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  • An Evaluation of Wheel-Track Systems: Abridged Version for

    Introduction to Robotics Course

    Hannah LynessMSR Thesis Presentation

    Committee: Dimitrios Apostolopoulos (Head), David Wettergreen, Venkat Rajagopalan

    1

  • Presentation Outline

    Introduction Motivation Research Question Technology History A Novel Wheel-Track Design Prototype Testing Terramechanics Background Comparative Evaluation Conclusion

    2

  • Wheels and Tracks Each Offer Different Advantages

    Wheels Tracks

    HMMWV (Humvee) High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, United States of America. The Global Armoured and Counter-IED Vehicles Market 2011-2021. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/, Jason Fudge. M1A1 Abrams Tank 4th Tank Battalion. Nov. 22, 2008. URL: http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html (visited on 08/13/2016).

    Introduction 3

    http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html

  • Wheels and Tracks Each Offer Different Advantages

    Wheels

    Lower system losses

    Tracks

    HMMWV (Humvee) High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, United States of America. The Global Armoured and Counter-IED Vehicles Market 2011-2021. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/, Jason Fudge. M1A1 Abrams Tank 4th Tank Battalion. Nov. 22, 2008. URL: http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html (visited on 08/13/2016).

    Introduction 3

    http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html

  • Wheels and Tracks Each Offer Different Advantages

    Wheels

    Lower system losses

    Lower acoustic signature

    Reduced fuel consumption

    Tracks

    HMMWV (Humvee) High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, United States of America. The Global Armoured and Counter-IED Vehicles Market 2011-2021. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/, Jason Fudge. M1A1 Abrams Tank 4th Tank Battalion. Nov. 22, 2008. URL: http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html (visited on 08/13/2016).

    Introduction 3

    http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html

  • Wheels and Tracks Each Offer Different Advantages

    Wheels

    Lower system losses

    Lower acoustic signature

    Reduced fuel consumption

    Tracks

    Larger contact surface patch

    HMMWV (Humvee) High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, United States of America. The Global Armoured and Counter-IED Vehicles Market 2011-2021. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/, Jason Fudge. M1A1 Abrams Tank 4th Tank Battalion. Nov. 22, 2008. URL: http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html (visited on 08/13/2016).

    Introduction 3

    http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html

  • Wheels and Tracks Each Offer Different Advantages

    Wheels

    Lower system losses

    Lower acoustic signature

    Reduced fuel consumption

    Tracks

    Larger contact surface patch

    Reduced sinkage

    Increased stability while firing

    HMMWV (Humvee) High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, United States of America. The Global Armoured and Counter-IED Vehicles Market 2011-2021. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/, Jason Fudge. M1A1 Abrams Tank 4th Tank Battalion. Nov. 22, 2008. URL: http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html (visited on 08/13/2016).

    Introduction 3

    http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html

  • Wheels and Tracks Each Offer Different Advantages

    Wheels

    Lower system losses

    Lower acoustic signature

    Reduced fuel consumption

    Lower resistance to turning

    Tracks

    Larger contact surface patch

    Reduced sinkage

    Increased stability while firing

    Formatted for point turns

    HMMWV (Humvee) High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, United States of America. The Global Armoured and Counter-IED Vehicles Market 2011-2021. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/, Jason Fudge. M1A1 Abrams Tank 4th Tank Battalion. Nov. 22, 2008. URL: http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html (visited on 08/13/2016).

    Introduction 3

    http://www.army-technology.com/projects/hmmvv/http://military-photo.blogspot.com/2008/11/m1a1-abrams-tank-4th-tank-battalion.html

  • Large Ground Vehicles are Vital for Modern Warfare

    We do need a new ground armored platform for our mechanized infantry and our tanks Army Chief of Staff General Mark Milley

    Motivation 4

    Priorities for Our Nations Army with General Mark A. Milley. https://www.csis.org/events/priorities-our-nations-army-general-mark-milley . Gulf War: Some Lessons Learned https://www.defensemedianetwork.com/stories/gulf-war-20th-some-lessons-learned-from-the-land-war/

    https://www.csis.org/events/priorities-our-nations-army-general-mark-milleyhttps://www.defensemedianetwork.com/stories/gulf-war-20th-some-lessons-learned-from-the-land-war/

  • Mobility is Key for Military Vehicles

    Motivation

    Increasing number of battles fought in cities

    5

    https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/isis-controlled-ramadi-facing-final-iraqi-army-assault-1.5382116

  • Bradley Fighting Vehicle

    2,895x as of 2016

    M1 Abrams

    6,000x as of 2016

    M1126 Stryker

    200,000x as of 2016

    The Green Book 2017-2017. Oct. 2016. URL: http://digimag.ausa.org/publication/?i=338032#, http://www.military.com/equipment/high-mobility-multipurpose-wheeled-vehicle-hmmwv, https://www.goarmy.com/about/army-vehicles-and-equipment/tanks-and-fighting-vehicles.html, http://www.businessinsider.com/m1-abrams-tank-is-still-king-of-the-battlefield-2016-2, http://www.baesystems.com/en-us/product/bradley-fighting-vehicle

    Motivation 6

    http://digimag.ausa.org/publication/?i=338032http://www.military.com/equipment/high-mobility-multipurpose-wheeled-vehicle-hmmwvhttps://www.goarmy.com/about/army-vehicles-and-equipment/tanks-and-fighting-vehicles.htmlhttp://www.businessinsider.com/m1-abrams-tank-is-still-king-of-the-battlefield-2016-2http://www.baesystems.com/en-us/product/bradley-fighting-vehicle

  • Research Question

    How can we design and evaluatedevices that combine the benefits

    of both wheels and tracks?

    Research Question 7

  • Research Question

    How can we design and evaluate devices that combine the benefits of both wheels and tracks?

    What has been tried in the past? How is NREC designing their wheel-track system? Do NRECs prototypes show promise for use on a real vehicle? How is performance estimated for wheeled and tracked

    vehicles? How does the expected performance of NRECs design

    compare to other systems?

    Research Question 8

  • Beginning of Wheel Innovation

    Nicolas-Joseph Cugnots Steam-Powered Automobile: 1769

    Automotive History. San Diego Museum of Automotive History. URL: http://sdautomuseum.org/education/automotive-history

    History 9

  • Early Technological Milestones

    Volcanized Rubber: 1844

    Charles Goodyear. Improvements in the Manner of Preparing Fabrics of Caotchouc or India-Rubber. US 3633. June 15, 1844.John Boyd Dunlop. Pneumatic Tire. US 523270. July 17, 1894.

    The Pneumatic Tire: Popularized 1894

    History 10

  • Early Technological Milestones

    The Pneumatic Tire: Popularized 1894

    Abbsry New and Used Tires. Diagram of Radial Tire Parts and Wear Signs. 2015. URL: http://www.abbsrytire.com/diagramtire.htm.

    History 11

  • Start of Off-Road Vehicle Design

    Adolphe Kegresses Motor-Sledge: 1914

    A 1916 Packard Twin-6 touring car from tsar Nicholas II of Russia equipped with Kegresse system (1917). URL: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Russo-balt5.jpg/520px-Russo-balt5.jpg

    History 12

  • Early Track Designs

    Interconnected Units:1950s

    Arthyr E. Benson. Pneumatic Track. US 32746811. May 22, 1956., Walton W. Cushman. Endless tread and track assembly. US 2867480. Jan. 6, 1959. Giovanni Bonmartini. Pneumatic tubular track, driving and carrying device. US 3155436. Nov. 3, 1964.

    Continuous Track: 1960s

    History 13

  • Alternative Wheel Designs

    The Resilient Wheel: 1909

    William L. Martin. Resilient Wheel. US 927154. July 6, 1909.Francois Hottebart. Nonpneumatic deformable wheel. US 6170544. Jan. 9, 2001.

    The Nonpneumatic Wheel: 2001

    History 14

  • Alternative Wheel Designs

    Central Tire Inflation System: 1942

    Central Tire Inflation System. Spicer Drivetrain Products. 2017. http://spicerparts.com/parts/axle/commercial-off-highway/central-tire-inflation-system-ctis

    History 15

    http://spicerparts.com/parts/axle/commercial-off-highway/central-tire-inflation-system-ctis

  • Hybrid Designs

    Over Tire Tracks: 1955

    Roy A. Crop. Wheeled vehicle convertible to crawler type. US 2698667. Jan. 4, 1955.About Us. AD Boivin Inc. 2017. URL: http://trucktracks.com/en/aboutus/

    Track N Go: 2013

    History 16

    http://trucktracks.com/en/aboutus/

  • Hybrid Designs

    Cody Underwood, Military.com. Robotic Warriors: The Viper. 2017-08-23. http://www.military.com/video/logistics-and-supplies/military-equipment/robo