2. S E C T I O N 1Our Political Beginnings What basic concepts of government were held byAmerican colonists? Which important English documents have had themost influence on our government? How were the governments of the thirteen coloniesorganized? 3. The Thirteen ColoniesThere were three types of colonies in NorthAmerica: royal, proprietary, and charter. The royal colonies were ruled directly by theEnglish monarchy. The King granted land to people in NorthAmerica, who then formed proprietary colonies. The charter colonies were mostly self-governed,and their charters were granted to the colonists. 4. The Burmese opposition leader and former prisoner ofthe country's junta, (she was under house arrest inMyanmar/Burma for more than 20 years) Aung SanSuu Kyi, speaks at the United Nations in Geneva. SuuKyi says a wide range of reforms in her country areneeded to make investment attractive. At a pressconference she tells of recent sectarian violence in hercountry, and calls for the rule of law to be respected.She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. 5. Section 1 Review1. All of the following are basic concepts of government brought to thecolonies by English settlers EXCEPT(a) the need for limited government.(b) the need for a representative government.(c) the need for an autocratic government.(d) the need for an ordered social system.2. Which of the following was not one of the rights granted in the MagnaCarta?(a) The right to private property.(b) The right to a trial by jury.(c) The right to freedom of religion.(d) The right to undergo due process of the law. 6. British Colonial PoliciesUntil the mid-1700s, the colonies were allowed agreat deal of freedom in their governments bythe English monarchy.In 1760, King George III imposed new taxes andlaws on the colonists. Enforced laws that hadnot been -- Salutary NeglectThe colonists started a confederation, proposedan annual congress, and began to rebel. 7. Growing ColonialUnityEarly Attempts In 1643, several NewEngland settlementsformed the NewEngland Confederation. A confederation is ajoining of severalgroups for a commonpurpose.The Albany Plan of Union In 1754, Benjamin Franklinproposed the Albany Planof Union, in which anannual congress ofdelegates (representatives)from each of the 13colonies would be formed,primarily for the commondefense of the colonies ontheir own. It failed. 8. In 1765, a group of coloniessent delegates to the StampAct Congress in New York. These delegates prepared theDeclaration of Rights andGrievances against Britishpolicies and sent it to the king. Taxes in America were not all thathigh! Average Londoner was payingmuch more. Taxes were placed on tea, playingcards, licenses, deeds, alcohol, anyimported good or finished product. England needed the $$$-foreignwars cost big bucks! It was just that we had gotten awaywithout paying these taxes before,or we had smuggled in goods andhad avoided paying any at all. Nowthat England was enforcing herlawswe cry foul!The Stamp ActCongress 9. In March 1765, the British Parliament announced anew 1 cent stamp tax. 10. The Death of Miss Anne Stamp 11. The Bostonians paying the excise-man, or tarring andfeathering, Philip Dawe [?], 1774 .This tinted engraving depicts the tarring and feathering of JohnMalcolm, a Commissioner of Customs, by the Sons of Liberty alittle less than a decade after the Stamp Act protests. 12. Boycott = non=importationRefusal to buy from a companywho does not treat itsconsumers properly. 13. In 1837, in his Concord Hymn, Ralph WaldoEmerson immortalized the events at OldNorth Bridge:By the rude bridge that arched the flood,Their flag to Aprils breeze unfurled;Here once the embattled farmers stood;And fired the shot heard round the world. 14. American Independence On July 4, 1776, the Second ContinentalCongress adopted the Declaration ofIndependence. Between 1776 and 1777, most of the Statesadopted constitutions instead of charters. 15. Virginian Thomas Jefferson is credited withprincipal authorship of the document, withhelp from John Adams, Benjamin Franklin,Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston. Thedocument affirms Congress July 2 decision topart with Great Britain.The Declaration Committee:Look at the re-writesBen Franklin offered wit and seriousrevisions: life, liberty, andproperty.was changed to life,liberty, and the pursuit ofhappiness since it sounded morenoble and less greedy! 16. Yankee Doodle 17. Section 2 Review1. The Declaration of Independence was signed in (a) 1765. (c) 1781. (b) 1776. (d) 1787.2. The Stamp Act of 1765 was a law enacted by the British that (a) increased the colonists taxes. (b) was repealed by the Magna Carta. (c) the colonists ratified one year later. (d) raised the price of postage stamps by two cents. 18. The Articles of ConfederationThe Articles of Confederation established a firm league offriendship among the States.PowersCongress was given thepower to declare war, dealwith national finance issues,and settle disputes amongthe States.ObligationsThe States promised to obeyCongress, and to respect thelaws of the other States. Mostother powers were retained byeach State. 19. A Call for a Stronger Government Representatives from Maryland and Virginia met atMount Vernon, Virginia, in 1785 to discuss tradeissues. The meeting was so successful that the VirginiaGeneral Assembly requested a meeting of all thirteenStates, which eventually became the ConstitutionalConvention in Philadelphia. 20. Section 3 Review1. The government set up by the Articles of Confederation had (a) the power to make treaties and build a navy. (b) a bicameral congress. (c) separation of powers. (d) a President to carry out its laws.2. Which of the following was a weakness of the Articles ofConfederation? (a) Congress could not make treaties. (b) Congress could not borrow money. (c) The States did not agree to obey the Articles. (d) Congress could not lay or collect taxes or duties. 21. Framers of the ConstitutionLeaders of the Philadelphia Convention James Madison was the co-author of the Articles of Confederation. Gouverneur Morris was a lawyer who helped develop the U.S. system ofGo To1 2 3 4 5Section: money. Alexander Hamilton was a lawyer who favored a strong centralgovernment. George Washington was the successful leader of the Continental Army.Some famous leaders who were NOT at the PhiladelphiaConvention Patrick Henry said he smelt a rat and refused to attend. Samuel Adams and John Hancock were not selected as delegates bytheir states. Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine were in Paris. John Adams was on diplomatic missions to England and Holland. 22. Different Constitutional PlansThe Virginia Plan Three branches of government Bicameral legislature National Executive andNational JudiciaryGo To1 1 2 2 3 3 4 55 Chapter 2, Section 4Section: The New Jersey Plan Unicameral Congress Equal representation for Statesof different sizes More than one federalexecutive 23. The Connecticut CompromiseDelegates agreed on a bicameral Congress, one segmentwith equal representation for States, and the other withrepresentation proportionate to the States populations. The Three-Fifths CompromiseThe Framers decided to count a slave as three-fifths of aperson when determining the population of a State. The Commerce and Slave Trade CompromiseCongress was forbidden from taxing exported goods, andwas not allowed to act on the slave trade for 20 years. 24. Influences The Framers were familiar withthe political writings of theirtime, such as works by JeanJacques Rousseau and JohnLocke. They also were seasoned,variously, by the SecondContinental Congress, theArticles of Confederation andexperiences with their own Stategovernments.Reactions When the Constitution was complete, theFramers opinions of their work varied.Some were disappointed, like GeorgeMason of Virginia, who opposed theConstitution until his death in 1792. Most agreed with Ben Franklins thoughtswhen he said,From such an assembly [of fallible men]can a perfect production be expected?Itastonishes me, Sir, to find this systemapproaching so near to perfection as itdoes 25. Section 4 Review1. The first national government for the United States was (a) the First Continental Congress. (b) the Second Continental Congress. (c) the Articles of Confederation. (d) the Constitution of the United States.2. The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia involved delegatesfrom each of the following states except (a) Maryland. (c) Rhode Island. (b) New York. (d) Virginia. 26. The Federalists and Anti-FederalistsThe Constitution was very controversial at first,with some groups supporting it, and othersGo To1 2 3 4 5Section: attacking it. Federalists thoughtthat the Articles ofConfederation wereweak, and argued forthe ratification of theConstitution. Anti-Federalistsobjected to theConstitution for manyreasons, including thestrong centralgovernment and thelack of a bill of rights. 27. Inaugurating the Government The new Congress met for the first time on March 4,1789. Congress finally attained a quorum (majority) onApril 6 and counted the electoral votes. Congressfound that George Washington had been unanimouslyelected President. He was inaugurated on April 30.Go To1 2 3 4 5Section: 28. Section 5 Review1. The debate over the ratification of the Constitution waswon by the(a) Anti-Federalists. (c) Whigs.(b) Federalists. (d) Tories.2. The temporary capital of the United States whereCongress met in 1789 was(a) Washington, D.C. (c) Philadelphia.(b) New York. (d) Mount Vernon.