Water Waste Water Treatment

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Technical data

Wastewater treatment plant

Rainwater harvesting systems

Water storage

Balmoral Tanks

Wastewater treatment plant

Balmoral rainwater harvesting systemsHome-HarvestTM rainwater system Garden-HarvestTM rainwater system

Septic tanks Balmoral Continuous Aeration Plant (CAP) Balmoral HydroClearTM Balmoral Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)

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Water storage

Above ground water storage Underground water storage Balmoral Hydrostack emergency water storage

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Balmoral Tanks LtdBalmoral Group


Balmoral Park, Loirston, Aberdeen AB12 3GY, Scotland Email tanks@balmoral.co.uk www.balmoraltanks.com2009 Balmoral Tanks. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owners. Balmoral Tanks believe that the information printed in this brochure is accurate, and published for information only. No warrants, express or implied, are contained therein, nor does any legal liability attach to Balmoral Tanks for any reason whatsoever. The companys policy is one of continuous product improvement and we reserve the right to make alterations to our range and specification without prior notice.


Tel +44 (0)1224 859000 Fax +44 (0)1224 859123

Wastewater treatment plant


Reference should be made to the following guidance notes Environment Agency Pollution Prevention Guidelines PPG4 British Standards 6297 European Standards BSEN12566 Building Control Regulations 2000 Part H Drainage and Waste Disposal, 2002 edition British Water Flows and Loads - 2


Mains and off-mains drainage

The majority of houses in the UK are linked to the public sewerage system; you pull the plug, flush the toilet, pay the monthly bill and have little more to worry about. This is mains drainage.

In rural areas many homes and villages are self-contained, ie, the wastewater flows to a cesspool, septic tank or treatment plant. This has no connection to the public sewerage system and is known as off-mains.

Choosing the right sewage treatment and disposal method for your site is essential to ensure value for money, effective longterm performance, protection of public health and the environment, and compliance with relevant legislation*

If you seek a solution to your off-mains wastewater disposal, one of the three following options will be required: Q Septic tank Q Package wastewater treatment plant Q Cesspool

If youre off-mains what are your options?

Septic tank

The solids that gather at the bottom of the tank must be emptied regularly to prevent overflow and potential soakaway damage. Package wastewater treatment plant So-called because these products bring together all the requirements to treat wastewater to a high standard within a single pre-fabricated system. Generally consisting of a two or three chamber treatment process, effluent is treated aerobically, ie, using oxygen, to such a standard that it is usually acceptable to discharge directly into watercourse.

Septic tank Solids and liquids separate in a septic tank with the liquids receiving minimum biological treatment. The liquid in the centre of the tank is discharged via an outlet before passing through a soakaway system which must be installed to national standards.

Package wastewater treatment plant

Package treatment plants require an electrical connection and should be emptied regularly dependent on usage and capacity.

Cesspool * Source: EA PPG4

Unless there is absolutely no other solution - where the ground conditions prevent the installation of a soakaway system or there is no natural watercourse to discharge to for example cesspools are not a favoured choice, either of the property owner or the environmental agencies.

Cesspool This is a single watertight underground chamber which simply stores raw sewage for collection. Usually constructed in GRP, concrete or brick these can be very large and must be emptied regularly to avoid overflowing.


This will normally include geographic research in terms of water table height, a site visit and a percolation test. Combined, these factors will determine the type of system that best meets your criteria.

As the final effluent will be discharged into the ground via a soakaway, raised mound, reed bed or watercourse, a full assessment should be undertaken by a qualified engineer.

Now that you have identified the requirement for a wastewater treatment system, how do you know which one is correct for your property?

Which one is for you?

Contact local Building Control (BC) office and environmental regulator for selection of discharge type1

Perform site assessment for gravity or pumped discharge to public sewer point

Site unsuitable for soakaway

Pollution of the environment is a criminal offence and compliance with one or more Guidance Note is not a defence to such offences. It is recommended that you check the references to other sources of guidance to ensure they are still current*

Public Sewer discharge

Soakaway discharge

Surface/open water discharge

Confirm acceptance to adopt discharge with local water company provider

Discuss BC approval for septic tank2 discharge through soakaway system (subject to site assessment)

Obtain approval from environmental regulator for discharge authorisation Consent Licence Registration (CLR)

Perform site assessment for soakaway suitability, including percolation test

Perform site assessment and using CLR, select Balmoral Hydroclear, CAP or SBR to suit effluent quality and population requirement

Submit plans with details of proposed system to BC for final approval

Size system for population requirement and submit plans to BC for final approval

Submit plans with details of proposed system to BC for final approval

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Balmoral Tanks Sales will be able to offer further independent advice where multiple options exist In some circumstances a Package Treatment Plant may be required - select Balmoral Hydroclear, CAP or SBR

Your agency will be happy to advise you on the level of effluent treatment required in the area and this information will help you determine which type of wastewater treatment plant should be installed. You will then be required to complete and submit a Consent to Discharge application form including a fee to the appropriate agency. Consent to discharge criteria is normally expressed in permitted milligrams per litre for the following factors: Q Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Q Suspended Solids (SS) Q Ammonia (NH3)* Source: EA PPG4

Where effluent will be discharged to a watercourse and depending on the volume, consent must be granted by your local environment agency before you begin your installation. If you do not obtain such a licence you may be liable to prosecution.

Consent to discharge


Quite often, in new build situations particularly, this approval will form part of the overall permission but be sure to have this clarified in every case.

You should contact your local authority to determine whether or not planning permission is required before you begin the project.

Will you need planning permission?


It is recommended that wastewater treatment plants shouldnt be sited any nearer than 25m from an inhabitated building although some local authorities may allow installation considerably closer. For single house installations 15m is generally considered as a reasonable distance though agreement should always be sought from your local authority before installation.

Access should be maintained for the desludging tanker, these can normally achieve a reach of approximately 20m. The installation must be carried out by suitably qualified personnel and special care is required when installing in adverse conditions such rocky substrata or where the water table runs high, for example.

The plant should not be installed close to a driveway or road or indeed anywhere else where there is a risk of it being subjected to additional superimposed loadings.

Any proposals for non-mains sewerage systems must take account of the requirements of Building Regulations and should be discussed with the local planning authority at an early stage and well before any planning application is made*

Sewage treatment is an ongoing process and the micro-organisms must stay healthy for the system to work. You should desludge the system regularly to prevent the build up of sludge and solids so that sewage flows freely through the unit*

Commissioning, maintenance and after sales support

We would always recommend that your wastewater treatment plant is commissioned, ie, installation check and initial activation, by a Balmoral approved engineer. We would also recommend that you undertake an annual maintenance programme to ensure your plant continues to operate at its full potential. We will be very happy to help you initiate this, if requested, when your plant is commissioned. In any case, you should inspect your wastewater plant monthly to ensure the effluent is flowing freely. Desludging intervals are dependent upon the tanks capacity and further information on this is provided in the productspecific sections. Our after sales support team is always available either b