A PEDAGOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BAGATELLES/67531/metadc1505185/... · Tcherepnin’s Bagatelles, Op....

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APPROVED: Joseph Banowetz, Major Professor Bradley Beckman, Committee Member Adam Wodnicki, Committee Member Steven Harlos, Chair of the Division of Keyboard Studies Felix Olschofka, Interim Director of Graduate Studies in the College of Music John W. Richmond, Dean of the College of Music Victor Prybutok, Dean of the Toulouse Graduate School AN INTRODUCTION TO CONTEMPORARY CHARACTERISTICS IN TWENTIETH- CENTURY PIANO MUSIC FOR THE LAT E-INTERMEDIATE STUDENT: A PEDAGOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BAGATELLES, OPUS 5 BY ALEXANDER TCHEREPNIN Meilin Ai, B.M., M.M. Dissertation Prepared for the Degree of DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS May 2019

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Page 1: A PEDAGOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BAGATELLES/67531/metadc1505185/... · Tcherepnin’s Bagatelles, Op. 5 with the goal of introducing contemporary characteristics in twentieth-century

APPROVED:

Joseph Banowetz, Major Professor Bradley Beckman, Committee Member Adam Wodnicki, Committee Member Steven Harlos, Chair of the Division of

Keyboard Studies Felix Olschofka, Interim Director of Graduate

Studies in the College of Music John W. Richmond, Dean of the College of

Music Victor Prybutok, Dean of the Toulouse

Graduate School

AN INTRODUCTION TO CONTEMPORARY CHARACTERISTICS IN TWENTIETH-

CENTURY PIANO MUSIC FOR THE LAT E-INTERMEDIATE STUDENT:

A PEDAGOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BAGATELLES, OPUS 5

BY ALEXANDER TCHEREPNIN

Meilin Ai, B.M., M.M.

Dissertation Prepared for the Degree of

DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS

May 2019

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Ai, Meilin. An Introduction to Contemporary Characteristics in Twentieth-Century Piano

Music for the Late-Intermediate Student: A Pedagogical Analysis of the Bagatelles, Opus 5 by

Alexander Tcherepnin. Doctor of Musical Arts (Performance), May 2019, 70 pp., 110 musical

examples, bibliography, 21 titles.

Alexander Tcherepnin (1899-1977) was a Russian-born American composer, his musical

style represents the modern and diverse features of much twentieth-century piano music. The

purpose of this research is to conduct a comprehensive pedagogical analysis of Alexander

Tcherepnin’s Bagatelles, Op. 5 with the goal of introducing contemporary characteristics in

twentieth-century piano music for the late-intermediate student. Chapter 2 contains overall

biographical information regarding Alexander Tcherepnin and a discussion of the general

compositional style of his piano works. Chapter 3 analyzes the Bagatelles, Op. 5 from the

perspective of musical challenges concerning the contemporary characteristics, including

contemporary harmony: interval of seconds, non-tertian chords, special use of the seventh

chords, and ninth chords; contemporary rhythm and meter: shifted accents, asymmetric meter,

meter change, and ostinato; modal melodic resources and tonalities; and other special tonalities.

Chapter 4 has suggestions on fingering, pedaling, articulation, tone, dynamics and phrasing, and

practicing procedures for individual technical difficulties. Studying the Bagatelles, Op. 5

provides a transition for the student from learning standard repertoire of the eighteenth and the

nineteenth century, to contemporary repertoire through the combination of Russian

compositional traditions with twentieth century repertory.

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Copyright 2019

by

Meilin Ai

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am sincerely grateful to my major professor Mr. Joseph Banowetz, and my committee

members Dr. Bradley Beckman and Mr. Adam Wodnicki for their advice and guidance.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................. iii

LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES ................................................................................................ vi

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1

CHAPTER 2. BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF ALEXANDER TCHEREPNIN AND OVERVIEW OF HIS COMPOSITIONAL STYLE ................................................................................................... 4

2.1 Brief Biography of Alexander Tcherepnin ............................................................. 4

2.2 An Overview of Alexander Tcherepnin’s Compositional Style ............................. 5

CHAPTER 3. THE MUSICAL CHALLENGES OF THE BAGATELLES, OP. 5 ........................ 8

3.1 Contemporary Harmony ......................................................................................... 8

3.1.1 The Interval of 2nds .................................................................................... 8

3.1.2 Non-Tertian Chords .................................................................................... 9

3.1.3 Special Uses of the 7th Chords .................................................................. 11

3.1.4 The 9th Chord ............................................................................................ 13

3.2 Contemporary Rhythm and Meter ........................................................................ 15

3.2.1 Shifted Accents ......................................................................................... 15

3.2.2 Asymmetric Meter .................................................................................... 18

3.2.3 Meter Change ............................................................................................ 19

3.2.4 Ostinato ..................................................................................................... 23

3.3 Modal Melodic Resources and Tonalities ............................................................. 28

3.4 Other Tonalities .................................................................................................... 32

CHAPTER 4. THE TECHNICAL CHALLENGES OF THE BAGATELLES, OP. 5 .................. 36

4.1 Fingering ............................................................................................................... 36

4.1.1 Redistributing Notes Between the Hands ................................................. 36

4.1.2 Chromatic Fingering ................................................................................. 40

4.1.3 Legato Fingering ....................................................................................... 43

4.1.4 Other Fingerings ....................................................................................... 43

4.2 Pedaling................................................................................................................. 46

4.2.1 Melodic Material Pedaling ........................................................................ 46

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4.2.2 Pedaling as an Aide to Phrasing and Articulation .................................... 47

4.2.3 Rhythm-Projecting Pedaling ..................................................................... 48

4.2.4 Blurring for Color and Special Effects ..................................................... 48

4.2.5 Other Uses of Pedal .................................................................................. 49

4.3 Articulation and Notation ..................................................................................... 51

4.4 Tone, Dynamic, and Phrasing ............................................................................... 55

4.4.1 Sequential Phrases .................................................................................... 55

4.4.2 Repeated Phrases ...................................................................................... 57

4.4.3 Balance ...................................................................................................... 59

4.4.4 Other Dynamic Suggestions ..................................................................... 60

4.5 Other Techniques .................................................................................................. 61

4.5.1 Leaps ......................................................................................................... 61

4.5.2 Repeated Notes ......................................................................................... 64

4.5.3 Large Chords ............................................................................................. 65

4.5.4 Appoggiatura (Grace Notes Notated as ) ........................................... 67 CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSION...................................................................................................... 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................... 69

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LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES

Page

EXAMPLE 3.1: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 7-8 ................................................... 8

EXAMPLE 3.2: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 1-2 ................................................... 9

EXAMPLE 3.3: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 1-4 ................................................... 9

EXAMPLE 3.4: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 20-23 ............................................... 9

EXAMPLE 3.5: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 20-21 ............................................. 10

EXAMPLE 3.6: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 4-6 ................................................. 10

EXAMPLE 3.7: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 146-150 ......................................... 11

EXAMPLE 3.8: Scriabin: 24 Preludes, Op. 11, No. 6, mm. 50-54.............................................. 11

EXAMPLE 3.9: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 15 ..................................................... 12

EXAMPLE 3.10: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 30-31 ........................................... 12

EXAMPLE 3.11: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 23-30 ........................................... 13

EXAMPLE 3.12: Prokofiev: Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No.15, m. 7 ............................................ 13

EXAMPLE 3.13: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 1-4 ............................................... 14

EXAMPLE 3.14: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 76-77 ........................................... 14

EXAMPLE 3.15: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, m. 7 ..................................................... 15

EXAMPLE 3.16: Prokofiev: Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No.1, mm. 1-4 ....................................... 15

EXAMPLE 3.17: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 36-40 ........................................... 16

EXAMPLE 3.18: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 23-30 ........................................... 17

EXAMPLE 3.19: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, mm. 26-27 ........................................... 17

EXAMPLE 3.20: Prokofiev: Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 19, mm. 1-4 .................................... 18

EXAMPLE 3.21: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 16-18 ........................................... 18

EXAMPLE 3.22: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 13-18 ........................................... 19

EXAMPLE 3.23: Scriabin: 24 Preludes, Op. 11, No. 14, m. 1 .................................................... 19

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EXAMPLE 3.24: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 4-7 ............................................... 20

EXAMPLE 3.25: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 23-25 ........................................... 20

EXAMPLE 3.26: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 13-18 ........................................... 21

EXAMPLE 3.27: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 5-8 ............................................... 21

EXAMPLE 3.28: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, mm. 10-13 ........................................... 22

EXAMPLE 3.29: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 126-130 ....................................... 22

EXAMPLE 3.30: Scriabin: 24 Preludes, Op. 11, No. 16, mm. 1-2 .............................................. 23

EXAMPLE 3.31: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 10-12 ........................................... 23

EXAMPLE 3.32: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 13-15 ........................................... 24

EXAMPLE 3.33: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 16-20 ........................................... 24

EXAMPLE 3.34: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 51-55 ........................................... 24

EXAMPLE 3.35: Prokofiev: Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 4, mm. 31-39 .................................. 25

EXAMPLE 3.36: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 1-3 ................................................ 25

EXAMPLE 3.37: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 1-4 ................................................ 25

EXAMPLE 3.38: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 6, mm. 1-2 ................................................ 26

EXAMPLE 3.39: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 1-9 ................................................ 26

EXAMPLE 3.40: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 8, mm. 13-16 ............................................ 27

EXAMPLE 3.41: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 9, mm. 20-24 ........................................... 27

EXAMPLE 3.42: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 4-7 ............................................... 29

EXAMPLE 3.43: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 34-35 ........................................... 29

EXAMPLE 3.44: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 25-26 ........................................... 30

EXAMPLE 3.45: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 76-78 ........................................... 30

EXAMPLE 3.46: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 27-30 ........................................... 31

EXAMPLE 3.47: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 16-18 ........................................... 31

EXAMPLE 3.48: Prokofiev: Visions Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 16, mm. 9-10 ................................. 31

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EXAMPLE 3.49: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, m. 1 ..................................................... 32

EXAMPLE 3.50: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 11-12 ........................................... 33

EXAMPLE 3.51: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, m. 16 ................................................... 33

EXAMPLE 3.52: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, m. 4 ..................................................... 34

EXAMPLE 3.53: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, m. 25 ................................................... 34

EXAMPLE 3.54: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, mm. 103-109 ..................................... 35

EXAMPLE 4.1: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 1-3 ................................................. 36

EXAMPLE 4.2: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, m. 30 ..................................................... 37

EXAMPLE 4.3: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 9-10 ............................................... 37

EXAMPLE 4.4: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 15 ..................................................... 37

EXAMPLE 4.5: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 34-35 ............................................. 38

EXAMPLE 4.6: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 78-86 ............................................. 38

EXAMPLE 4.7: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 16-18 ............................................. 39

EXAMPLE 4.8: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 9, mm. 53-58 ............................................. 39

EXAMPLE 4.9: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 12-13 ............................................. 40

EXAMPLE 4.10: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, m. 1 ..................................................... 40

EXAMPLE 4.11: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 49-60 ........................................... 41

EXAMPLE 4.12: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 89-96 ........................................... 41

EXAMPLE 4.13: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, mm.13-14 ............................................ 42

EXAMPLE 4.14: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, mm.15-16 ............................................ 42

EXAMPLE 4.15: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, m. 1 ................................................... 43

EXAMPLE 4.16: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, m. 34 ................................................... 43

EXAMPLE 4.17: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 4-5 ............................................... 44

EXAMPLE 4.18: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 12-15 ........................................... 44

EXAMPLE 4.19: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, m. 1 ..................................................... 45

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EXAMPLE 4.20: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 10-29 ........................................... 45

EXAMPLE 4.21: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, mm. 65-80 ......................................... 46

EXAMPLE 4.22: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 30-32 ........................................... 47

EXAMPLE 4.23: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 23-26 ........................................... 47

EXAMPLE 4.24: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 3 ..................................................... 48

EXAMPLE 4.25: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 7 ..................................................... 48

EXAMPLE 4.26: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 16-18 ........................................... 49

EXAMPLE 4.27: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 89-108 ......................................... 49

EXAMPLE 4.28: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 84-88 ........................................... 50

EXAMPLE 4.29: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5 ......................................................................... 51

EXAMPLE 4.30: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, mm. 13-14 ........................................... 52

EXAMPLE 4.31: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 5-6 ............................................... 52

EXAMPLE 4.32: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 9, mm. 24-27 ........................................... 52

EXAMPLE 4.33: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5 ......................................................................... 53

EXAMPLE 4.34: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 11-12 ........................................... 54

EXAMPLE 4.35: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, m. 1 ..................................................... 54

EXAMPLE 4.36: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5 ......................................................................... 55

EXAMPLE 4.37: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 26-28 ........................................... 56

EXAMPLE 4.38: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 36-47 ........................................... 56

EXAMPLE 4.39: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 1-6 ............................................... 57

EXAMPLE 4.40: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 1-4 ............................................... 58

EXAMPLE 4.41: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, mm. 1-3 ............................................... 58

EXAMPLE 4.42: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 1-3 ............................................... 59

EXAMPLE 4.43: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, m. 7 ..................................................... 60

EXAMPLE 4.44: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 15 ................................................... 60

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EXAMPLE 4.45: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 5-8 ............................................... 61

EXAMPLE 4.46: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, mm. 12-25 ......................................... 61

EXAMPLE 4.47: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 15-17 ........................................... 62

EXAMPLE 4.48: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 20-24 ........................................... 62

EXAMPLE 4.49: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, mm. 58-61 ......................................... 63

EXAMPLE 4.50: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5 ......................................................................... 63

EXAMPLE 4.51: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 84-89 ........................................... 64

EXAMPLE 4.52: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 9 ..................................................... 65

EXAMPLE 4.53: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 120-122 ....................................... 65

EXAMPLE 4.54: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 29-32 ........................................... 66

EXAMPLE 4.55: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 7-10 ............................................. 66

EXAMPLE 4.56: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 72-77 ........................................... 67

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Alexander Tcherepnin (1899-1977) was a Russian-born American composer. Growing up

in a musical and artistic Russian family gave his musical style a Russian root that relates to

Sergei Prokofiev and Modest Mussorgsky.1 His later relocating to Tbilisi, Georgia, Paris and the

United States, and his interests in Asian folk music made him a stylistically cosmopolitan

composer. According to Tcherepnin himself, the Bagatelles, Op. 5 is one of the “outstanding”

piano compositions of his first compositional period.2 In this period, the composer was still

searching for his own style through the influences of both the old and the new schools of Russian

composers; therefore studying the Bagatelles, Op. 5 can function as a bridge which links the old

Russian compositional tradition to the new style of the twentieth century. This set is more

accessible to late-intermediate students compared to other twentieth-century works. Instead of

pages of avant-garde writing and atonal materials, this set still uses tonal harmonies and melodic

material with which intermediate students are familiar. The short length of each piece makes

learning and memorizing less challenging. The composition is also pleasant to the ear with its

well-arranged rhythmical and lyrical elements while having dissonances and chromatic passages.

Tcherepnin’s musical style represents the modern and diverse features of much twentieth-century

piano music.3 These contemporary characteristics can help introduce the late-intermediate

student to nontraditional musical material. Studying these features provides a foundation for the

student to learn more advanced twentieth-century works.

1 Enrique Alberto Arias, Alexander Tcherepnin: A Bio-Bibliography (New York: Greenwood, 1989), 28. 2 Guy S. Wuellner, "The Complete Piano Music of Alexander Tcherepnin: An Essay Together with A Comprehensive Project in Piano Performance," (D.M.A. diss., The University of Iowa, 1974), 41. 3 Charles Wilson, "Twentieth Century, The," The Oxford Companion to Music, accessed December 15, 2018, http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2571/view/10.1093/acref/9780199579037.001.0001.

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Late intermediate level can be defined by the standard repertoire that the student plays.

Jane Magrath provides a level chart for standard repertoire, with levels 1-10, representing

beginning to early-advanced. The exact level of each bagatelle is assessed by Jane Magrath,

using her 10-category leveling system, which is explained in her book The Pianist’s Guide to

Standard Teaching and Performance Literature. The first bagatelle from this set is assessed as

level 7. The standard repertoire from this level includes Bach Invention No.1 in C Major, BWV

772, from Two-Part Inventions, Clementi Sonatina in C Major, Op. 36, No. 3, and

Chopin Waltz in A Minor, Op. posth. The second, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, ninth, and

tenth bagatelles from this set are assessed as level 8. The standard repertoire from this level

includes Scarlatti Sonata in A Minor, K. 149, L.93, Beethoven Sonata in G Major, Op. 49, No. 2,

and Schumann “Dreaming (Träumerei)” from Scenes from Childhood, Op. 15. The third and the

eighth bagatelles are assessed as level 9. The standard repertoire from this level includes Bach

“Sinfonia No.15 in B Minor, BWV 801,” from Sinfonias or Three-Part Inventions, Mozart

Sonata in G Major, K. 283, and Chopin Nocturne in E-flat Major, Op. 9, No. 2.4

The purpose of this research is to conduct a comprehensive pedagogical analysis of

Alexander Tcherepnin’s Bagatelles, Op. 5 with the goal of introducing contemporary

characteristics in twentieth-century piano music for the late-intermediate student. These

compositions provide a transition for the student from learning standard repertoire of the

eighteenth and the nineteenth century, to contemporary repertoire through the combination of

Russian compositional traditions with twentieth century repertory. Analysis and effective

pedagogical solutions that benefit the student’s further studying of more advanced twentieth-

4 Jane Magrath, The Pianist’s Guide to Standard Teaching and Performance Literature (California: Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., 1995), 530-531.

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century repertoire will be presented in this document regarding specific musical and technical

challenges in the Tcherepnin Bagatelles. Overall biographical information regarding Alexander

Tcherepnin and a discussion of the general compositional style of Tcherepnin’s piano works will

be included in this document to serve as background information. The 1923 Heugel edition5, the

1964 revised Heugel edition6, Tcherepnin’s live recording from 19687, and American concert

pianist Martha Braden’s recording of the Bagatelles, Op. 58 will be used as references for

dynamic markings, articulations, fingering, and pedaling analysis. These editions are chosen

because the 1923 Heugel edition is the first known edition (the real first edition was destroyed

shortly after its publication earlier in the same year because of copyright issues), and the 1968

revised Heugel edition is the “true, authentic version, and is meant to replace all others as the

one” according to Tcherepnin.9 This is also justified by Tcherepnin’s 1968 recording of the

work.

5 Alexander Tcherepnin and Isidore Philipp, Bagatelles: 10 Pièces Pour Piano (Paris: Heugel, 1923). 6 Alexander Tcherepnin, Bagatelles: 10 Pièces Pour Piano (Paris: Heugel, 1968). 7 Alexander Tcherepnin, Tcherepnin. Alexander Tcherepnin, piano. EMI, CVC 2124, 1968. 8 Alexander Tcherepnin, Alexander Tcherepnin. Martha Braden, piano, CRI Archival Release, 2002. 9 Wuellner, 430.

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CHAPTER 2

BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF ALEXANDER TCHEREPNIN AND OVERVIEW OF HIS

COMPOSITIONAL STYLE

2.1 Brief Biography of Alexander Tcherepnin

Alexander Tcherepnin (1899-1977) was a Russian-born American composer, conductor

and pianist. He was born in Saint Petersburg into a musical and artistic family. His father was

Nikolai Tcherepnin, who was a conductor at the Imperial Opera House, and also conducted for

the first Paris season of Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, studied under Rimsky-Korsakov, and

taught conducting at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. Sergey Prokofiev was one of his notable

students. His mother was a member of the artistic Benois family. Young Tcherepnin grew up

under the influence of most of the great figures of Russian music and dance, among them

Rimsky-Korsakov, Liadov, Glazunov, Stravinsky, Chaliapin, Diaghilev, Pavlova and Fokine.10

Tcherepnin’s musical education started with receiving instruction in applied music (voice

and piano), notation, and theory from his mother when he was five years old. As he said in an

interview with Oliver Daniel, he learned how to write music and how to notate his musical ideas

before he learned how to write words, even before he learned the alphabet.11 His formal theory

and composition studies began in his late teens. He had already composed hundreds of pieces by

then, including several piano sonatas. When he was 18 years old, he entered the St. Petersburg

Conservatory, where he studied with Leocadia Kashperova, a protégée of Anton Rubinstein, and

Nikolay Sokolov, a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov12.

10 Ludmila Korabelnikova, Anna Winestein, and Suellen Hershman. Alexander Tcherepnin: The Saga of a Russian Emigre Composer (Indiana University Press, 2008), 1-15. 11 Oliver Daniel, Composer Brochure, "Alexander Tcherepnin" (New York: Broadcast Music, Inc., 1965), 1. 12 Wuellner, 9.

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After the 1917 Russian Revolution, the Tcherepnin family moved to Tblisi, Georgia.

During this time, Tcherepnin continued his studies at the University of Tblisi, gave concerts as

both pianist and conductor in Georgia and Armenia, and wrote music for the Kamerny

Theater. After Georgia was Sovietized, the Tcherepnin family moved again in 1921, and settled

in Paris for the next twenty-eight years. Tcherepnin completed his studies with Isidor Philipp,

who helped him publish several pieces that he had composed in Russia, which includes the

Bagatelles.

In 1922, Tcherepnin began an international career as a composer and pianist with his

debut in London. He started yearly visits to the United States in 1926 and made several extended

visits to China and Japan between 1934 and 1937. During these visits to the Far East, he

promoted numerous local composers, and encouraged compositional activities through

competition. He also met pianist Lee Hsien Ming in China, who later became his wife.

After World War II, Tcherepnin moved to the United States. He settled in Chicago in

1950, taught at DePaul University, and became an American citizen in 1958. He moved to New

York in 1964, and divided his time between the United States and Europe. He died in Paris from

a heart attack in 1977.

2.2 An Overview of Alexander Tcherepnin’s Compositional Style

Tcherepnin’s compositional style is diverse and cosmopolitan, which relates to his travel

and relocations. His student, Guy Snyder Wuellner, divided Tcherepnin’s stylistic periods into

five phases: "Search" (1899-1921), "Nine-Step Scale and Interpoint" (1921-34), "Folk Cure"

(1934-49), "Synthesis" (1949-58), and "Eight-Step Scale" (1958-69).13

13 Wuellner, 39.

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In the first period, Tcherepnin had favored writing for piano. His compositional style

from this period was influenced by both the old school and the new school of Russian

composers. Mussorgsky’s writing of bell-like effects, a thin texture with the lines spaced far

apart, and the parallel movement of chords and modal lines can be found in Tcherepnin’s work.

Prokofiev’s driving rhythms and harsh dissonances can also be found in Tcherepnin’s work.14

Besides these influences, Tcherepnin also found his own voice in combining the major

and minor modalities and the major-minor tetrachords and hexachords. These led to his second

period – “nine-step scale and interpoint.” The “nine-step scale” has nine notes and consists of

three conjunct semitone-tone-semitone tetrachords. The “interpoint” is a contrapuntal method

which combines linear elements vertically, horizontally, or metrically. Although the third period

“folk cure” started from 1934, Tcherepnin’s interests in folklore are showed as early as his

teenage years in Russia. Quotation and imitation of Russian and Georgian sacred and secular

music can be found in Tcherepnin’s compositions. In this period, Tcherepnin added the

pentatonic scale and Chinese folk music to his folklore interest, adaptions of Chinese folk songs

in a modern manner can be heard in his work.15 Works from the “synthesis” period have

combined all characteristics from his earlier periods with continued usage of the systems and

techniques that interested him before. In the last period, Tcherepnin used new techniques on the

foundation of previous techniques. The “eight-step scale” created a fundamental chord that is the

result of all of the notes in a tetrachord.

Representative works from each period including Toccata, Op. 1; Sonatine Romantique,

Op. 4; Bagatelles, Op. 5; Five Arabesques, Op. 11; First Piano Concerto, Op. 12; and Sonata in

14 Arias, 28-33 15 Alexander Tcherepnin, "Basic Elements of My Musical Language," The Tcherepnin Society, accessed December 14, 2018, http://www.tcherepnin.com/alex/basic_elem5.htm.

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A, Op. 22 from the first period; Four Romances, Op. 31; Message, Op. 39; Entretiens, Op. 46;

Second Piano Concerto, Op. 26; Concertino, Op. 47; and Third Piano Concerto, Op. 48 from the

second period; Suite géorgienne for piano and string orchestra, Op. 57; Five Concert Studies for

solo piano, Op.52 from the third period; Expressions, Op. 81, Songs Without Words, Op. 82,

Twelve Preludes, Op. 85; and Eight Pieces for Piano, Op. 88 from the fourth period; Second

Piano Sonata, Op. 94; Seven Chinese Folk Songs, Op. 95; Piano Concerto No. 5, Op. 96; Piano

Concerto No. 6, Op. 99; and Ascension from the last period. 16

16 Wuellner, 41-115

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CHAPTER 3

THE MUSICAL CHALLENGES OF THE BAGATELLES, OP. 5

3.1 Contemporary Harmony

Functional harmony has lost its predominant role in twentieth-century music. Composers

start to see chords for their colorful effects rather than their harmonic functions.17 New ways of

harmonic writing can be observed from the following analysis, including the use of intervals of

seconds, non-tertian chords, special uses of seventh chords, and ninth chords.

3.1.1 The Interval of 2nds

The harmony of 2nds is used as motives for the first, second, and seventh bagatelles. In

the first bagatelle, the harmony of major and minor 2nds can be found in the B section in

between hands, which creates strong dissonances (EXAMPLE 3.1).

EXAMPLE 3.1: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 7-8

The same kind of harmony can be found in the opening motif of the second bagatelle

(EXAMPLE 3.2). There can be observed a major 2nd in between hands from the first beats of

measures 1 and 2. In the seventh bagatelle, similar uses of major 2nd in between the hands can

be seen in the opening measures 1-4 (EXAMPLE 3.3) and chromatic passages in measures 61-

72.

17 Ellen R. Thompson Teaching and Understanding Contemporary Piano Music (San Diego: Kjos West, 1976), 79.

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EXAMPLE 3.2: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 1-2

EXAMPLE 3.3: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 1-4

Besides, a different use of seconds can be found in measures 17-31(EXAMPLE 3.4).

Instead of the 2nds that are written in between hands, here the use of 2nds appears in the right

hand alone.

EXAMPLE 3.4: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 20-23

3.1.2 Non-Tertian Chords

In this set of bagatelles, the use of non-tertian chords includes secundal, quartal, quintal,

5/4 chords, and chords with an added note. Secundal, quartal, and quintal chords are formed by

combinations of their intervals; 5/4 chord is called by the intervals from the root of the chord;

and added note chord is a usual tertian chord with an added note that is usually a second or a

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sixth from the root.18 Some of these are used by themselves and others are used combining with

special 7th chords and 9th chords.

In the third bagatelle, the use of 5/4 chords can be found in measures 18-20 (EXAMPLE

3.5). These chords create a special color for this passage while alternating with major-minor 7th

chords. Similar use of 5/4 chords can be found from the downbeats and the third beats of

measures 26-29, alternating with the secundal chord in between.

EXAMPLE 3.5: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 20-21

In the fourth bagatelle, the use of secundal chord can be found from the downbeats of

measures 3-10 (EXAMPLE 3.6). These secundal chords are built in 2nds, from F-sharp to C-

sharp, with the omission of A in measures 5-6 and 9-10. The same writing returns in measures

20-22.

EXAMPLE 3.6: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 4-6

18 Thompson, 84.

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The last chord of bagatelle No. 7 is an example of the added chord (EXAMPLE 3.7).

This use of the E-flat triad with added 2nd gives this piece, written in minor and contains lots of

chromatics and dissonances, a refreshing ending.

EXAMPLE 3.7: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 146-150

The use of 5/4 chord and added chord can be found in Scriabin’s 24 Preludes, Op. 11,

No. 6 (EXAMPLE 3.8). Here, Scriabin ends the piece with a couple of special chords. Measures

51-52 is a 5/4 chord, and measures 53-54 is an augmented triad with the added 2nd.

EXAMPLE 3.8: Scriabin: 24 Preludes, Op. 11, No. 6, mm. 50-54

3.1.3 Special Uses of the 7th Chords

The untraditional use of 7th chords can be found throughout the set, including major-

major (a major triad with a major third above), minor-minor (a minor triad with a minor third

above), and minor-major (a minor triad with a major third above) seventh chords. In the first

bagatelle, a broken chord pattern of minor-minor 7th can be found in measure 15, which is built

from the tonic note of the piece with the omission of the 5th note (EXAMPLE 3.9).

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EXAMPLE 3.9: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 15

In the B section of the second bagatelle (EXAMPLE 3.10), we can find the use of the

minor-minor 7th chord (a second inversion of G mm7) on the second beats of measures 30 and

31, which contrasts with their following major-minor 7th chords.

EXAMPLE 3.10: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 30-31

Use of 7th chords combined with other non-tertian chords can be found in the fourth

bagatelle, from measure 25 to 28 (EXAMPLE 3.11). This ending creates a very special sound

through the use of 5/4 chord in the second beat of measure 25, the use of major-major 7th chord

in the second beat of measure 26, and the minor-major 7th chord from the second beat of

measures 27 to 28.

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EXAMPLE 3.11: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 23-30

Similar special uses of 7th chords can be found in Prokofiev’s Vision Fugitives, Op. 22,

No. 15 (EXAMPLE 3.12). Here in measure 7, the first chord is a minor-minor 7th chord (a third

inversion of C-sharp mm7), and the second one is a minor-major 7th chord (a third inversion of C

mM7).

EXAMPLE 3.12: Prokofiev: Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No.15, m. 7

3.1.4 The 9th Chord

The 9th chord is used for colorful effects, and they are produced by adding a third above

the 7th chord. Unlike being used mainly for dominant chords from the nineteenth-century

composers, the 9th chord can be used in other scale degrees in twentieth-century music. The use

of the 9th chord can be observed in several bagatelles.

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In the first bagatelle, the 9th chord can be found from the first and the third chords in

measures 1 and 2, and the second chords in measures 3 and 4 (EXAMPLE 3.13). Special colors

are created through the alternations of these chords and regular tertian chords.

EXAMPLE 3.13: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 1-4

Similar usage of the 9th chord can be found from the third bagatelle, on the downbeats of

measures 76 and 78 (EXAMPLE 3.14). These 9th chords not only make contrasts from their

following chords, but stretch the ear with the use of modal melody and tonality. This will be

further discussed in the “Modal Melodic Resources and Tonalities” section of the current

document.

EXAMPLE 3.14: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 76-77

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Combinations of a series of nontraditional use of chords can be found in the fifth

bagatelle (EXAMPLE 3.15). In measure 7, we can observe the use of quintal chord on the

downbeat, and major-major 7th chord on the second beat, which is followed by the minor-minor

7th chord. The 9th chord can be found from the last chord of the measure.

EXAMPLE 3.15: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, m. 7

Similar uses of 9th chords can be found in advanced level repertoire such as Prokofiev’s

Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 1 (EXAMPLE 3.16). Here, three 9th chords (circled) can be found

in the opening measures with omissions of the fifths. The uses of these 9th chords that alternate

with minor-minor and major-minor 7th chords creates a special color and a sense of serenity for

this passage.

EXAMPLE 3.16: Prokofiev: Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No.1, mm. 1-4

3.2 Contemporary Rhythm and Meter

3.2.1 Shifted Accents

Syncopation is created by the regular shifting of each beat in a measured pattern by the

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same amount ahead of or behind its normal position in that pattern.19 The usages of this

compositional skill are expanded by twentieth-century composers. In order to make the shifts

more unpredictable, regular metric pulses in the passage became unnecessary, and the new

device “shifted accents” is widely used.20

In the third bagatelle, the shifted accents from measures 35-36 and 39-40 (EXAMPLE

3.17) disrupt the regular rhythmic pulses from the triple meter, and create a rhythmic ambiguity.

This prepares the ear for the following passages with irregular phrasings, until the return of the

first theme in measure 59.

EXAMPLE 3.17: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 36-40

In the fourth bagatelle, measures 25-28 (EXAMPLE 3.18) serve as the extension of the

preceding phrase. The use of shifted accents can be found in these measures, in which the natural

pulse of the duple meter shifts to the second beats, and helps create an extended feeling of the

phrase. It gives the illusion of being picked up in the air, and finally back to the ground with the

downbeat of the last measure.

19 Justin London, "Syncopation." Grove Music Online, accessed January 27, 2019. http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2173/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000027263. 20 Thompson, 53.

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EXAMPLE 3.18: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 23-30

In the eighth bagatelle, the shifted accents in measures 26-27 and 30-32 (EXAMPLE

3.19) make the regular marching rhythm sound special. Instead of accenting downbeats and the

third beats, these passages have accents in the second beats. They help justify the irregular

ending of the piece, for which the ear will feel like it is the last beat of the measure instead of the

first.

EXAMPLE 3.19: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, mm. 26-27

Prokofiev’s Visions Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 19 has similar usages of shifted accents

(EXAMPLE 3.20). Here, the accents in the first three measures are on the second beats, which is

a weak beat in 3/4 time. The accent shifts back in measure 4, to the regular strong beats of 3/4

time -- the downbeat and the third beat. These shifted accents help drive the beats and make the

passage sound agitated.

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EXAMPLE 3.20: Prokofiev: Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 19, mm. 1-4

3.2.2 Asymmetric Meter

The asymmetric meter is another device for twentieth-century composers to create

unpredictable rhythmic patterns. This meter includes beats that cannot be divided evenly, such as

5, 7, 11, and 13.21

In the second bagatelle, the asymmetric meter in measure 17 (EXAMPLE 3.21) simply

functions as the transition from the preceding phrase to the opening theme. It has the asymmetric

beat of 2+2+1, in which the first four beats are extensions to the former phrase, and the last beat

is the upbeat of the coming section. They are divided by the dashed bar line.

EXAMPLE 3.21: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 16-18

In the fourth bagatelle, measures 15 and 17 have asymmetric meters of 11/16 and 10/16,

in which measure 15 is divided into 3+4+3 and measure 17 is divided into 4+4+2 (EXAMPLE

21 Leon Dallin, Techniques of Twentieth Century Composition: A Guide to the Materials of

Modern Music (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1974), 60.

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3.22). These two measures break the overall static atmosphere and function as the peak of the

piece.

EXAMPLE 3.22: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 13-18

Scriabin uses the asymmetric meter in the fourteenth prelude of his 24 Preludes

(EXAMPLE 3.23). We can see that this piece’s time signature is 15/8, which is divided into 3

groups of 3+2 in each measure.

EXAMPLE 3.23: Scriabin: 24 Preludes, Op. 11, No. 14, m. 1

3.2.3 Meter Change

In order to break free from predictable metric pulses, meter alternations are commonly

used by twentieth-century composers to achieve rhythmic variety. Unlike the traditional use of

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changing meter, in which one meter will usually be used throughout a large section of the piece,

one or multiple meter alternations can be found in brief passages of a twentieth-century work.22

In the second bagatelle, measure 7 alters the meter from 4/4 to 3/2 (EXAMPLE 3.24).

This change of meter is expanded later in measures 24-28 and 44-49 (EXAMPLE 3.25). These

alternations transform the duple meter into triple, which give these passages a sense of

expanding.

EXAMPLE 3.24: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 4-7

EXAMPLE 3.25: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 23-25

In the fourth bagatelle, from measures 15 to 19 (EXAMPLE 3.26), the meter is altered in

every measure to make a contrasting impression to the static atmosphere from the preceding and

following parts. They break the pulse of duple meter, and make the listener seek regular

rhythmic pulses. This interruption of the pulse also makes the return of the original theme seem

more static.

22 Thompson, 58.

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EXAMPLE 3.26: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 13-18

As the meter alternation in the fourth bagatelle, measures 7-10 in the fifth bagatelle

(EXAMPLE 3.27) also alter the meter to create a more flowing impression. The meter is

changed from 4/4 to 3/4, which makes the length of each measure shorter, therefore giveing the

passage a sense of pushing forward.

EXAMPLE 3.27: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 5-8

In the sixth bagatelle, from the passage of measures 10-13 (EXAMPLE 3.28), the

constant 4/2 meter is altered by the change of meter in measure 12. The use of the rare meter 3/1

functions as a written-in ritardando that gives the illusion of slowing down. This meter

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alternation is well-prepared and transitioned by the sfs from the preceding measures and within

the measure, which interrupt the metric pulse.

EXAMPLE 3.28: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, mm. 10-13

The seventh bagatelle has meter alternations in the passage of measures 122-150, in

which the meter changes from 3/8 to 6/8; within this passage, alternations of the meter 6/8 and

4/8 can be found as well (EXAMPLE 3.29). In measures 125 and 129, the division of the meter

changes from 3 to 2, with the eighth notes keeping the same beats.

EXAMPLE 3.29: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 126-130

Scriabin used meter alternations in his sixteenth prelude from his set of 24 Preludes

(EXAMPLE 3.30). This piece has the time signature of 5/8 and 4/8, in which these two sets of

time alternate every two measures until the ending phrase.

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EXAMPLE 3.30: Scriabin: 24 Preludes, Op. 11, No. 16, mm. 1-2

3.2.4 Ostinato

Ostinato writing is widely used by twentieth-century composers. Unlike functioning as

repetitions of melodic and harmonic progressions from the eighteenth and the nineteenth century,

ostinato can serve as a simple accompaniment figure in twentieth-century works.23 The

following are examples of using ostinato as a constantly repeated bass line beneath changing

upper parts and vice versa.

In the second bagatelle, we can observe the bass line pattern of a broken D-minor 6/4

chord, with a passing tone in between the minor third, repeats from measure 10 through the

downbeat of measure 12 (EXAMPLE 3.31). This ostinato makes the passage more static while

the upper parts change constantly. The following measures 13-17 have a switch of ostinato and

moving part in the left and the right hand. Here (EXAMPLE 3.32), the ostinato appears in the

upper part, while the bass line keeps moving until the unison in measure 16, which brings the

passage back to the opening melody.

EXAMPLE 3.31: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 10-12

23 Thompson, 66.

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EXAMPLE 3.32: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 13-15

In the third bagatelle, the use of ostinato can be found in measures 18-20 (EXAMPLE

3.33) in both hands. The left hand has a repeating pattern of single notes – A and F-sharp, and

the right hand has F-sharp on every beat through the top voice with reoccurring chord patterns.

Similar writing can be found in measures 46-50 and 51-58. Ostinato pattern of B-flat (B natural

in measures 51-58) and A can be found in both hands until they go back to single voice in

measure 55, and the note G repeats on every beat throughout these passages (EXAMPLE 3.34).

EXAMPLE 3.33: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 16-20

EXAMPLE 3.34: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 51-55

Similar ostinato writing can be found in Prokofiev’s Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 4,

from measure 29 (EXAMPLE 3.35). Here this pattern stays for 19 measures in the right hand,

with added voices and alternations of beats in the left hand.

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EXAMPLE 3.35: Prokofiev: Vision Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 4, mm. 31-39

The fourth bagatelle opens with an ostinato in the left hand (EXAMPLE 3.36). The

stepwise moving line with the 7th-6th harmonic interval patterns is repeated in each measure, with

slight rhythmic alternations in some measures. The same passage returns in measures 11-14. This

ostinato pattern creates a static atmosphere for the Lento con tristezza mood indication, and it is

also amplified by the repeated 2nds from the middle voice.

EXAMPLE 3.36: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 1-3

In the fifth bagatelle, an ostinato with a repeating two-note pattern can be found in the

opening, measures 1-4 (EXAMPLE 3.37). It helps to create a similar static atmosphere as the

fourth bagatelle. Measures 11-14 are variations of the opening measures with added voices. The

original two-note ostinato pattern can still be heard, and it is expanded with a descending scale.

EXAMPLE 3.37: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 1-4

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In the sixth bagatelle, ostinato writing can be found in measures 1-10 and 13-14. In

measures 1-4 (EXAMPLE 3.38), the accompaniment figures of broken chord patterns are

grouped in ascending and descending triplets with different bass notes, in which four groups can

be found in one measure, and the same pattern is repeated in each measure. Similar patterns can

be found in measures 5-8 with the pitches a major second higher. In measures 9 and 10, each

group of the triplet pattern is repeated within the measure. Measures 13-14 reiterate measures 1-

2. These ostinatos are used simply as accompaniments for the melodic lines in the upper part.

EXAMPLE 3.38: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 6, mm. 1-2

In the seventh bagatelle, the ostinato pattern is written across bar lines. We can see from

measures 1-16 (EXAMPLE 3.39), this three-note group pattern starts from the second beat of the

measure, which helps to eliminate the feeling of downbeats, and creates a continually driven

movement. The same patterns can be found in measures 37-52, 107-115, and 135-146 (with

changes of pitches and tempo).

EXAMPLE 3.39: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 1-9

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The eighth bagatelle uses similar ostinato patterns as the sixth bagatelle. It also has

ascending and descending patterns with six notes as a group. It differs from the patterns in the

sixth bagatelle in two ways: it has different metric emphasis, therefore only two groups can be

found in a measure; instead of broken chords, the patterns here are chromatic scales and minor

thirds. EXAMPLE 3.40 shows measures 13-14 have patterns that are repeated in each measure,

and within each measure, two 6-note groups can be found a major third apart. From the second

group of measure 15, the same group is used repeatedly until the end of measure 20. From

measure 21, the pattern changes to a stepwise motion, and the same group is repeated through

measure 24.

EXAMPLE 3.40: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles Op. 5, No. 8, mm. 13-16

In the ninth bagatelle, ostinato appears in measures 20-25 (EXAMPLE 3.41) with

ascending and descending chromatic lines. We can see two measures as a pattern, and these

patterns are used three times in a row. A transition of these patterns can be found in measures 28-

33, a minor third higher.

EXAMPLE 3.41: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 9, mm. 20-24

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3.3 Modal Melodic Resources and Tonalities

Church modes are widely used as melodic resources in twentieth-century music. In order

to break free from the traditional usages of major and minor scales, contemporary composers

look back to modal scales from the early music, and give them new lives by expanding their

usages.24

Originally, church modes consisted of seven tones that were built from notes of the C

Major scale. In other words, different modes are built using white keys of the keyboard, which

creates different patterns of whole steps and half steps. Starting from the note C, white notes are

used successively to build the Ionian mode. Same patterns are used for other modes with

different starting notes: Dorian mode starts from the note D; Phrygian mode starts from the note

E; Lydian mode starts from the note F; Mixolydian mode starts from the note G; Aeolian mode

starts from the note A; and Locrian mode starts from the note B. Compared to traditional major-

minor keys, Ionian (same as major), Lydian (major with raised fourth) and Mixolydian (major

with lowered seventh) have a similar sound to major keys because the scale degrees one and

three notes from these modes form a major third. Other four modes – Aeolian (same as natural

minor), Dorian (minor with raised sixth), Phrygian (minor with lowered second), and Locrian

(minor with lowered second and fifth) have a similar sound to minor keys because they have

minor thirds between their first and third scale degree notes. 25

In twentieth-century music, these modes can start from any given note. The key signature

can be written as either the key signature of the scale degree one note of the mode, or it can have

the key signature that shows the alternation of the mode compared to a regular major-minor key.

24 Thompson, 20. 25 Dallin, 19.

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For example, D Dorian mode can have the same key signature as D Minor, in which the sixth

will be raised using accidentals. It can also be written without key signature, because of the

raised sixth, which would make the original D minor key signature B-flat become natural.26

In the second bagatelle, a mixture of D Aeolian and D Dorian modes is used. In the A

section, this mixture can be found at measures 3-4 and measure 7; reiteration of these measures

appears in measures 20-21 and measure 24. The same writings reappear in the A’ section in

measures 40-41 and measure 44. EXAMPLE 3.42 shows the alternations of B and B-flat, the B-

natural in measure 3 and measure 7 indicates the use of D-Dorian mode. These B-naturals have

different functions than the B-naturals in measure 1 and 2, in which the latter function as part of

the chromatic melody lines. The B-flats in measure 4 and 7 show the return of D Aeolian mode.

EXAMPLE 3.42: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 4-7

EXAMPLE 3.43 is from the middle section of the same piece. Here, the same melody as

measures 3-4 is used in lyrical style.

EXAMPLE 3.43: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 34-35

26 Ibid, 20.

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A mixed use of D Minor (harmonic) and D Phrygian mode can be found in this piece as

well. In measures 25-29 (EXAMPLE 3.44), the use of E-flats indicates D Phrygian mode, while

the use of C-sharps indicates D Minor. Similar writing can be found at the end of the piece, with

a slight change in the last two measures. Instead of ending the section in D Minor, it ends in D

Phrygian.

EXAMPLE 3.44: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 25-26

The third bagatelle is mainly written in the key of D Major, but we can also observe the

use of the mode D Phrygian in measures 75-78 (EXAMPLE 3.45). The use of F-natural, E-flat,

and B-flat gives this passage a refreshing modal sound. After this brief passage, the following

measures 79-82 bring back the original key of D Major.

EXAMPLE 3.45: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 76-78

The fourth bagatelle starts with an F-sharp Phrygian mode, which is indicated by the

lowered scale degree two from measure 1 to measure 14. This lowered scale degree is shown in

the key signature, from which we can observe the lack of G-sharp for F-sharp Aeolian mode,

which we can find later in this piece, from measure 15 to measure 19, and the ending measures

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27-29 (EXAMPLE 3.46). There are also mixed uses of F-sharp Dorian modes, which can be

found in measures 16, 18, and 29, within these F-sharp Aeolian passages. Measures 16 and 18

(EXAMPLE 3.47) show the brief usage of D-sharps. Although these sharps are canceled in the

descending melody line right after their appearances on the downbeats, these modal changes are

noticeable to the ear.

EXAMPLE 3.46: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 27-30

EXAMPLE 3.47: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 16-18

Similar writings can be found in Prokofiev’s Visions Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 16

(EXAMPLE 3.48). This piece is written in E Phrygian mode, which is indicated by the lowered

2nd of the E-minor scale.

EXAMPLE 3.48: Prokofiev: Visions Fugitives, Op. 22, No. 16, mm. 9-10

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The A (mm. 1-6) (EXAMPLE 3.49) and B (mm. 7-10) sections in the fifth bagatelle are

written in the F-sharp Dorian mode. One can argue that these sections can be seen as they are

written in C-sharp minor, especially with the B sharps in measures 1 and 2. However, the bass

note F-sharp almost keeps appearing through these sections (except for mm. 5-6). This pedal

tone, along with the three-sharp key signature that is given by Tcherepnin, emphasize the scale

degree one note – F-sharp. Therefore, the D-sharps should be treated as raised scale degree six,

which makes these sections modal.

EXAMPLE 3.49: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, m. 1

3.4 Other Tonalities

Besides the use of modal tonalities, other tonalities can also be found in this set of

bagatelles. From the fifth, the sixth, the eighth, and the tenth bagatelles, we can observe that

although traditional tonal centers are used, interesting modulations and shifted tonalities can be

found.

The first two sections of the fifth bagatelle have modal tonalities, but the last section has

a tonality of C-sharp minor. From measures 11-14 (EXAMPLE 3.50), we can observe the

repeating pattern of an F-sharp 7th chord going to a C-sharp triad, in which the F-sharp chord can

be seen as the subdominant of C-sharp minor, and the C-sharp triad can be seen as the tonic

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chord. This section finally ends in C-sharp major with the use of a Picardy third at the end. The

same Picardy third writing can be found at the end of the ninth bagatelle.

EXAMPLE 3.50: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 11-12

The sixth bagatelle is written mainly in G-flat major. However, the opening part of the

middle section transposes the first section a major second higher, which makes it A-flat major.

The modulation goes on with the change of left-hand broken 7th chords, which starts from a

minor-minor 7th in measure 9 to a major-minor 7th chord in measure 10. Then it reaches C major

in measure 11, with the half-diminished 7th chord in the left hand. After the return of the G-flat

major in measure 13, a shifting tonality can be found in measure 16 (EXAMPLE 3.51), which is

written with the notes E and B with double flats. This shifting is facilitated by the descending

bass line of a chromatic scale, starting from measure 15. The original key is brought back in the

end through a dominant-tonic motion in the right hand.

EXAMPLE 3.51: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, m. 16

Shifted tonality27 can also be found in the end of the first phrase of the eighth bagatelle in

measure 4 (EXAMPLE 3.52). This piece starts in the key of A-flat major, then reaches the tonic

27 Dallin, 126.

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note of B major on the downbeat of measure 4 through descending chromatic lines. Here the

chord is written in flats. From measure 16, we can observe the change of tonality from A-flat

major to F major. This tonality is not clear to the ear due to the chromatic accompaniment lines

in the left hand. It becomes clear at measure 25 (EXAMPLE 3.53), with the return of the opening

theme. It shifts back to the original key of A-flat major in measure 29 through a similar way as

the beginning phrase. A series of shifting tonalities can be found briefly after the return of the

original key. Measure 30 uses an F-major 7th chord, and the use of A-flat minor can be found in

measure 31. Although the key returns to A-flat major in measure 33, a hint of the A-flat minor

key can be found in the beginning of measure 35 with the flat F and the flat G. The piece finally

ends in major through the A-flat major scale.

EXAMPLE 3.52: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, m. 4

EXAMPLE 3.53: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, m. 25

The last bagatelle is written mainly in the key of c minor. However, towards the end, it

switches to C major starting from the use of E-naturals in measure 100 (EXAMPLE 3.54).

Despite the chromatic lines, we can still feel the C-major tonal center through to the end.

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EXAMPLE 3.54: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, mm. 103-109

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CHAPTER 4

THE TECHNICAL CHALLENGES OF THE BAGATELLES, OP. 5

4.1 Fingering

The fingering indications from the 1923 fingered edition, published by Heugel in Paris,

are given by the composer himself, and they are also endorsed by Isidore Phillipp, who was

Tcherepnin’s musical advisor and piano teacher in Paris.28 The following fingering suggestions

are alternative possibilities to Tcherepnin’s fingerings, and adjustments may be done according

to the performer’s hands.

4.1.1 Redistributing Notes Between the Hands

Redistributing notes between the hands is recommended for several reasons, and one of

the reasons is that it can help the player with small hands sound the notes simultaneously as

written and avoid unnecessary rolls. In measure 3 of the second bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.1), the e

in the left-hand second note can be taken by the right hand if the player could not reach a tenth.

EXAMPLE 4.1: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 1-3

In measure 30 of the second bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.2), the left-hand note f1 on the

second and the fourth beats can be taken by the right hand with the thumb playing both f1 and

g1.

28 Wuellner, 421.

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EXAMPLE 4.2: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, m. 30

In measure 10 of the fifth bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.3), the second a1 and the following

g1-sharp in the left hand can be taken by the right hand to avoid a tenth.

EXAMPLE 4.3: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 9-10

Another reason for redistributing notes between the hands is to help the player with

technical difficulties. In measure 15 of the first bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.4), the left-hand note C4

can be taken by the right hand as an octave, so that the left hand can have more preparation time

for the leap back.

EXAMPLE 4.4: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 15

A similar leap can be avoided in measure 35 of the second bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.5).

Here the left-hand note g1 can be taken with the right hand, so that the left hand will only need to

play one broken octave, and no position change is needed. However, one should be careful with

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the timing of this certain chord. It should be slightly delayed to accommodate the composer’s

intention of delaying this chord by adding the grace notes before.

EXAMPLE 4.5: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 34-35

For measures 82-86 of the third bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.6), it is possible to redistribute

these notes between hands rather than play them with the same hand. The right hand can be used

for the notes a, c1, and a1, c2-sharp, and the left hand will play the rest of the notes. In this way,

the right hand can have more time to prepare the octave change in measure 84.

EXAMPLE 4.6: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 78-86

For measures 16 and 18 of the fourth bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.7), redistributing notes

between the hands can also be used for the left-hand grace note and leap gesture. In order to keep

the continuity of the phrase, and maintain accuracy of the playing, the left hand c1-sharp can be

m

.s.

m

.d.

m

.s.

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taken with the right-hand finger number one, with which the right hand now will be playing both

c1-sharp and d1-sharp.

EXAMPLE 4.7: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 16-18

The ending of the ninth bagatelle has a large leap in the left hand (EXAMPLE 4.8); the

solution for this is to take the first chord all in the right hand, so the left hand can have more time

for preparation.

EXAMPLE 4.8: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 9, mm. 53-58

In addition, redistributing notes between the hands can also help avoid awkward hand

positions. In measure 13 of the second bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.9), there is a hand cross on the

third notes that requires the left hand to cross the right hand for one note and then immediately

come back for the following note. This would cause inconvenience for the player, especially in a

fast tempo. Therefore, a redistributing of the notes between the hands is helpful; switching the

note a1 and the note f1 in hands will solve the issue of hand crossing. The fingering for the right

hand will change to 12212313 to accommodate this redistribution.

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EXAMPLE 4.9: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 12-13

4.1.2 Chromatic Fingering

The traditional fingering (1313123) for chromatic passages is taught for the intermediate

student at an earlier stage of piano learning.29 In order to improve the student’s playing of

chromatic passages, especially the ones with a rapid speed, using a fingering pattern that avoids

overusing of the thumb is essential, because the overuse of thumbs can cause tension in the hand,

slow down the speed, and create unevenness. 30

In the beginning of the second bagatelle, the right hand has an ascending and descending

chromatic scale pattern (EXAMPLE 4.10); instead of the traditional chromatic fingering, using

1234321 is recommended.

EXAMPLE 4.10: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, m. 1

In the seventh bagatelle, two passages of descending chromatic scales can be found, each

from measures 53-72 and measures 89-107. The first passage has descending chromatic scales in

29 James W. Bastien, How to Teach Piano Successfully (San Diego: Kjos Music, 1988), 282. 30 Julien Musafia, The Art of Fingering in Piano Playing (New York: MCA Music, 1971), 36.

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both hands, and the hands are only a major second apart. The fingering that is given by

Tcherepnin is not the traditional fingering for the chromatic scale. Besides finger number 1-3, it

uses finger number 4. Here the finger patterns repeat in every octave. Another possible fingering

of this passage has a pattern that recurs every two octaves (EXAMPLE 4.11). The fingering for

the right hand is 4321 321 4321 321 4321 321 321, and for the left hand, the pattern starts from

measure 55: 123 123 1234 123 1234 123 1234. This pattern can also be applied to the second

passage, from measure 89 (EXAMPLE 4.12), with the right-hand fingering pattern 4321 321

4321 321 321 4321 321 until measure 99, and the left-hand fingering pattern 1234 123 1234 123

123 1234 123 from measure 89 to measure 107.

EXAMPLE 4.11: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 49-60

EXAMPLE 4.12: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 89-96

In the eighth bagatelle, there are chromatic accompaniment figures in the left hand from

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measure 12 to measure 25. Instead of the traditional 13 alternations that the original fingering

gives, another possibility can be used. EXAMPLE 4.13 shows the possible fingering for the left-

hand pattern can be 531 234 313 231; EXAMPLE 4.14 shows that, for measure 15, the left-hand

fingering can be 321 234 321 213, which can be divided into three groups per measure for

practicing, and each of these groups contains four notes that can be blocked as one hand position;

for measures 16-20, every six notes is a pattern, for which the fingering is 531 213. The fingering

for the first six-note group in measure 21 is 132 123 because of the change of position, and the

rest of the patterns will use the same fingering as the preceding measures: 531 213.

EXAMPLE 4.13: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, mm.13-14

EXAMPLE 4.14: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, mm.15-16

The opening of the last bagatelle has a rapid chromatic scale in the right hand

(EXAMPLE 4.15); instead of the original fingering 2313123, one can start with the finger

number 1, which gives a pattern of 1234123 for this passage. This pattern can help the performer

play this phrase more smoothly and rapidly.

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EXAMPLE 4.15: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, m. 1

4.1.3 Legato Fingering

Fingerings for a legato passage that is played with the damper pedal can be designed to

help create the legato sound. In measure 33 of the second bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.16), it is

recommended to change the original fingering of 3222 to 3232 for maintaining the legato sound

because 3232 is a more legato fingering than 3222, and the break between 32 and 32 would not

be noticeable within one pedal.

EXAMPLE 4.16: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, m. 34

4.1.4 Other Fingerings

The following examples are recommended as alternative fingerings for the original

fingerings that are given by Tcherepnin, based on individual reasons. In measure 5 of the second

bagatelle, the original fingerings for the left hand are given as 21213 (EXAMPLE 4.17).

However, this fingering creates an awkward position change. In addition, the following pattern is

identical to the pattern that starts at the last beat of measure 4, which is marked with 1 and 5.

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Therefore, the fingering of 2123, 1 and 5 is recommended for measure 5 because it is more

efficient to keep the same fingers on the same keys in a passage,31 and in this way, the awkward

position change can be avoided as well. Measure 12 of the same bagatelle can use the similar

efficient solution of keeping the same fingers on the same notes. Here (EXAMPLE 4.18) the

original fingering for the left hand is given as 5124. However, it would be more convenient to

play the note e1 with finger number 2 and the note c1 with finger number 3, for they appear in a

row within the following measures.

EXAMPLE 4.17: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 4-5

EXAMPLE 4.18: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 12-15

In the sixth bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.19), the left-hand broken chord patterns can all use

the fingering 532123, instead of the original fingering 542124 to avoid the tension between

finger number 5 and number 4.

31 Musafia, 18.

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EXAMPLE 4.19: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, m. 1

In the seventh bagatelle, from measure 17 to measure 31, the original fingering for the

right hand is given as 23 1 23 23 1 23 and so on (EXAMPLE 4.20). The right-hand pattern here

can be six-note groups, and within one group, every three notes changes the hand position.

Therefore alternations of finger number 23 and 34 are recommended. This pattern is more

efficient because it uses two groups of fingerings instead of only one, which help with the

tiredness in the fingers, and it is also helpful for achieving speed and accuracy.

EXAMPLE 4.20: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 10-29

Similar situations can be found in the last bagatelle. From measure 69 to measure 82

(EXAMPLE 4.21), the left hand has the pattern of repeated Cs and Gs. The original fingering

suggests all these notes being played by finger number 2. However, one can also choose to

alternate finger numbers 1 and 2 for different notes in measures 69-77, and use finger number 5

for the Cs starting from measure 77.

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EXAMPLE 4.21: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, mm. 65-80

4.2 Pedaling

Different ways of using the damper pedal are required in this set of bagatelles. According

to Joseph Banowetz’s book The Pianist’s Guide to Pedaling, except for “legato pedaling” that

the late-intermediate student commonly uses32, use of the damper pedal also includes “melodic

material pedaling”, “pedaling as an aid to phrasing and articulation”, “rhythm-projecting

pedaling”, and “blurring for color and special effects.”33 The following examples demonstrate

these different ways of pedal use in this set of bagatelles.

4.2.1 Melodic Material Pedaling

In the middle section of the second bagatelle, large rolls can be found from measures 30-

32 (EXAMPLE 4.22). The change of the pedal needs to be made on the bass note of the roll, and

the roll comes before the beat. In order to connect the melody line while changing the pedal, the

right-hand top line notes need to be played without any break within the measure.34

32 Marienne Uszler, Stewart Gordon, and Scott McBride-Smith, The Well-Tempered Keyboard Teacher (Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2000), 215. 33 Joseph Banowetz, The Pianist's Guide to Pedaling (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), 16-76. 34 Jozsef Gat, The Technique of Piano Playing (London: Collet's, 1968), 69.

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EXAMPLE 4.22: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 30-32

4.2.2 Pedaling as an Aide to Phrasing and Articulation

In measures 25 and 26 of the fourth bagatelle, the damper pedal can be used as an aid to

phrasing and articulation (EXAMPLE 4.23). The pedal can be applied on the first chord and be

released gradually after the second chord to keep the continuity of the phrase. Similar gradual

release of the pedal can be applied to measure 28 for the last portato note, where a fading-away

sound effect is required. As Banowetz suggests “If at all possible, the raised dampers should be

released gradually at the end of each note to avoid stopping the sound in an abrupt, chopped

manner. Done correctly, the effect should be similar to that of a string player tapering off the last

note of a phrase as the end of the bow is reached. It is important to release the keys with the

fingers just before raising the pedal over the notes”.35

EXAMPLE 4.23: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 23-26

35 Banowetz, 49.

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4.2.3 Rhythm-Projecting Pedaling

In the first bagatelle, the damper pedal is used to project rhythm and to color and

emphasize the written accents in measures 2-5 (EXAMPLE 4.24). In these places, the use of the

pedal should be brief and no alternations of the articulation should be made because its function

is not connecting notes. Similar examples can be found in the third bagatelle from measures 17,

21, 25, and 29.

EXAMPLE 4.24: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 3

4.2.4 Blurring for Color and Special Effects

Examples of using the pedal for blurring scales and patterns can be found in the first,

fourth, and seventh bagatelles. In the first bagatelle, measures 6-7 have pedal markings for each

measure, in which measure 6 has a pattern of repeating octaves and seconds in between hands,

and measure 7 (EXAMPLE 4.25) has ascending and descending unison scales.

EXAMPLE 4.25: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 7

The same kind of pedaling marking can be found in the fourth bagatelle, from measures

15 to 18 (EXAMPLE 4.26). Here, each measure has a descending scale, and the pedal should be

held through each scale, except for the last one with a lower register. If the pedal is held through

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this measure, the last three notes will be too blurred to the ear, therefore pedal changes are

marked with each of these notes.

EXAMPLE 4.26: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 16-18

The seventh bagatelle has a long pedal from measures 73 to 99 (EXAMPLE 4.27). This

passage can be held in one pedal because of the wide range of register, and the long pedal helps

to create a climax for the piece. Another long pedal can be found in measures 107-115, for here

the pedal creates an impressionistic atmosphere, along with the pianissimo dynamic.

EXAMPLE 4.27: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 89-108

4.2.5 Other Uses of Pedal

In the first bagatelle, Tcherepnin’s indication for measure 7 (EXAMPLE 4.28) is one

long pedal until the last note. However, in his own recording from 1968, he did not use any pedal

for this measure. Therefore, both ways are justified for the performer to follow. In the case of

using the pedal as indicated on the score, the performer should be aware of the sudden dynamic

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change between the last two notes of the measure. In order to make the first pianissimo note

sound clearly, the pedal should be lifted immediately after the last octave being played, so that

the last note in the measure would not be covered by the preceding fortissimo octave.

In measures 87-88 of the third bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.28), Tcherepnin’s marking of

poco espr. can be found in the 1964 revised edition. Here, the damper pedal can be used for an

espressivo tone. The pedal can be applied to the downbeats of these two measures to create a

contrasting color to the preceding and following staccato passages.

EXAMPLE 4.28: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 84-88

The performer should pay extra attention to the three special endings with different

pedaling. The sixth, seventh, and ninth bagatelles all end with staccato notes, however the use of

pedal for these notes is different (EXAMPLE 4.29). For the sixth and the seventh bagatelle, the

release signs of the pedals are marked right below the last notes, which indicate the last note

should sound like a staccato. On the contrary, the release sign of the pedal for the last note of the

ninth bagatelle is placed after the note. This suggests that the pedal needs to be held longer than

the ending of the sixth bagatelle, and the staccato here can be treated as a light accent. These

different uses of pedals are both justified by Tcherepnin’s own recording.

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(1) No. 6, mm. 16-17

(2) No. 7, mm. 146-150

(3) No. 9, mm. 49-58

EXAMPLE 4.29: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5

4.3 Articulation and Notation

Articulation indications should be followed carefully in Tcherepnin’s work. From the

“notation and performance questionnaire” in Wuellner’s dissertation, we can find Tcherepnin’s

answers to some of his notations. The differences between the wedge and the plain dot are that

the wedge means a sharper staccato, and it should be played slightly louder than the plain dot,

and with more energy.36 Examples can be found in the eighth bagatelle, the wedge notation can

be found in measures 12-15 (EXAMPLE 4.30), underneath the first notes of each six-note group.

Differences of this articulation to the plain dots should be observed in this piece.

36 Wuellner, 139.

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EXAMPLE 4.30: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 8, mm. 13-14

In the same questionnaire, Tcherepnin emphasizes a dash over a note marking simply

indicates the tenuto articulation, therefore no tempo changes can be made for these notes.

Examples of this notation can be found in the fourth bagatelle, all the way through the melody

lines (EXAMPLE 4.31). The performer should be aware of this articulation, stress the note, and

hold it for the full length.

EXAMPLE 4.31: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 5-6

The same notation can be found in the ninth bagatelle in measures 25-31 (EXAMPLE

4.32). The combination use of two articulations here shows Tcherepnin’s intention of bringing

out the contrasts between staccato and tenuto; therefore, the performer should show these

differences carefully in the playing.

EXAMPLE 4.32: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 9, mm. 24-27

The first bagatelle includes all the notations that have been mentioned above; following

these articulations carefully can help show the character of this piece. The first four notes in

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measure 1 are marked with accents, and the rest of the notes in this measure have wedge

indications; similar writing can be found in measure 3, with notes from the latter part of the

measure marked tenuto (EXAMPLE 4.23). Although all notations contain the indication of

stressing the note, they should be articulated differently. The accented notes and the notes with

the tenuto markings should be held for the full length, but the notes with wedge markings should

only be played with half of their note value. For the A’ section of this piece, from measures 10 to

13 (EXAMPLE 4.34), the performer should be careful with changes of notations (in the 1964

revised edition) compared to the A section. Despite the similarity in notes, the articulation in the

A’ section is largely different from the beginning section. We can observe that only the

downbeats in the A’ section have accent markings, and every note in measures 10-11 is marked

with plain-dot staccatos. For measure 12, instead of tenuto for the last three notes, the last two

notes are marked staccato, and a two-note slur is added as well.

(1) No. 1, m. 1

(2) No. 1, m. 3

EXAMPLE 4.33: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5

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EXAMPLE 4.34: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 11-12

A different way of using the plain-dot staccato sign can be found in the sixth bagatelle.

The accompanimental figuration can be found throughout the piece in the left hand (EXAMPLE

4.35). The first note of every six-note group is a double-stem note, which also has a staccato

marking. Here the staccatos indicate light accents for the fundamental bass line, and both the

double stems and staccatos indicate that these notes should be stressed lightly.

EXAMPLE 4.35: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, m. 1

Besides the articulation indications on the score, we can also add some articulation to the

pieces. For example, a light accent can be added to the downbeats of measure 1 in the second

(EXAMPLE 4.36), third, and the seventh bagatelles to show the rhythmic pulse.

(1) No. 2, m. 1

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(2) No. 3, m. 1

(3) No. 7, m. 1

EXAMPLE 4.36: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5

4.4 Tone, Dynamic, and Phrasing

There are numbers of repeated phrases and sequential phrases in this set of works, and

variations in tone and dynamics will help to avoid dullness and make the performance musical.

Although different dynamic indications might not be noted on the score for certain phrases, we

can interpret them accordingly.

4.4.1 Sequential Phrases

In the second bagatelle, there are sequential passages in measures 25-28 (EXAMPLE

4.37). Having a direction for these passages is needed. Although the preceding dynamic marking

is pianissimo, the performer can make a crescendo in the beginning of measure 25 with the

ascending motion, which will take the dynamic level to mf; then this mf can give these sequential

passages room for diminuendo, until the long note in measure 29. Having a direction in these

passages can also help guiding the ear for tone production. A fuller tone should be applied to the

first sequential passage in measure 25, where it is marked diminuendo, then a more subdued tone

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should be produced for the passages from measures 27-28, where the left-hand octaves become

single notes.

EXAMPLE 4.37: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 26-28

Similar sequential passages can be found in the third bagatelle from measure 33 to

measure 58. Two kinds of dynamic directions can be applied to these passages. One is to start

from the dynamic level piano in measure 33, and gradually bring the dynamic level higher as the

passages progress until reaching the ff marking in measure 54. Another way is to start these

passages with the mf dynamic level, as the consequence of the preceding crescendo from

measure 26 to 32. Then the dynamic level should be dropped back to mp in measure 40, and

piano in measure 44 (EXAMPLE 4.38). In this way, there will be room left for one consecutive

crescendo from measure 47 to measure 54. The first interpretation can be found in Tcherepnin’s

recording, and the second one can be heard from Martha Braden’s recording. Both ways are

musical and logical to the ear.

EXAMPLE 4.38: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 36-47

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4.4.2 Repeated Phrases

Repeated phrases are widely used in this set of bagatelles. Repeating the phrases in the

exact same manner can sound dull and unmusical, especially in lyrical passages. This can be

solved with diversity in dynamics and the slight use of tempo rubato.

In his book Playing the Piano with Confidence, D’Abreu discusses that “Though it is not

always indicated, some contrast is needed when a phrase is to be repeated. Quite often the

repeating phrase can effectively be made into an echo of the first phrase. At other times, if one is

moving towards an exciting passage, agitation can be built up by increasing the intensity of each

repetition of the phrase”.37 In the fourth bagatelle, the first phrase is repeated in measures 7-10

(EXAMPLE 4.39). Diversity can be created through tone and dynamic differences. The

performer can use the left pedal in measures 3-6, and lift the pedal for measures 7-10 to create a

slightly higher dynamic level and a fuller tone for the repeated phrase.

EXAMPLE 4.39: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 1-6

For the fifth bagatelle, repeated phrases can be found throughout the piece, but the

performer can create diversity for them in different ways. The opening measures are good

examples for showing these ways (EXAMPLE 4.40). Measure 2 can be played with a slight

increase of the tone, which will lead the phrase to a higher dynamic level in measure 3, and then

37 Gerald D’Abreu, Playing the Piano with Confidence: An Analysis of Technique, Interpretation, Memory and Performance (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974), 70.

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measure 4 can be played as an echo of measure 3 to bring the dynamic level back down to

prepare for the coming poco cresc. in measure 5.

EXAMPLE 4.40: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 1-4

Besides the diversity in tone and dynamics, the slight use of tempo rubato can also be

applied to make a repeated phrase sound differently. In the sixth bagatelle, increasing dynamic

levels are written for the passages of measures 1-12; therefore, it will be difficult for the

performer to make tone and dynamic diversities for the repeating phrases. In this situation, the

performer could apply a slight tempo rubato to the repeated phrases, but it has to be done in a

way that still sounds natural to the ear, and would not disturb the flow of the phrase. For the

repeating phrase in measure 3 (EXAMPLE 4.41), one possibility of tempo rubato is to slightly

slow down the grace notes before the D-flat in the melody line.

EXAMPLE 4.41: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 6, mm. 1-3

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4.4.3 Balance

For the fourth bagatelle, balance of the three voices in the A and A’ sections is important

for making the performance musical. Independent tone control is required in each voice, as

different notations indicate (EXAMPLE 4.42). The left hand accompanimental ostinato figures

need to be subdued when the melody line comes in from measure 3. This melodic line is marked

with tenuto all the way throughout the piece, therefore a full tone should be applied to it for

emphasizing and distinguishing the tenuto markings.38 The dynamic level for this line can also

be treated one level higher than the accompaniment figures. The middle voice is deliberately

marked pp, which indicates the composer’s will of minimalizing the sound. The performer

should play this voice with a very gentle tone that sounds like a whisper.

EXAMPLE 4.42: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 4, mm. 1-3

In the fifth bagatelle, similar balance issues can be found from measure 7 to the end

(EXAMPLE 4.43). For these passages, two melodic lines can be found in both hands, one from

the top voice of the right hand, another from the top voice of the left hand (except for measure

15). These lines need to be played with a full tone, but still in a gentle enough manner that fits

the generally soft dynamic level.

38 Karl Leimer and Walter Gieseking, Piano Technique: Consisting of the Two Complete Books, the Shortest Way to Pianistic Perfection and Rhythmics, Dynamics, Pedal and Other Problems of Piano Playing (New York: Dover Publications, 1972), 111.

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EXAMPLE 4.43: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, m. 7

4.4.4 Other Dynamic Suggestions

For the ending of the first bagatelle, it is important to control the tone to fit the piano

dynamic. The performer might have a natural tendency to make a crescendo in measure 15

(EXAMPLE 4.44), as the broken chord pattern ascends, which will contradict the composer’s

intention. In order to avoid it, one can deliberately make a diminuendo for this passage, which

will help balance the overall tone.

EXAMPLE 4.44: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 15

Dynamic contrasting should be shown clearly in the middle section of the first bagatelle

and sections from the tenth bagatelle. Executing the contrasting dynamic markings in the score

with caution is necessary for creating the intended dramatic effect. From the first bagatelle, we

can observe dynamic markings of ff in measure 5, and pp in measure 7 that is written without any

diminuendo (EXAMPLE 4.45). This suggests the pp should be treated as subito pp, and the

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player should keep the passage ff until the first note with the pp marking. This pp sound should

be a surprise to the ear of the audience.

EXAMPLE 4.45: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 5-8

In the tenth bagatelle, passages with contrasting dynamics can be found in measures 17-

44 (EXAMPLE 4.46). All dynamic levels in these passages should be kept until the next one

without any crescendo or diminuendo to create the contrasting effect.

EXAMPLE 4.46: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, mm. 12-25

4.5 Other Techniques

4.5.1 Leaps

Quick changes of register can be found in this set of bagatelles, which will create the

technical challenge of leaps. This challenge can be solved by slow practicing with mental

participation and physical preparation. The ending of the first bagatelle has four register changes

in 3 measures (EXAMPLE 4). The left-hand leap between the last two notes in measure 15 can

be solved by taking the second to last note with the right hand, which is discussed in detail in the

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“Fingering” section of this document (EXAMPLE 4.4). The key to play these leaps with

accuracy is the awareness of the distance between each leap. The performer can use the Cs to

mentally anticipate the successions of the notes that the leaps land on. Then the distance between

these notes can be physically prepared for, by the rapid movement of the arm-hand unit. Here, a

parallel motion of both hands will be used.39

EXAMPLE 4.47: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, mm. 15-17

Similar leaps can be found in the third bagatelle from measures 21-24 (EXAMPLE 4.48),

with only one direction. In this passage, the performer can practice the leaps individually,

without the notes in between.

EXAMPLE 4.48: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 20-24

In measure 61 of the last bagatelle, a leap can be found in the right hand (EXAMPLE

4.49). The performer can practice this leap by starting with playing the chord one octave lower,

so that the issue of changing hand-position can be addressed first. After the performer gets used

to the position change, mentally anticipating the chord with one octave higher will help solve the

challenge.

39 D’Abreu, 49-52.

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EXAMPLE 4.49: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 10, mm. 58-61

Another challenge that can be found with the change of registers is hand crossing. In

measures 2-3 of the sixth bagatelle and measures 16-20 of the eighth bagatelle (EXAMPLE

4.50), a right-hand crossover is required for these passages. For the passage from the sixth

bagatelle, it is important to keep a smooth melodic line, and the hand crossing should not cause

any accents or sudden changes of the tone. The performer should practice conveying the same

amount of arm weight through the hand crossing. The crossing should be made in time but still

gracefully. On the contrary, for the passage in the eighth bagatelle, the performer should make

the crossing as fast as possible, and the elbow should be flexible and alert for the sudden change

of register.

(1) No. 6, mm. 2-3

(2) No. 8, mm. 17-18

EXAMPLE 4.50: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5

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4.5.2 Repeated Notes

Three types of repeated-note patterns can be found in this set of bagatelles. Each one

poses a different technical challenge. The first type is repeating one individual note, which can

be found in the end of the third bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.51). Here, the ppp makes it extra

difficult to sound, and to be played evenly. The solution is to put a slight accent on the downbeat

of measure 89, which will not only make the rhythmic pulse sound clearly, but help the

performer mentally divide the notes into two groups, and solve the issue of unevenness. The

second type has the notes repeated successively from one hand to another. This can be found in

measure 9 of the first bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.52). Here the pattern requires the right-hand

playing extra-staccato in order to make the left-hand notes sound clearly. Movements should be

limited to finger tips because of the close hand position. The third type of repeated-note pattern

is double-notes. This pattern can be found in measures 17-31 and 122-124 of the seventh

bagatelle (EXAMPLE 4.53). It is difficult to make the repeated notes sound clearly in the rapid

tempo. Therefore, the performer can practice the repeated notes separately, without the single

note in between, with a dotted rhythm (the first note longer and the repeated note shorter). Extra

effort should be made for the repeated note to be played extra staccato and sound clearly.

EXAMPLE 4.51: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 84-89

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EXAMPLE 4.52: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 1, m. 9

EXAMPLE 4.53: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 7, mm. 120-122

4.5.3 Large Chords

Passages with chords that expand to a tenth can be found in the second and fifth

bagatelles. These chords can create trouble for performers with smaller hands. According to

Tcherepnin’s recording and Wuellner’s dissertation on Tcherepnin, the chords should not be

altered because “the sounds, as written, are absolutely essential”.40 The performer who cannot

reach the large chords can either break/roll the chords or, if possible, redistribute the parts

between hands. The latter solution is discussed in detail in the “fingering” section of this

document. The following suggestions are taken from Tcherepnin’s own recording of this set of

pieces in 1968. Although he had big hands that can easily reach a tenth, interestingly, we can

hear broken and rolled chords, that are not indicated in the score, from this recording. The

middle section of the second bagatelle has large chords throughout. Tcherepnin rolls the left

hand before the beat (EXAMPLE 5.54) in measures 30 and 31 (the last chords), and measures 32

40 Wuellner, 128.

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and 36 (the second and the last chords). All of these chords are rolled from the bass upwards; this

suggests that other large chords can be rolled in the same matter for the performer with smaller

hands.

EXAMPLE 4.54: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 2, mm. 29-32

In the fifth bagatelle, broken and rolled chords can be heard from measures 7-10

(EXAMPLE 4.55). Rolls from the bass upwards can be heard from the last two chords of

measures 7 and 8, the first chord in the right hand and the second and third chords in the left

hand of measure 9, and the first left-hand chord in measure 10. The first two chords in measures

7-8 are played as 1+2 (individual bottom notes and harmonic fifths), with matching left and right

hands.

EXAMPLE 4.55: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 5, mm. 7-10

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4.5.4 Appoggiatura (Grace Notes Notated as )

From Wuellner’s questionnaire with Tcherepnin, we know that “all appoggiaturas (grace

notes notated as ) are to be played before the beat so that the main or large note comes on the

beat.”41 One technical challenge can be found in measures 75 and 77 of the third bagatelle with

appoggiaturas (EXAMPLE 4.56). In a rapid tempo, the performer might play the appoggiatura

on the beat, which will make the dotted rhythm sound even. In order to solve this issue, the

performer can firstly practice these measures without the appoggiaturas to get the sense of dotted

rhythm. After that, the appoggiaturas can be added to the sixteenth notes and be played at the

same time. Then the performer can separate the appoggiaturas from the sixteenth notes but keep

the same rhythm.

EXAMPLE 4.56: Tcherepnin: Bagatelles, Op. 5, No. 3, mm. 72-77

41 Wuellner, 135.

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

This pedagogical analysis provides a teaching guide for teachers who would like to use

selected pieces from Alexander Tcherepnin’s Bagatelles, Op. 5 as an introduction to

contemporary characteristics in twentieth-century piano music for their late-intermediate

students. Tcherepnin’s use of contemporary harmony, such as interval of seconds, non-tertian

chords, special use of the seventh chords, and ninth chords; contemporary rhythm and meter,

including shifted accents, asymmetric meter, meter change, and ostinato; modal melodic

resources and tonalities; and other special tonalities are discussed and demonstrated with musical

examples. Learning these concepts through these pieces will prepare the student for learning

more advanced level twentieth-century repertoire. Suggestions on fingering, pedaling,

articulation, tone, dynamics and phrasing, and practicing procedures for individual technical

difficulties can be used as references.

In order to help the student with the transition from eighteenth- and nineteenth-century

repertoire to twentieth-century repertoire, teachers can also discuss the development of piano

music composition by comparing these bagatelles to the repertoires that are known to the

student.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arias, Enrique Alberto. Alexander Tcherepnin: A Bio-Bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

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