AP Enlightened Despotism

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  • 1. Enlightened Despotism

2. What is Enlightened Despotism?

  • a form of absolutism (or despotism) in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment & applied its concepts to their territories

3. Philosophes Influence

  • sought to redirect monarchs power toward:
    • rationalization of economic & political structures
    • liberation of thought

4. Physiocrats Influence

  • Economists of the Enl.
  • In France, urged:
    • Deregulation of grain trade
    • More equitable taxes
  • In general:
    • Pro free market
    • Anti guild

5. Adam Smith

  • Scottish physiocrat
  • Wealth of Nations
  • Encouraged laissez-faire (hands off)
  • Invisible hand of the free market (supply & demand)

6. Enlightened Despots

  • Tended to allow:
    • religious toleration
    • freedom of speech and the press
    • the right to hold private property
  • Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education
  • Greater attn to merit & hard work in bureaucracy

7. Not So Enlightened Despot 8. Louis XV

  • r. 1715-1774
  • Great-grandson of Louis XIV
  • Cardinal Fleury (chief minister)
  • Relatively ineffective king
  • Drove France into deeper debt

9. Attempts at Enlightenment

  • Parlements
    • Replaced w/ courts where judges could not own, sell, or inherit office
    • Portrayed Louis XV as tyrant
  • Economics
    • Gave up price controls on grain (1763) to open France to a free market
    • Reversed in 1770 (grain shortagefamine)

10. Louis XVI

  • r. 1774-1791
  • Restored old parlements
  • Jacques Turgot = chief financial minister, physiocrat

11. Turgots Reforms

  • Edicts that:
    • Freed grain trade
    • Suppressed guilds
    • Converted peasants forced labor on roads into a money tax payable by all land owners
    • Reduced court expenses

12. Turgots Reforms (cont.)

  • Tried to introduce elected local assemblies to make govt more representative
  • Strongly resisted by nobles & parlement
  • Riots re: rising grain prices

13. Enlightened Despots 14. Frederick the GreatKing of Prussia not the mall 15. Frederick II of Prussia

  • r. 1740-1786
  • AKA Frederick the Great
  • Self-described first servant of the people

16. Economic Policies

  • Silesia = manufacturing district
  • State-initiated agricultural improvements:
    • Created more farmland (drained swamps)
    • New crops: potatoes & turnips
    • Established the Land-Mortgage Credit Assoc.
      • helped landowners raise $$ for ag. improvements

17. However

  • Peasants still burdened by disproportionate taxes

18. Non-Economic Policies

  • Religious Toleration
    • Catholics & Jews allowed to settle in predominately Lutheran territory
    • Protected Catholics in Silesia
    • State benefited from the economic contributions of more workers

19. Non-Econ. Policies (cont.)

  • Rationalization of Legal System
    • Efficiency
    • Unified regional law to match state law (more central authority)
    • Decreased nobilitys influence
  • Abolished torture

20. Education Reform

  • School Code of 1763
    • All kids 5-13 must go to school

21. Expansion

  • 1 stPartition of Poland (1772)
    • Split 1/3 of Poland-Lithuanias territory& its people among Prussia, Russia & Austria
    • Why? growing religious tensions in Poland

22. 23. Joseph II King of Austria 24. Joseph II of Austria

  • r. 1780-1790
  • Co-ruled w/mom, Maria-Theresa from 1765 until her death in 1780
  • HRE 1765-1790

25. Joseph II

  • impersonal & humorless
  • wanted to improve life for his people

26. Centralization of Authority

  • Austriavery diverse
  • Maria-Theresa began some Enl. policies such as:
    • More efficient tax system
      • clergy & nobility taxed
    • Brought educational institutions to the service of the crown

27. Maria-Theresa (cont.)

  • Expanded primary education
    • 1774 General School Ordinance = state subsidies for schools
    • By 1789 of kids in school

28. Maria-Theresa (cont.)

  • Limited the amount of labor that landowners could demand from peasants
  • Goal = to create a pool from which to draw military recruits

29. Joseph IIs Reforms

  • Wanted to
    • extend his borders
    • exert his authority over areas his mother chose to stay out(irrational to have more than 1 leader)

30. Joes Reforms (cont.)

  • Tried to est. German as sole language of the empire(irrational not to all speak the same language)
  • Didnt work out, and eventually had to rescind these orders

31. Joseph & the Church

  • Favored toleration
    • October 1781 - Toleration Decree
    • Lutherans, Calvinists, & Greek Orthodox permitted to:
      • Have own places of worship
      • Sponsor schools
      • Enter skilled trades
      • Hold academic appointments
      • Hold positions in public service

32. Joseph & Church (cont.)

    • Jews:
      • Relieved of certain taxes & signs of personal degradation
      • Granted the right to private worship
      • Still did not have equality with other subjects

33. More Joseph & Church

  • Sought to bring institutions of the Roman Catholic Church under his control (Josephinism)
    • Forbade local bishops to communicate with the Pope
    • Disbanded Jesuits
    • Dissolved over 600 monasteries & took their land (exception: schools & hospitals)

34. Even More Joseph & the Church

  • Dissolved est. R-C Seminaries (too much focus on Pope, not enough on parishners) & replaced with 8 seminaries focused on parish duties
  • Funded w/ $$ from confiscated monasteries
  • R-C priests = employees of the state

35. Josephs Economic Reforms

  • Abolished internal tariffs
  • Encouraged building of new roads
  • Improved river transportation
  • Personally inspected farms & manufacturing districts

36. Economic Reforms (cont.)

  • Created laws to limit authority of landowners over peasants
    • Abolished serfdom
    • Granted peasants many personal freedoms such as the right to:
      • Marry
      • Engage in skilled work
    • Goal = reduce burdens on peasants

37. The BIG Economic Reform

  • Land Taxation (GASP!!)
    • All landownerspay taxes
    • Peasants no longer had to bear burden of taxes alone
  • Died shortly after this decree & it was never implemented (his brother Leopold was forced to repeal it)

38. Catherine the Great Empress of Russia 39. Catherine The Great

  • r. 1762-1796
  • Germanic Princess & wife/widow of Peter III
  • Approved (& possibly aided in) the assassination of her husband
    • Gregory Orlov, her lover, organized the coup that murdere