pull, give shape and structure to the body, and support and protect internal organs

    Contain mineral, such as calcium and phosphorous

    Produces red blood cells, platelets, and certain types of white blood cells

  • Periosteum: tough membrane that contains a network of blood vessels that supply nutrients, and nerves, that signal pain

    Compact bone: endures stress Haversian canal: blood

    vessels run through carrying nutrients

    Osteocytes: several layers of protein fibers wrapped around the Haversian Canal

  • Spongy Bone: connective tissue with latticework structure that consists of bony spikes arranged along points of pressure or stress, making bones both light and strong

  • Many bones contain a soft tissue which can be either yellow or red

    Yellow Bone Marrow: Found in long bones Consists of mainly fat cells and serves as an

    energy reserve Can be converted into red bone marrow and

    produce blood cells when severe blood loss

    Red Bone Marrow: found in spongy bone, the end of long bones,

    ribs, vertebrae, the sternum, and the pelvis Produces red blood cells, platelets, and

    certain types of white blood cells

  • Most bones develop from cartilage Second month of fetal development, most of the

    skeleton is made of cartilage

    Ossification: Process by which cartilage is slowly replaced by bone as a result of the deposition of minerals

    Few bones develop directly into hard bone Skull

  • Movable Joints: Allow a wide range of movements and activities Hinge, ball-and-socket, pivot, and saddle, gliding joints

    Semi movable Joints: Permit limited movement Hold the bones of vertebral column in place and allow the body to bend and twist

    Fixed Joints Prevent movement Skull

  • Ligaments: Tough bands of connective tissue, hold the joint in place

    Synovial fluid: helps protect the ends of bones from damage by friction

    Arthritis: Rheumatoid: immune systems begins to

    attack its body tissue Osteoarthritis: degenerative joints

    disease in which the cartilage covering the surface of the bone becomes thinner and rougher