A Guide to Waste Water Treatment

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Transcript of A Guide to Waste Water Treatment

i Case studies Included iiCONTENTS SECTION PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 01.1 Wastewater sources, composition and flow rate estimation ................................................................. 11.1.1 Domestic wastewater ........................................................................................................ 11.1.2 Industrial Wastewater ....................................................................................................... 21.2 Water Quality Standard-Measures of Water Quality- When is water contaminated ............................ 31.2.1 Dissolved oxygen .............................................................................................................. 31.2.2 Biochemical oxygen demand ............................................................................................ 41.2.3 Solids ................................................................................................................................. 5FIGURE1 CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS (BASED ON FILTRATION) (VESILIND & ROOKE, 2003) ............................................................................................. 51.2.4 Nitrogen ............................................................................................................................. 51.2.5 Phosphorous ...................................................................................................................... 61.2.6 Bacteriological measurements .......................................................................................... 61.3 Wastewater characteristics .................................................................................................................... 71.3.1 Physical characteristics of wastewater ............................................................................. 81.3.2 Chemical wastewater characteristics ................................................................................ 91.3.3 Biological Characteristics of Wastewaters ..................................................................... 111.4 Effects of Untreated liquid effluents ................................................................................................... 121.4.1 Health effects .................................................................................................................. 121.4.2 Increase in the B.O.D. & C.O.D. content of water bodies ............................................. 131.4.3 Increase in nutrient content ............................................................................................. 131.4.4 Increase of soil deposition .............................................................................................. 141.4.5 Effects of odours ............................................................................................................. 141.4.6 Effects of Increased Temperatures ................................................................................. 141.5 Wastewater collection systems ........................................................................................................... 151.5.1 Sanitary sewer systems ................................................................................................... 161.5.2 Storm sewer systems ....................................................................................................... 161.5.3 Combined sewer systems ................................................................................................ 171.5.4 Collection System Components...................................................................................... 17FIGURE2 (A) JUNCTION BOXES (B) INTERCEPTOR PIPES (DRINAN & WHITING, 2001) ................................................................................................................. 18 iii2 WASTE WATER TREATMENT METHODS ........................................................ 18FIGURE3 TYPICAL STAGES IN THE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT OF SEWAGE 19FIGURE4 .............................................................................................................................. 20constituent .................................................................................................................................................... 20Unit operation or process ............................................................................................................................. 20Suspended Solids ......................................................................................................................................... 203 INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT METHODS .............................. 223.1 Physical/chemical treatment methods ................................................................................................. 233.1.1 Screening ......................................................................................................................... 23FIGURE5 INCLINED BAR SCREEN ........................................................................... 24FIGURE6 CURVED BAR SCREEN .............................................................................. 25FIGURE7 RADIAL BAR SCREEN ............................................................................... 25FIGURE8 STEP TYPE SCREEN ................................................................................... 25FIGURE9 BRUSH TYPE SCREEN ............................................................................... 263.1.2 Sedimentation.................................................................................................................. 26FIGURE10 CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR SETTLING TANKS .................. 26FIGURE11 PRIMARY CLARIFIER ELEVATION VIEW ...................................... 27FIGURE12 PRIMARY CLARIFIER PLAN VIEW ................................................... 27FIGURE13 SUCTION TUBE CLARIFIER ELEVATION ....................................... 27FIGURE14 PICKET FENCE SLUDGE THICKENER ............................................. 283.1.3 Flotation and Skimming ................................................................................................. 28FIGURE15 ............................................................................................................................ 293.2 Chemical treatment methods ............................................................................................................... 293.2.1 Chlorination .................................................................................................................... 30FIGURE16 CHLORINATOR ....................................................................................... 303.2.2 Ozonation ........................................................................................................................ 31FIGURE17 OZONE WATER TREATED AREA ...................................................... 31 ivFIGURE18 OZONATOR .............................................................................................. 323.3 Biological treatment methods ............................................................................................................. 323.3.1 Activated-sludge Process ................................................................................................ 34FIGURE19 AN AERATION BASIN (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006) ...... 35FIGURE20 DENITRIFICATION SYSTEMS: (A) SINGLE-SLUDGE SYSTEM. (B) MULTISLUDGE SYSTEM (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006). ................... 36FIGURE21 DENITRIFICATION SYSTEM: BARDENPHO PROCESS (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006). ............................................................................................ 373.3.2 Trickling Filters .............................................................................................................. 38FIGURE22 (A) A UNIT OF PLASTIC MATERIAL USED TO CREATE A BIOFILTER. THE DIAMETER OF EACH HOLE IS APPROXIMATELY 5 CM. (B) A TRICKLING BIOFILTER OR BIOTOWER. THIS IS COMPOSED OF MANY PLASTIC UNITS STACKED UPON EACH OTHER. DIMENSIONS OF THE BIOFILTER MAY BE 20 M DIAMETER BY 1030 M DEPTH (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006).................................................................................................................. 393.3.3 Oxidation Ponds .............................................................................................................. 40FIGURE23 AN OXIDATION POND. TYPICALLY THESE ARE ONLY 12 METERS DEEP AND SMALL IN AREA. ....................................................................... 403.3.4 Aerobic ponds ................................................................................................................. 40FIGURE24 AEROBIC WASTE POND PROFILE (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006).................................................................................................................. 413.3.5 Anaerobic ponds ............................................................................................................. 41FIGURE25 ANAEROBIC WASTE POND PROFILE (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006).................................................................................................................. 413.3.6 Facultative ponds ............................................................................................................ 41FIGURE26 MICROBIOLOGY OF FACULTATIVE POND (PEPPER, GERBA, & RUSSEAU, 2006).................................................................................................................. 423.3.7 Aerated lagoons or ponds ............................................................................................... 424 INTRODUCTION ............................