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INTRODUCTION TO ADVERTISEMENT:Advertising is a paid of non-personal communication. Advertising promotes ideas, goods and services of identified sponsors. The main purpose of advertising is to create sales. If advertisement doesnt increase sales, we may conclude that advertisement is not effective. It may be called salesmanship on print.

The five important message form the above definition are as follows:

i. Advertising is a paid form of communication- It is paid, because the advertiser has purchased time and space.ii. It is non-personal in nature, because it is not directed towards an individual i.e., no face-to-face presentation.

iii. Purpose of advertising is to promote ideas about products and services.

iv. Advertising is done to create interest in goods and services.

v. Advertising is issued by an identified sponsor-advertising is done by the source.

Brief History The record book tells that history of advertising is about 5,000 years old. There were three forms of advertisements before the print advertisement:

Trade Mark

Town Criers


Trade markArtisan and craftsman placed their mark on the goods to get identified with respect to the skill they possess. Even today we can see this practice.

Town CriersThe town criers are paid to go around streets of the town and make announcement. This practice is followed even today in some parts of rural India.SignsIn this methods, the product name is displayed on a rock by painting. People who pass by notice it. This type of outdoor advertising is common even today. See this while traveling on a highway.Hand bill was the first printed from of advertisement across the U.K. The first advertisement in U.S.A was printed in Boston news letter.

Today, there are professional bodies at home which represent the advertiser, the agency and the media. They are:

1. Indian Society of Advertisers ISA

2. Indian Newspapers Society INS

3. Advertising Agencies Association of India AAAI

Some of the important personalities to be remembered, who laid the foundation for modern advertisement are David Ogilvy, J Walter Thompson.

CONCEPT, DEFINITION AND OBJECTIVESDefinition of Advertising. (Or) Discus about the term advertising.

Advertising is the paid, non-personal communication of information about products or ideas by an identified sponsor through the mass media in an effort to persuade of influence behavior.


Advertising is non-personal because its directed to groups of people rather than to specific individuals.

Advertising communicates information about products or ideas with a main intention to either inform or persuade people to buy a particular product.

More importantly an identified sponsor such as a company selling a product or a non profit group seeking donations communication pays for the advertisement message to be placed in the mass media.

Advertising can be defined as any paid form of non-personal promotion transmitted through a mass medium. The sponsor should be clearly identified and the advertisement may relate to an organization, a product or a service. The key difference, therefore, between advertising and other forms of promotion is that it is impersonal and communicates with large numbers of people through paid media channels.Discus the various types of advertising (or) Explain the various classification of advertising.

Severl categories of organizations are large users of advertising, most important among them being the manufacturing, trading and service firms, non-profit institutions and government agencies. It is conceptually more interesting and analytically more important to classify advertising.

By target Audience:

One way to classify advertising is according to the group it targets. Whether its in print, on television, or on billboards, every advertisement is aimed at a specific group of people, known as target audience. Advertisements are generally addressed to one of the two broad audience categories: consumers or businesses.

Consumer advertising:

Much of the advertising around us is aimed at consumers, the individuals and families who buy goods and services for personal or family use known as consumer advertising. For example, pepsi and coke persuade consumers to consume their bottled drinks.

Business advertising: In contrast to the messages aimed at people who buy goods for household use, business advertising directs messages toward people and/or organizations that buy or use products in businesses. This broad category can further be classified into four distinct sub-categories-

a) Industrial advertising It targets people who buy or use the materials and services needed to conduct business or to manufacture other products. For example Epson advertises business houses to buy their printer cum fax machine that would facilitate their business communication.

b) Trade advertising-targets intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers that buy goods for resale to consumers.

c) Professional advertising-is directed toward licensed professional practitioners such as lawyers, accountants, doctors, and engineers. This category of advertising may be used to persuade professionals to buy a particular product useful in their work or to recommend that product to their patients or clients. For example Tally advertises its software to all accountants and businessmen to use its multi utility software in preparation and maintenance of accounts.

d) Agricultural advertising- is used to sell products such as tractors and insecticides.

By Geographic area

A second way to classify advertising is its geographical coverage

a) International advertising-when an organisation crosses national borders to advertise in more than one country. For example Pepsi-Cola uses international advertising in dozens of countries.

b) National advertising- when an organisation advertises in more than one region of a single country. For example Bajaj, Hero Honda are all considered national advertisers since they use television, national magazine, and other media to reach large numbers of people in multiple markets across the country.

c) Regional advertising- advertising in a specific region without covering the entire country. For example Aircel uses regional advertising when it targets people of Tamilnadu to use its cellphone.

d) Local advertising-is a much narrower, concentrating on a more confined area such as a city. For example AVR and ANS uses cable network to influence people to shop artistic designs in gold jewelry.

By Media

A third way to classify advertising is according to the medium or media used. Popular forms of media advertising include newspaper, magazine, radio, television, outdoor (posters, billboards), and transit (on or inside buses). Because of its ability to reach huge audiences across large geographic regions, television and radio are the most powerful advertising media and do often national advertisers use the primary medium. Many organisations also advertise through direct mail or in the yellow pages and other directories; the list of media options grows longer as newer medias such as FM radio, Internet become commonplace.

By purposeA fourth way to classify advertising is by purpose. Each advertiser has its own goals, but the purpose behind each message can be classified according to four dimensions:

Product versus institutional advertising

Commercial versus non-commercial advertising

Primary demand versus selective demand advertising

Direct action versus indirect action advertising

a) Product versus institutional advertising

Advertising normally conforms to one of two basic types: product oriented or institutional. A product-orientated advertising focuses, as the term suggests, on the product or service being offered, whether for profit or not. Its prime task is to support the product in achieving its marketing goals.

Product-orientated advertising can itself take one of three alternative forms, pioneering, competitive, or reminder and reinforcement advertising.

Pioneering advertising

Pioneering advertising is used in the early stages of the life-cycle when it is necessary to explain just what the product will do and the benefits it can offer. The more innovative, technically complex and expensive the product is, the more essential this explanation becomes. Depending on the product's newness, the prime emphasis might well be on stimulating basic generic demand rather than attempting to beat competition.

Competitive advertising

Competitive advertising is concerned with emphasizing the special features of the product or brand as a means of outselling the competition. Usually the seller seeks to communicate the

unique benefits, real or imaginary, that distinguishes the product and gives it its competitive edge. Given that most markets are mature and often crowded, this type of advertising is very

Common and very important.

Comparative advertising

A form of competitive advertising that has grown in significance in recent years is comparative advertising. This means making a direct comparison between one product and another, showing the advertisers product in a much more favorable light, of course, alternatively, the comparison may be more subtle, referring to other leading brands, and leaving it up to the target audience to decide which rival product is intended. Initially, it was thought unwise to use a direct comparison approach as it gave a free mention to competitors and was likely to bring about a