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American Pageant. Chapter 10 “Launching the New Ship of State”. I. Growing Pains. Growing Population -4 million in 1790 -doubling every 25 years -90% rural -growing cities -5% lived east of Appalachia. II. Washington for President. 1789-Washington unanimously elected President - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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American Pageant

American PageantChapter 10Launching the New Ship of StateI. Growing PainsGrowing Population-4 million in 1790-doubling every 25 years-90% rural-growing cities-5% lived east of Appalachia

II. Washington for President1789-Washington unanimously elected PresidentBased on character-not politicsTemporary capital-NYCD) 3 Cabinet members-Sec. of StateThomas Jefferson-Sec. of Treasury-Alexander Hamilton-Sec. of War-Henry KnoxIII. The Bill of RightsStates adopted Constitution-Bill of Rights would be addedJames Madison-led it through CongressInclude individual liberties, rights in judicial system and protection of states rightsJudiciary Act of 1789-created Supreme Court, federal and circuit courts, and office of attorney general

III. Hamilton Receives the Corpse of Public CreditAlexander Hamilton-British West Indies (from)-Loved country (not countrymen)-Put hands in affairs of other depts.-Attract state financiers-trickle down effectB) Objectives-improve national credit-Funding at par-federal govt would pay debts at face value-assumption-Congress would pay for debts of the states (war for independence)-MA- ecstatic (large debt)-VA-not happy (obliged-gained DC) IV. Customs Duties and Excise TaxesRaise $ to pay for $75 million debtTariff-8% on imported goods (Hamilton-Ind. Rev will come!)Excise Tax-7 cents on a gallon of whiskeyV. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a BankHamilton-proposed a national bank-govt would be major stockholder-federal surpluses-deposited-funds would stimulate business-print paper moneyB) Jefferson-NO!!-no authority in Constitution (states rights)-Congress cannot charter banksC) Hamilton-YES!-necessary and proper to overpower states

D) Bank of the United States-1791-chartered for 20 years-Philadelphia-$10 capital-1/5 by fed. Gov.-many purchased stockVI. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania Whiskey Rebellion-pioneers-excise tax against frivolous luxury-whiskey poles- liberty and no excise-tarred and feathered revenue officersB) Govt Reaction-13,000 troops went in-put down rebellion-showed strength of federal govtVII. Emergence of Political PartiesHamilton (Federalists)-financial success and govt power-infringed on states rights

B) Jefferson and Madison (Democrat-Republicans)-against central issues of HamiltonC) Debut-no parties (national unity)-no long term parties envisioned

VIII. The Impact of the French Revolution1789-French rose up against Monarchy-proclaimed a republic! (Second Phase of American Revolution?)B) Federalists-fearing change-strong govt collapsed?C) Jeffersonians- blood drinking cannibals in the Reign of Terrorknock against federalistsD) Major European War-What to do?IX. Washington's Neutrality ProclamationJeffersonians-align with France-alliance of 1778Federalists-remain neutralNeutrality Proclamation of 1793-proclaimed neutrality-led to isolationist policy-Washington-feeble army, disunited country, weak economydo not need warD) Gent-French representative-thought US was fully supporting France-tried to get military action-was replacedX. Embroilments with BritainBritain-running posts on American soil in frontier (against treaty of 1783)-selling guns to Miami tribes for fur-hoping to use natives to hold back AmericansB) Little Turtle-killed hundreds of soldiersC) 1794-Battle of Fallen Timbers-General Wayne crushed Miami tribes-British refused to shelter themD) Treaty of Greenville-tribes gave up land, received $20,000 and $9k a year, right to hunt on landsE) British-struck 300 ships in West Indies-used impressment, etc..-Jeffersonian-declare war (bad economic move)XI. Jays Treaty and Washingtons FarewellJohn Jay-sent to GB to settle disputes-Hamilton warned GB of bargainingB) Jays Treaty-GB-leave posts, stop supplying Indians with guns, and pay for ships-USA-pay for merchant ships during war and pay for war debt still owed -Jeffersonians-outraged!C) Pinckneys Treaty-Spain-granted Americans navigation of Mississippi, warehouse rights in New Orleans and large disputed territory

D) Washingtons Farewell Address-warned of permanent alliancesE) Washingtons legacy-2 term precedent-fiscal stability-stay clear of foreign wars-stay clear of political parties

XII. John Adams Becomes President1796 ElectionJohn Adams-VP of WashingtonThomas Jefferson-Democrat-RepublicansFederalist-fire eating salamanders-TJB) John Adams-71 to 68 voteTJ-Vice President (repelled by 12th amend)C) Adams-stern principles, stubborn devotion-no appeal; learned-hated by Hamilton (resigned in 1795)-quarrel with FranceXIII. Unofficial Fighting with FranceFrance-mad at Jay Treaty (against alliance)-attacked merchant ships in West IndiesB) Adams-Sent John Marshall and 2 other diplomats to France-Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-charge $250,000 for a meeting with X, Y, and ZC) XYZ Affair-refused to pay-national heroesD) Navy Department expanded and Marines reestablished-attacked French shipsXIV. Adams Puts Patriotism Above PartyTalleyrand-does not need a new enemy-accept diplomat gracefullyAdams-will send (outraged Hamilton)Napoleon rose to powerD) Convention of 1800-alliance was over-America pay its damage of merchant shipsXV. The Federalist Witch HuntAnti-French frenzy-pass laws!B) Alien Laws-targeted undesirable immigrants-deport foreigners in peace; deport or imprison in war-raised citizenship from 5 to 14 yearsC) Sedition Act-illegal to impede govt or defame officials-shut Jeffersonian mouths and presses-Congressional elections of 98-99, Federalist sweepXVI. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) ResolutionsVirginia and Kentucky resolutions-stated Federal govt overstepped constitution-most states did not fall into line-more or less campaign documents-South would use them for secession

XVII. Federalist versus Democratic-RepublicansFederalists-those who own, should govern-strong central govt with power-support private enterprise, not interfere-tariffs to protect industry-restrictions on speech and press-expand for commercial use-Pro Britain-Alexander HamiltonB) Democratic-Republicans-rule by masses-weak central govt-pro states rights-state banks-support all people including poor-pro France-Thomas Jefferson