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A Time to Review # 3CIVIL WAR and GROWTH

The Civil War, 1861 – 1865

Fort Sumter, 1861: The American Civil War became on April 12,

1861 when the Confederate States of America attacked the federal fort, Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina

After two days of shelling, the garrison surrendered and was allowed to leave

War had begun

The Union v. the Confederacy: The North or the Union

- President Abraham Lincoln wanted to preserve the Union

- Union soldiers wore blue uniforms The South or the Confederacy

- President Jefferson Davis- Confederate soldiers wore gray uniforms- The Army of Northern Virginia was led by

Robert E. Lee Northern Advantages

- The North had a larger population- The North had a stronger navy- The North had greater farm acreage- The North had more bank deposits- The North had superior industry and a

greater amount of railroad tack

The Anaconda Plan: The South needed to export cotton to trade with

Europe The North placed its navy around Southern ports

and enforced a blockade of all Southern goods coming in and out of the Confederacy

The idea was to strangle the South like an anaconda (snake)

“This is essentially a People’s contest. On the side of the Union, it is a struggle for maintaining in the world, that form, and substance of government, whose leading object is, to elevate the condition of men -- to lift artificial weights from all shoulders -- to clear the paths of laudable pursuit for all -- to afford all, an unfettered start, and a fair chance, in the race of life.” ~ Abraham Lincoln

1. Which argument did President Abraham Lincoln use against the secession of the Southern States?

A. Slavery was not profitable B. The government was a union of people and not of states. C. The Southern States did not permit their people to vote on

secession. D. As the Commander in Chief, he had the duty to defend the

United States against foreign invasion.

2. Which statement best explains President Abraham Lincoln’s justification for the Civil War?

A. As an abolitionist, President Lincoln wanted to end slavery in the United States.

B. President Lincoln wanted to keep the South economically dependent on the industrial North.

C. President Lincoln’s oath of office required him to defend and preserve the Union.

D. To keep the support of Great Britain and France, President Lincoln had to try to end slavery immediately.

3. Which phrase best completes the title for the partial outline shown below?

I. Reasons for the ________________o Increasing sectionalism o Disagreements over states’ rights issues o Breakdown of compromise D. Election of 1860

A. Start of the Revolutionary War B. Adoption of the Bill of Rights C. Failure of the Whiskey Rebellion D. Secession of Southern States from the Union

“A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.” -Abraham Lincoln, 1858

4.According to this quotation, Abraham Lincoln believed that A. slavery was immoral and should be abolished

immediately B. sectional differences threatened to destroy the Union C. the Southern states should be allowed to secede D. to save the nation, the North should compromise with the

South on slavery

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Major Civil War Battles: Bull Run/Manassas Junction 1861

- Manassas Junction was the Confederate name for the battle

- First major battle- The Union lost

Antietam/Sharpsburg 1862- Bloodiest single day with over 23,000 casualties- No one won but the Union claimed victory

Battle of Gettysburg 1863- General Robert E. Lee and the Confederacy went as

far north as Pennsylvania- The Union won- It was a turning point of the Civil War- George Pickett of the Confederacy led a losing charge across an open field- There were more casualties in the three days at Gettysburg than any other Civil War battle- In November of 1863, Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address

The Emancipation Proclamation: One of the most important events of the Civil War was the issuance of the

Emancipation Proclamation (1862) Lincoln announced that all slaves in states still in rebellion on January 1,

1863 would be freed The Proclamation gave a moral purpose to the war It also kept Britain out of the war

- Britain had strong ties to the South because of the cotton trade- However, now Britain could not support the Confederacy, as the

British had abolished slavery decades earlier However, it soon became unclear whether Lincoln had the constitutional

power to free the slaves Congress proposed the Thirteenth Amendment

- When it was ratified in 1865, it abolished slavery throughout the United States.

The 54 th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry : The first official African American regiment recognized by the Union Army In the Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1, 1863, President Lincoln announced that black

men would be accepted into the U.S. Army and Navy Of the estimated 2 million people who fought on the Union side, some 180,000 black soldiers and sailors

fought for the Union and for freedom during the Civil War

The Copperheads:

“This 1861 cartoon propaganda map published in Cincinnati depicts Union general-in-chief Winfield Scott’s (1786–1866) plan to crush the South both economically and militarily. Scott’s plan called for a strong blockade of the Southern ports and a major offensive down the Mississippi River to divide the Confederacy and cut off supplies and assistance to its heartland. The press ridiculed Scott’s strategy as the “Anaconda Plan,” after the snake that kills by constriction, but it had its supporters. This general strategy contributed greatly to the eventual Northern victory.” ~ loc.gov

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure…” Lincoln

5. In the 1850s, why did many runaway slaves go to Canada?A. They feared being drafted

into the Northern army. B. The Fugitive Slave Act kept

them at risk in the United States.

C. More factory jobs were available in Canada.

D. Northern abolitionists refused to help fugitive slaves.

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Peace Democrats in the North and Midwest Pro-Union but against the Civil War Wore pennies on their lapels in Congress Were compared to the poisonous snake by their opponents Clement Vallandigham was a leader Abraham Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and had him deported during the war A president can suspend habeas corpus during war It is important to remember that habeas corpus means a person must be brought to the judge or court and

be charged with a crime

The New York City Draft Riots: The Enrollment Act of 1863 meant that for the first time in history, the United States could draft troops New York City was a Democratic stronghold and there was opposition to the draft- The draft law favored the rich; a person could pay $300 or find a substitute to get out of the draft…“A

rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”- There was racial conflict between the Irish and African Americans in New York City as they often

competed for the same jobs and housing- There was anti-war and anti-Republican sentiment in Democratic New York City- The riot erupted in July 1863 and led to violence against poor and affluent African Americans,

Republican supporters, and rich whites

A Bit More on Civil War Battles: At the Battle of Shiloh (1862), the Union won on the second day under the leadership of General Ulysses S.

Grant At the Battle of New Orleans (1862), Admiral David Farragut won an important naval battle for the Union At the Siege of Vicksburg (1863), the Union won and divided the Confederacy in half by controlling the

Mississippi River Between 1864 and 1865, Union General Grant chased Confederate General Lee through Virginia, fighting

at the Battle of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Courthouse and Petersburg Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865

Some Southern States that Did Not Join the Confederacy: Several states that had been considered Southern did not secede Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware remained in the Union What is now West Virginia broke off from the state of Virginia during the war to form a new state

The Impact of the Civil War: The Civil War was bloody – one million casualties in a

population North and South of approximately 31 million; expensive – the estimated cost of over $20 billion; and long – it lasted four arduous years

The South’s strategy was to hold on and wear the North down

The North’s strategy was to blockade the South in order to isolate it from markets and potential allies; to capture the capital of the Confederate States of America, Richmond; and to split the South into two parts along the Mississippi River and then by a thrust through Georgia to the sea to split it further into three units

The North won the Civil War The North had immense long-term advantages: a larger population, more money, more railroad lines,

greater manufacturing facilities, and superior naval power Yet despite these advantages, it took the North four years to defeat the South

Reconstruction:

“With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and his orphan - to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.” ~ Abraham Lincoln

6. What was a major result of the Civil War?A. The judiciary became the dominant branch of the

federal government.B. Congress passed an amendment to provide for the

direct election of senators.C. The power of the central government was

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Reconstruction, the name given to the process of reestablishing the Union to again include the seceded states, began during the war and lasted until 1877

The South’s infrastructure had to be rebuilt African Americans needed to be given Constitutional rights The Southern states had to be readmitted into the Union and agree to follow the Constitution

Differing Plans for Reconstruction: Presidential Reconstruction

- Lenient- Did not want to punish the South- Abraham Lincoln believed secession was

unconstitutional, and so legally, the Southern states were still in the Union

- He believed the executive branch, particularly the president, should establish the process of reconstruction and the terms should be generous

Radical Reconstruction- Harsher- Involved military troops enforcing laws in

the South- The Radical Republicans, led by Senator

Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, had been a force in Congress since before the war

- They were intolerant of slavery, strong abolitionists, and prepared to make the South “pay” for the war

The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln and Conflict over Reconstruction:- John Wilkes Booth assassinated Abraham Lincoln

on April 14, 1865- Lincoln was shot at Ford’s Theater - After shooting Lincoln, Booth leaped to the stage

and broke his leg yet he managed to escape- Andrew Johnson became President when Lincoln

died the next day- Both Lincoln and Johnson wanted lenient

Reconstruction that would peacefully bring Southern states back into the union

- The Radical Republican Congress wanted harsh Reconstruction that punished the South and gave immediate constitutional rights to the newly freed slaves

The Ten Percent Plan or the Wade Davis Bill: In December President Lincoln proposed a reconstruction program that would allow Confederate states to

establish new state governments after 10 percent of their male population took loyalty oaths and the states recognized the “permanent freedom of slaves.”

Several congressional Republicans thought Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan was too mild A more stringent plan was proposed by Senator Benjamin F. Wade and Representative Henry Winter Davis in

February 1864- The Wade-Davis Bill required that 50 percent of a state’s white

males take a loyalty oath to be readmitted to the Union- In addition, states were required to give blacks the right to vote

Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill, but President Lincoln chose not to sign it, killing the bill with a pocket veto

Lincoln continued to advocate tolerance and speed in plans for the reconstruction of the Union in opposition to the Congress

After Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, however, the Congress had the upper hand in shaping Federal policy toward the defeated South

Congress imposed the harsher reconstruction requirements first advocated in the Wade-Davis BillThe Reconstruction Amendments:

The Thirteenth Amendment- Abolished slavery throughout the United States

A pocket veto is an absolute veto that cannot be overridden. The veto becomes effective when the President fails to sign a bill after Congress has adjourned and is unable to override the veto.

7. After the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, African Americans continued to experience political and economic oppression mainly becauseA. the amendments were not intended to

solve their problems B. many African Americans distrusted the

6. What was a major result of the Civil War?A. The judiciary became the dominant branch of the

federal government.B. Congress passed an amendment to provide for the

direct election of senators.C. The power of the central government was

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- “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction” The Fourteenth Amendment

- Equal Rights for Citizens- “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the

United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” The Fifteenth Amendment

- Universal Male Suffrage (voting rights for male citizens)- “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any

state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

The Freedmen’s Bureau: Established in 1865 Looked to adjust newly-freed African Americans to

Southern society The organization aimed to help with housing, education,

food, healthcare, and jobs President Johnson later vetoed a bill in 1866 that would

have increased the Bureau’s power

Black Codes: Southern states passed Black Codes to preserve traditional

Southern lifestyles despite the ban on slavery Black Codes made it illegal for freedmen to hold public office,

travel freely or serve on juries Black Codes denied freed African Americans their

Constitutional rights such as the freedom of speech and the right to serve on juries

Southern whites feared that if freed African Americans had rights, they would feel empowered to dismantle the Southern plantation system

Radical Republicans looked to end these unfair codes

Reconstruction Acts of 1867: Passed over President Andrew Johnson’s veto Divided the South into five districts occupied by Union

troops Forced all former Confederate states to ratify the

Fourteenth Amendment Made the former Confederate states create new state

constitutions which would ensure voting rights of former slaves and the federal government would have to approve the new state constitutions

Southern states had to obey these acts to be readmitted to the Union

Carpetbaggers and Scalawags: Carpetbaggers were Northerners who went South to profit

from Reconstruction- A carpetbagger was a label for a Northerner who went to the

South for political and/or economic gain during Reconstruction- Carpetbaggers were resented by Southerners- Northern travelers to the South often carried carpet bags or

luxury bags

 General William T. Sherman issued a special field order that would have provided each African American family 40 acres of land and an army mule to work the land. But President Johnson overturned the order.

8. Poll taxes and grandfather clauses were devices used toA. deny African Americans the right to

vote B. extend suffrage to women and 18-

year-old citizens C. raise money for political campaignsD. prevent immigrants from becoming

citizens

7. After the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, African Americans continued to experience political and economic oppression mainly becauseA. the amendments were not intended to

solve their problems B. many African Americans distrusted the

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Scalawags were Southern whites who collaborated with northern Republicans during Reconstruction and freedmen

- A scalawag was a Southerner loyal to the Republican Party- A scalawag often worked alongside carpetbaggers and newly-freed blacks to create new state constitutions- There were more scalawags than carpetbaggers- It is also important to remember that traditionally Southerners were Democrats

Ku Klux Klan: The Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1865 in Pulaski,

Tennessee It was established as a direct response to the

South’s defeat in the Civil War As a secret terrorist group, the Klan targeted black

freedmen and their allies It sought to restore white supremacy by threats

and violence, including beatings, lynching, and murder

African Americans lived in fear of groups like the Klan who exerted a reign of terror across the South where their crimes were rarely prosecuted

The organization disbanded after the Enforcement Act (1870) and the Ku Klux Act (1871)

The Klan would make a comeback in the 1920s The new KKK’s rapid growth was based not only

on the idea of white supremacy, but also on anti-immigration, anti-Catholicism, Prohibition, and anti-Semitism

The KKK reached its peak nationwide in the 1920s

The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson: The Radical Republicans dislike Johnson, the Democratic President When Johnson fired the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, he violated the Tenure of Office Act (the

President was supposed to consult with Congress first) The House of Representatives impeached Johnson (brought him up on charges) However, the Senate found him not guilty by one vote He was never removed from office

Lincoln’s Plan Congressional Plan Johnson’s Plan1- A moderate approach to

Reconstruction; based on the belief that the war was a rebellion of individual citizens and that, since secession was not constitutionally permissible, the South had never legally left the Union

2- Reconstruction should be lenient and carried out by the President

3- All Southerners, except high-

1- The “Radical” Republicans in Congress did not agree with Lincoln’s plan

2- They looked beyond emancipation to the problem of civil liberties of African Americans and felt that Congress should play a greater role in the assurance of liberties

3- Required that 50% of the

1- In May 1865, after Lincoln’s assassination on April 14, 1865, Johnson issued his plan of Reconstruction

2- A general pardon of all Southerners willing to take an oath upholding the Constitution, except military leaders and those whose wealth exceeded $20,000

3- Recognition of the governments of Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas,

Only two Presidents have ever been impeached: Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton. Yet neither was convicted or removed from office.

“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. . . .”— 15th Amendment, Section 1, United States Constitution, 1870

9. Which actions did Southern States take to keep African Americans from exercising the rights guaranteed in this amendment?A. suspending habeas corpus and denying women

the right to voteB. collecting poll taxes and requiring literacy testsC. establishing religious and property-holding

requirements for votingD. passing Black laws and establishing segregated

schools

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ranking Confederate officials, would be pardoned and regain citizenship when they took an oath to support the Constitution and the emancipation of slaves

4- When 10% of the voters in a state took this oath, they could establish a legal government that would be recognized by the President

~ Adapted from U.S. History and Government

voters take the loyalty oath rather than 10%

4- Confederate officials be disenfranchised

5- Confederate debts be repudiated

6- Lincoln killed this Wade-Davis bill with a pocket veto because it would have postponed the readmittance of the Southern States

and Louisiana, which had been established under Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan

4- The remaining Southern states could reenter the Union whey they repudiated war debts (bonds sold by the Confederate government to individuals to finance the war, disavowed their ordinance of secession, and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, thereby abolishing slavery

The End of Reconstruction: In 1877, Reconstruction officially ended when

the last remaining Northern troops were withdrawn from the South

Home rule was restored to Southern state governments

Former Confederate leaders could now serve in office

State legislatures quickly moved to bar African Americans from the political process

How Reconstruction Ended- Samuel J. Tilden (Democrat) was leading

Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) in both the popular and Electoral vote

- But twenty electoral votes were disputed- A Electoral Commission had to decide who would

receive the votes- A compromise was reached in 1877

The Republicans received all of the Electoral Votes, which gave Hayes the Presidential Election

Union troops were removed from the South, thus ending Reconstruction

The Solid South: For over a century after Reconstruction,

every Southern State would vote Democratic in Presidential Elections

Thus, the South during this period was called the Solid South

The Sharecropping System: Without slave labor, the old plantation

system could not be restored Many plantation owners entered into share-cropping

arrangements with their former slaves- A sharecropper was a tenant farmer who was provided with

credit for seed, tools, living quarters, and food and who worked the land and received an agreed share of the value of the crop minus charges

- The charges were usually exceptionally high and thus, the sharecropper lived in a state of permanent debt and poverty

10. In the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction, Republicans agreed toA. withdraw federal troops from the SouthB. support the Black CodesC. award the presidency to Democrat Samuel TildenD. accept the Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v.

Sanford

11. The Radical Republicans in Congress opposed President Abraham Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction because LincolnA. called for the imprisonment of most Confederate

leadersB. rejected the idea of harsh punishments for the SouthC. planned to keep Northern troops in the South after

the warD. demanded immediate civil and political rights for

formerly enslaved persons

12. The Reconstruction plans of President Abraham Lincoln and President Andrew Johnson included a provision for theA. resumption of full participation in Congress by

Southern StatesB. long-term military occupation of the ConfederacyC. payment of war reparations by Southern StatesD. harsh punishment of former Confederate

13. In the ten years following the Civil War, a large numbers of former slaves earned a living by becomingA. conductors on the Underground

RailroadB. workers in Northern factoriesC. sharecroppers on Southern farmsD. gold miners in California

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- Sharecropping meant farming for only a share of harvested crops, with much of the profit going to the landlord for rent

- In such a “crop-lien” system, the landlord also provided supplies but had a lien on the crops yet to be grown

- Because of this, sharecroppers experienced “debt peonage,” or poverty

- This practice continued into the twentieth century

Jim Crow Laws: Racial segregation laws in the South after Reconstruction Created separate bathrooms, schools, and water fountains Jim Crow laws deprived African Americans of their legal

rights in the South

Preventing African Americans from Voting in the South: To deny African American males the right to vote granted by the Fifteenth Amendment, Southerners used poll

taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses- A poll tax is a tax on voting.- The Twenty-Fourth Amendment outlawed this practice in 1964- A literacy test is a test given to determine if a person can vote- Literacy tests were very difficult exams for anyone to pass but whites did not have to take the tests because of

grandfather clauses- A grandfather clause stated that a person could vote if his grandfather voted in the Election of 1860- Of course, 1860 was before the Thirteenth Amendment, the amendment that abolished slavery- Slaves could not vote in 1860- Therefore, grandfather clauses allowed whites to vote but not African Americans

Plessy v. Ferguson: In 1896, the Supreme Court upheld racial segregation in Plessy v. Ferguson The Court upheld a Louisiana law segregating railroad facilities The court held that if facilities were separate but equal, the African-American

was not deprived of equal protection of the law under the Fourteenth Amendment

Separate was not unequal according to the 1896 Court This concept of “separate but equal” remained the “law of the land” until

reversed by the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954

A lien is a right to keep possession of property belonging to another person until a debt owed by that person is discharged. Sharecroppers had to borrow from landlords for seeds, tools, living quarters and food. They were always in debt.

Freedom without forty acres and a mule often meant debt peonage or holding a person in servitude until the debt was paid back.

Separate facilities in the South were never equal. Jim Crow laws deprived African Americans of their rights.

The Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that segregation was legal if the facilities were “separate but equal.” Later, the Court reversed this decision.

14. “Although important strides were made, Reconstruction failed to provide lasting guarantees of the civil rights of the freedmen.” Which evidence best supports this statementA. passage of Jim Crow laws in the latter

part of the 19th century B. ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th

amendments C. refusal of Southern States to allow

sharecroppingD. passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1866

15. The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) affected African Americans byA. granting voting rightsB. expanding civil rightsC. upholding racial

segregationD. guaranteeing equal

wages

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Booker T. Washington W.E.B. DuBois1- Booker T. Washington was born into slavery in

1856.2- In 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Institute in

Alabama.3- In 19011, he wrote Up From Slavery, an

autobiography.4- Washington believed that African Americans

should first concentrate their efforts on trying to achieve economic independence before seeking full social equality.

5- He believed economic prosperity could best be achieved by vocational training and practical, job-related education.

6- He wanted young African Americans to develop skills and attitudes that would help them to survive in an environment of increasing violence and discrimination.

1- W.E.B. DuBois was the first African American to obtain a Ph.D. from Harvard University and became a notable historian and writer.

2- Unlike Booker T. Washington, DuBois urged the next generation of African Americans to move in a new direction.

3- DuBois believed African Americans should agitate for full social and political equality immediately and not rest content with an inferior social and economic status.

4- In his writings, DuBois encouraged African Americans not to define themselves as whites saw them, but to take pride in their dual heritages – as both Africans and Americans.

5- In 1909, he helped form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.) – to win rights through the courts.

The Gilded Age: 1870 – 1890 - Mark Twain coined the term, “Gilded Age: to

describe this period- Gilded meant that it appeared to be golden on

the outside but that it was not truly golden

“I sit with Shakespeare, and he winces not. Across the color line I move arm and arm with Balzac and Dumas, where smiling men and welcoming women glide in gilded halls. From out of the caves of evening that swing between the strong-limbed Earth and the tracery of stars, I summon Aristotle and Aurelius and what soul I will, and they come all graciously with no scorn nor condescension. So, wed with Truth, I dwell above the veil. Is this the life you grudge us, O knightly America? Is this the life you long to change into the dull red hideousness of Georgia? Are you so afraid lest peering from this high Pisgah, between Philistine and Amalekite, we sight the Promised Land?” ~ W.E.B. Du Bois

“…no country can be well governed unless its citizens as a body keep religiously before their minds that they are the guardians of the law and that the law officers are only the machinery for its execution, nothing more.” ~ Mark Twain

16. The formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) was primarily a response toa. racism and prejudiceb. nationalism and patriotismc. abolition and temperance

17. Which leader founded a vocational training institution in the late 1800s to improve economic opportunities for African Americans?

a. George Washington Carverb. Frederick Douglassc. W. E. B. Du Boisd. Booker T. Washington

18. One idea that both Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois supported is thatA. African Americans should have increased civil rightsB. vocational training was the best approach to educationC. immigration was responsible for racial segregationD. Jim Crow laws were needed to help African Americans

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- In this era, “robber barons” or powerful business owners grew rich and monopolies developed but the vast majority of Americans were laborers or workers

- Workers were exploited, often overworked and underpaid- Unions or organization of workers struggled to increase

wages and promote safer working conditions- Millions of the “new immigrants” arrived to work in

factories- As American became a more industrialized society, many

problems developed

The Industrial Revolution: The Industrial Revolution began in Great

Britain in the mid-1700s, and reached the United States in the early 1800s

New inventions [Elias Howe: sewing machine; Alexander Graham Bell: telephone; Thomas A. Edison: electric light bulb; Orville and Wilbur Wright: airplane] were created

New ideas introduced new ways of making goods and meeting people’s needs

Instead of producing goods by hand at home, people worked in factories Goods were produced faster and thus could be sold at lower prices Water power or steam engines powered the machines in factories As goods became cheaper, demand increased, creating more jobs Cities grew as people moved into them in order find work Movement to cities is called urbanization However, cities were often unprepared for so many new arrivals Unsanitary conditions often developed in these unprepared cities

Robber Barons: Ruthless tactics were used by some business owners to destroy

competition and to keep down worker’s wages Two of the most famous entrepreneurs in the Gilded Age were

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) and John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) Carnegie worked his way up from a penniless Scottish immigrant to

become one of America’s richest men His steel mills ruthlessly undercut all competition His workers put in 12-hour shifts at low wages Carnegie hired thugs to crush any worker attempts to unionize John D. Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Company in 1870 Rockefeller forced railroad companies to give him special, secret

rates for shipping his oil, while they charged his competitors higher prices

Although many considered these successful business owners captains of industry who were beneficial to the country, others called them robber barons

The Gospel of Wealth: Andrew Carnegie argued that the rich

should administer their wealth through their lifetime to benefit society

A trust is formed when one company takes over the stock of similar companies while a monopoly occurs when one seller controls the entire market for a particular product. Without competition in the market, products are often inferior in quality and higher in price. Competition is good for consumers. Monopolies are good for monopolists.

“This then is held to be the duty of the man of wealth. First: to set an example of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display; to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him, and after doing so, to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is strictly bound as a matter of duty, to administer in the manner which in his judgment is best calculated to

20. Which situation brought about the rapid growth of industry between 1865 and 1900?A. high worker morale resulting from good wages and

working conditions B. availability of investment capital C. establishment of western reservations for Native

American Indians D. decline in the number of people attending schools

21. After the Civil War, one way business leaders tried to eliminate competition was byA. forming monopolies or

trusts B. developing overseas

markets C. increasing the prices of their

products D. paying high wages to their

workers

22. In the late 1800s, the term robber baron was used to describe some owners of big businesses primarily because theyA. favored free tradeB. eliminated competition

using ruthless methodsC. opposed the formation of

corporationsD. provided workers with high

wages

19. “Prices and wages should be determined by the marketplace.” The author of this statement would most probably supportA. government ownership of utilities B. minimum-wage laws C. wage and price controls D. laissez-faire capitalism

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Andrew Carnegie did so, spending over $350,000,000 he got from the sale of Carnegie Steel to establish libraries and endow the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teaching

Following Carnegie, charitable contributions and philanthropy became the way followed by many of the great entrepreneurs of the age

Social Darwinism: Many business leaders in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

followed the tenets of Social Darwinism Social Darwinism loosely applied Charles Darwin’s Theory of

Evolution to economics Social Darwinists believed those on top in the business world were

there because they were the fittest They had survived the battle of the marketplace because they were

the best Social Darwinists believed that the state should not interfere in

economic life Any interference in the free market operation would wreck the

economy and upset its natural evolution This view of economics is referred to as laissez-faire or the

government does not intervene in the market

The Crédit Mobilier Scandal :

Occurred during the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant 1872 A Scandal where the railroad companies and construction suppliers were owned by the same people The supplier, Crédit Mobilier, charged very high or inflated prices for construction materials The government-backed Union Pacific happily paid these prices With inflated prices came bribes and kickbacks (a percentage of income given to a person in a position of

power or influence as payment for having made the income possible) to the Congressmen involved

Boss Tweed: William M. Tweed was the head of

Tammany Hall, a political machine in New York City where people voted to support the Democratic Party

Tweed and his supporters basically ran New York City as members of the Democratic Party controlled all powerful offices there

Tammany Hall also helped immigrants find jobs in exchange for votes

“This then is held to be the duty of the man of wealth. First: to set an example of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display; to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him, and after doing so, to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is strictly bound as a matter of duty, to administer in the manner which in his judgment is best calculated to

How does this cartoon reflect the ideas of Social Darwinism?

“Who stole the people’s money?”

Corruption means dishonest conduct in

government.

Corruption in government hurts

the people!

23. During the late 1800s, the idea of SocialDarwinism was used to explain the

A. development of the Granger movementB. need for settlement homesC. creation of a national parks systemD. success or failure of businesses

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This is an example of municipal (relating to a city or town or its governing body) corruption as bribery and kickbacks were common

The New York Times eventually exposed Tweed with the help of cartoonist Thomas Nast After being prosecuted, Tweed went to prison

The Pendleton Act: After President James Garfield was assassinated by an

disgruntled office-seeker, this act attempted to rid the country of the spoils system

Do you remember the spoils system? It was created during the presidency of Andrew Jackson and it rewarded political supporters with government jobs

This act provided for a civil service test to be taken by all government office-seekers

A test for government service creates a meritocracy where government service is based on ability

Industrialization and Its Impact on Workers: Industrial working conditions in the late 19th century were

often quite hazardous Safeguards around machinery were inadequate Thousands of workers were injured or killed in accidents each

year Workers faced a six-day work week of 10 to 14 hours per day Pay averaged from $3 to $12 weekly Industrial workers could be fired for any reason There was no unemployment insurance, worker’s

compensation, health insurance or old-age insurance

Unions: With the rise of big business, individual workers lost all

bargaining power with their employers Many workers realized that some form of labor

organization was needed to protect their interests They formed unions so that they could act as a group Unions organized strikes and other forms of protest to

obtain better working conditions Industrialists like Carnegie used immigrant workers or

closed down factories rather than negotiate with unions

The Knights of Labor: Founded in 1869: An industrial union led

by Terence Powderly Fought for an end to child labor, an 8-hour

workday, and equal pay for equal work African Americans and women were

allowed to join Often used strikes A strike occurs when workers refuse to

work in protest of working conditions or wages

The Knights of Labor joined together all skilled and unskilled workers

Of course, the first civil service system was created during the Han Dynasty of China.

A union is an organization of workers that promotes higher wages and safer working conditions. A worker alone has little power but workers united are more powerful. In the early days of industrialization, the government favored bosses and workers in unions were often punished by government policies.

26. Many reformers who opposed the laissez-faire attitude of the late 19th century argued thatA. the National Government should not interfere in the

activities of big business …big business B. national wealth could best be assured by the

accumulation of gold C. the idea of rugged individualism is vital to the nation’s

economic growth D. government should protect society through the

regulation of business

24. During the latter half of the 19th century, many business organizations in the United States combined into large corporations becauseA. income levels for workers would be

improved B. government intervention in economic

affairs would decline C. efficiency in production methods could

be increased D. economic possibilities outside the

United States could be explored

25. In the second half of the 1800s, which development led to the other three?A. expansion of political machinesB. growth of American citiesC. development of tenement housingD. increase in crime

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The Knights of Labor collapsed after a general strike for an eight-hour day failed in Chicago and the Haymarket Massacre occurred in 1886

The Haymarket Affair: 1886 Occurred when labor leaders were blamed

when a bomb exploded at a demonstration of striking workers at Haymarket Square in Chicago

Seven police were killed The remaining police opened fire on the

crow Eight anarchists were later arrested,

accused of the bombing, and tried Four were found guilty and hung, yet no one was found guilty of throwing the bomb Both political and business leaders were frightened by the incident, and the average American citizen saw a

threat to the traditional standards of society in the actions of unions The rumor that the Knights of Labor were connected to anarchists frightened the middle class and

destroyed the union which was seen as the organizer of the incident

The American Federation of Labor: Formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers A craft union where people of a similar

craft were grouped together United workers with similar economic

interests Consisted of separate unions of skilled

workers joined together into a federation Gompers limited his goals to winning

improved wages and working conditions for workers, higher pay, and an 8-hour work day Gompers fought hard to improve members’ job security by seeking closed shops (places where only union

members were hired) The AFL quickly emerged as the principal voice of organized labor Unlike the Knights of Labor, Samuel Gompers urged striking only when necessary Gompers fought for “bread and butter” issues such as an 8-hour workday and higher wages The AFL also promoted collective bargaining

Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining is the process in which working people, through their unions, negotiate contracts

with their employers to determine their terms of employment, including pay, benefits, hours, leave, job health and safety policies, ways to balance work and family and more

Collective bargaining is a way for workers and bosses to solve workplace problems

The Industrial Workers of the World (the Wobblies): Founded in 1905 Led by a vocal socialist, Eugene V. Debs The most radical of all of the unions Largely comprised of the “new immigrants” Opposed the American Federation of Labor’s

acceptance of capitalism and its refusal to include unskilled workers in craft unions

The Molly Maguires:

The Wobblies wanted one big union for all workers.

28. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a major goal of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was toA. end restrictions on child laborB. admit women to the industrial workforceC. improve wages and working conditionsD. join all workers into a single union

27. The formation of national labor unions in the late 1800s was mainly a response toA. passage of federal laws that favored workersB. laws restricting immigration and naturalizationC. poor working conditions and low wages in many

industriesD. economic depressions that had led to high

unemployment

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Irish-American coal miners in Pennsylvania Belonged to a secret society Labeled anarchists who opposed established

government Sought labor rights in the mines In the 1870s, were charged with a number of crimes With some questionable evidence, several members

were executed

The Homestead Strike: 1892 Workers at Andrew Carnegie’s steel plant in

Homestead, Pennsylvania began to unionize Carnegie opposed unionization Violence occurred between strikers and Pinkerton (private)

detectives A gun battle resulted in which a number of Pinkerton agents

and strikers were killed and many were injured Strikers were arrested and tried for treason

The Pullman Strike of 1894: Pullman cars were luxury railroad cars When wages went down at the Pullman factory, the workers

went on strike Eugene V. Debs, a socialist, instructed railroad workers to halt

trains with Pullman cars on them Much violence and property damage accompanied the strike President Grover Cleveland said that the strike actions

disrupted federal mail The President got a court order (injunction) to end the strike Debs went to prison Another example in the early years of unions where the

government sided with bosses Amid the crisis, on June 28th, President Grover Cleveland and

Congress created a national holiday, Labor Day, as a conciliatory gesture toward the American labor movement

The Interstate Commerce Act: This act created the Interstate Commerce Committee that looked to ensure

that railroad shipping fees were fair Before the Interstate Commerce Commission was created, farmers

pressured Illinois to create legislation to prevent inflated prices for hauling crops on railroads

In Munn v. Illinois (1877), the Supreme Court supported state government attempts to regulate railroads

The Court reversed itself in Wabash v. Illinois (1886), ending state regulation of railroads

In 1887, Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act, which prohibited railroads from charging different rates to customers shipping goods an equal distance, and other unfair practices

31. From 1865 to 1900, how did the growth of industry affect American society?A. The United States

experienced the disappearance of the traditional agriculture

B. Population centers shifted from the Northeast to the South

C. Restrictions on immigration created a more homogeneous culture.

D. The percentage of Americans living in urban areas increased.

29. In a United States history textbook, the terms bread and butter unionism, Gospel of Wealth, and mechanization would most likely be found in a chapter entitledA. Reconstruction (1865–1877) B. Industrialization (1870–1900) C. Imperialism (1898–1905) D. The Roaring Twenties (1920–1929)

“Labor Leaders Executed for Causing Haymarket Riot”

“State Militia Called In To End Homestead Strike”

“1,000 Jailed as Silver Miners Protest Wage Cuts”

30. Which statement about labor unions in the late 1800s is illustrated by these headlines? A. Strikes by labor unions usually gained

public support. B. The government frequently opposed

labor union activities. C. Labor union demands were usually

met. D. Arbitration was commonly used to end

labor unrest.

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An Interstate Commerce Commission was created to investigate complaints and to enforce the act Thus, a Federal Interstate Commerce Commission was created to address the controversial issue of railroad

pricing It is important to remember that Congress regulates interstate commerce or trade between states

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act: 1890 Attempted to break up monopolies and

trusts that harmed consumers “Any contract or combination in

restraint of trade is illegal.” Did not define “restraint of trade” well Thus, the law was mostly used at first to

break up unions

The “Old Immigrants” and the “New Immigrants”: Late 19th-century America experienced a sudden flood of

immigrants Up until 1880, most immigrants had come from Northern Europe- In general, these “Old Immigrants” were Protestant, except for

Irish Catholics, and most spoke English Immigration patterns changed in the 1880s- Railroads and steamships made the voyage to America more

affordable- Most “New Immigrants” came from Southern and Eastern

Europe, especially Poland, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Greece, and Russia

- They were Catholics and Jewish, spoke no English, were poor, and dressed differently from Northern Europeans

- Asian immigrants also arrived

Two Theories on Immigration: The Melting Pot- Peoples from various cultures come to America and

contribute aspects of their culture to create a new, unique American culture

- The result is that contributions from many cultures are indistinguishable from one another and are effectively “melted” together

Cultural Pluralism- Immigrants maintain their cultural identity as they coexist

with other Americans- According to this “Salad Bowl Theory,” there are times

when newly arrived immigrants do not lose the unique aspects of their cultures

- The unique characteristics of each culture are still identifiable within the larger American society, much like the ingredients in a salad are still identifiable, yet contribute to the overall makeup of the salad bowl

“When the connection was finally made the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific engineers ran their engines up until their pilots touched. Then the engineers shook hands and had their pictures taken and each broke a bottle of champagne on the pilot of the other’s engine and had their picture taken again.” ~ An eyewitness account by Alexander Toponce

31. From 1865 to 1900, how did the growth of industry affect American society?A. The United States

experienced the disappearance of the traditional agriculture

B. Population centers shifted from the Northeast to the South

C. Restrictions on immigration created a more homogeneous culture.

D. The percentage of Americans living in urban areas increased.

32. In passing the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), Congress intended toA. prevent large corporations from eliminating their competitionB. distinguish good trusts from bad trustsC. regulate rates charged by railroadsD. force large trusts to bargain with labor unions

33. The “new immigrants” to the United States between 1890 and 1915 came primarily fromA. southern and eastern EuropeB. northern and western EuropeC. East AsiaD. Latin America

34. Why did the United States follow a policy of open immigration during much of the 1800s?A. Many United States citizens wanted

to live abroad.B. The United States had a shortage of

labor.C. Prosperous conditions in Europe

resulted in fewer immigrants coming to the United States.

D. Immigrants provided United States industry with capital.

“America’s strength lies in its diversity. Many immigrant groups have joined the mainstream of American life, while maintaining their languages, religions, and traditions. This has made the United States a strong nation.”

35. The author of this statement could best be described as a supporter ofA. nativism B. ethnocentrism C. cultural pluralism D. limited social mobility

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Nativism: Nativism is an anti-immigrant attitude As the flood of immigrants grew at the end of the

1800s, nativist hostility mounted Nativists called for the restriction of immigration to the

United States Nativists argued that “New Immigrants” were inferior

to “true” Americans – white, Anglo-Saxon and Protestant

Nativists believed that people of other races, religions, and nationalities were physically and culturally inferior

The Know Nothing Party was a Nativist Party and it was anti-Irish-Catholic in sentiment

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) was passed to pacify anti-Chinese

feelings in California against the flood of Chinese workers: all Chinese immigration was banned

The Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907: The Japanese government promised to limit future Japanese immigration Asian immigrants had often faced segregation and discrimination in the

U.S.

The Quota Acts of the 1920s: Specifically the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the National Origins

Act of 1924 Set limits on immigration, especially from Southern and Eastern Europe This meant that government policy favored more assimilated (Americanized) immigrants from Western

European nations such as Britain Immigration from Eastern Europe was greatly curtailed The quota acts were inspired by a belief in eugenics

-Eugenics attempted to rank the races-Proponents of eugenics ranked Southern and Eastern European immigrants lower than Western Europeans

Urbanization and the “New Immigrants”: Urbanization refers to movement to cities “New immigrants” often settled in cities “New immigrants” were unfamiliar with American customs, lived in crowded apartments, and worked as

unskilled laborers for long hours at low pay They often faced hostility and discrimination from native-born Americans and from other ethnic groups Many of the New Immigrants settled with others of the same nationality in neighborhoods known as ghettos A ghetto is a section of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social, legal, or

economic pressure However, this isolated many “new immigrants” from mainstream American life While some attended night school to learn English, most were too busy working or caring for families to learn a

new language or culture It was left to their children to learn English and become familiar with American customs In this way, immigrant children were eventually assimilated or

“Americanized.”

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire:

To us perfectly green aliens, you – humans – are pretty much the same.

I love Little Italy in Manhattan and Chinatown too!

36. Why did the United States follow a policy of unrestricted immigration for Europeans during most of the 1800’s?A. Business and industry depended on the

foreign capital brought by immigrants. B. The American economy needed many

unskilled workers. C. Most Americans desired a more diversified

culture. D. The United States wanted to help European

nations by taking in their surplus population.

38. The tragedy of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911 drew national attention to the need toA. restrict immigration from

southern EuropeB. establish full-time fire

departmentsC. protect the safety of workers

37. The Gentlemen’s Agreement, literacy tests, and the quota system were all attempts by Congress to restrict

A. immigration B. property ownership C. voting rights D. access to public

education

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The fire occurred on the evening of March 25, 1911, in a New York City sweatshop A sweatshop is a shop or factory in which employees work for long hours at low wages and under unhealthy

conditions The fire touched off a national movement for safer working conditions Almost 150 young women workers died because the factory doors had been bolted shut from the outside Most of the workers were immigrants Soon after the fire, Congress passed legislation favorable to unions

The West:1860-1890

The Homestead Act: Passed during the Civil War Provided public land for private use “Free Land” became the slogan About 270 million acres (10% of the U.S.) were claimed and

settled under this act A homestead was usually 160 acres in size Homesteaders became “sodbusters,” as

they had to bust through the thick sod to plant and build homes

Many African Americans looked to escape racism in the South and fled to western states as well

- These “exodusters” hoped for a better opportunity in Kansas The Transcontinental Railroad: A railroad that linked the entire country together The Central Pacific (built with the labor of Chinese immigrants) built east

from Sacramento, California The Union Pacific built west from Council Bluffs, Iowa The Golden Spike was hammered at Promontory Summit, Utah on May

10, 1869 The railroads led to the development of cities in the west

The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887: The goal of this act was to assimilate Native American Indians and to

break up reservation tribal lands in favor of individual ownership The government granted plots of land and United States citizenship to

Native American Indians who “adopted the habits of civilized life” This program failed because the best land was typically granted to

whites and the government would not give full control of the land until 25 years after its issuance

It also failed to respect the indigenous cultures of the Native American Indians

Now that the Buffalo Are Gone: Buffalo were vital for Native American Indians on the western plains The buffalo provided food as well as materials for shelter, tools, and clothing In 1870, there were 13 million buffalo on the plains By 1883, there were only a few hundred left Buffalo hunters had killed many for sport Trains offered voyages where people could fire guns at animals from

railroad cars By killing the buffalo unnecessarily and for sport, the way of life of the

Plains Indians was destroyed

“Where the Indian killed one buffalo, the hide and tongue hunters killed fifty.” ~ Chief Red

Exodusters in Kansas wanted to escape racism in the South.

“Oh, it’s all in the past you can say But it’s still going on here today The government now want the Iroquois land That of the Seneca and the Cheyenne It’s here and it’s now you can help us dear man Now that the buffalo’s gone.”~ Buffy Sainte-Marie 

41. What was a major goal of the Dawes Act (1887)?A. to provide a tribal legislature to

govern all reservationsB. to remove the Cherokees from

the southeastern United StatesC. to strengthen Native American

Indian tribal unityD. to encourage assimilation of

Native American Indians

39. The mechanization of agriculture in the United States led directly toA. an increase in productionB. less dependence on railroads by farmersC. fewer agricultural exportsD. the decreasing size of the average farm

38. The tragedy of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911 drew national attention to the need toA. restrict immigration from

southern EuropeB. establish full-time fire

departmentsC. protect the safety of workers

40. In the period from 1860 to 1900, the Federal Government encouraged the settlement of the West byA. passing an increased number

of liberal immigration laws B. selling the most fertile public

land to Native American Indians

C. providing free transportation to settlers moving to the frontier

D. granting tracts of land to railroad companies to encourage construction

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Little Big Horn, 1876: The location of General George Custer’s “Last Stand” After gold was reportedly spotted in the Black Hills of Montana, the army went to inspect Six tribes outnumbered the American forces, and killed everyone including Custer The Battle of Little Big Horn was a short-lived victory for the Native Americans Federal troops soon poured into the Black Hills While many Native Americans surrendered, Sitting Bull escaped to Canada

The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee, 1890: An American Indian spiritual movement The ghost dance began in Nevada in 1889 when a Paiute named Wovoka prophesied the extinction of white

people and the return of the old-time life and superiority of the Indians The Ghost Dance movement taught that the Indians were defeated and confined to reservations because they

had angered the gods by abandoning their traditional ways If they practiced the Ghost Dance ritual and rejected white ways, many Sioux believed the gods would create

the world anew, destroy the unbelievers, and bring back murdered Indians and the giant herds of bison The Indians could return to their lands and the buffalo would once again roam the Great Plains By late 1890, Pine Ridge Indian agent James McLaughlin was alarmed by the movement’s increasing influence

and its prediction that whites would be wiped out On December 29, the 7th Cavalry under Colonel James Forsyth surrounded a band of Ghost Dancers under

the Sioux Chief Big Foot near Wounded Knee Creek and demanded they surrender their weapons Big Foot and his followers had no intentions of attacking anyone, but they were distrustful of the army and

feared they would be attacked if they relinquished their guns Nonetheless, the Sioux agreed to surrender and began turning over their guns As that was happening, a scuffle broke out between an Indian and a soldier, and a shot was fired Though no one is certain which side fired it, the ensuing melee was quick and brutal Without arms and outnumbered, the Sioux were reduced to hand-to-hand fighting with knives, and they were

cut down in a withering rain of bullets, many coming from the army’s rapid-fire repeating Hotchkiss guns By the time the soldiers withdrew, 146 Indians were dead (including 44 women and 18 children) and 51

wounded. - The 7th Cavalry had 25 dead and 39 wounded The Wounded Knee Massacre became a symbol of Native American discrimination and oppressionHelen Hunt Jackson: In 1881, Helen Hunt Jackson wrote A

Century of Dishonor, a nonfiction work that detailed the horrors of Native American Removal in the nineteenth century

She documented how thousands of Native Americans were pushed from the eastern US to the west, and their lack of Constitutional protections

Like Uncle Tom's Cabin, The Jungle, and Silent Spring, Helen Hunt Jackson's Century of Dishonor aroused the nation’s conscience and stimulated political action against injustice, in this case the nation’s unjust treatment of Native American Indians

The Turner Thesis: After the closing of the American frontier, Harvard professor, Frederick Jackson Turner wrote a thesis in 1893

concluding that the West (the frontier) personified the story of America He believed that he West was the most important component of the American story He displayed the importance of how the frontier line had always sparked individual strength and democracy He also argued that the frontier offered free land and promised opportunity which diffused economic and

social conflict

“There is not among these three hundred bands of Indians one which has not suffered cruelly at the hands either of the Government or of white settlers. The poorer, the more insignificant, the more helpless the band, the more certain the cruelty and outrage to which they have been subjected....It makes little difference...where one opens the record of the history of the Indians; every page and every year has its dark stain. The story of one tribe is the story of all, varied only by differences of time and place....Colorado is as greedy and unjust in 1880 as was Georgia in 1830, and Ohio in 1795, and the United States government breaks promises now as deftly as then, and with the added ingenuity from long practice.”~ Helen Hunt Jackson

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Not all historians agreed with Turner; some argued that Turner failed to emphasize other critical factors like slavery and industrialization

Word Bank: Reconstruction, North, Emancipation Proclamation, John Brown, West Virginia, Jim Crow, Radical Republicans, Thirteenth, Black Codes, Markets

1- The ______Thirteenth _________ Amendment prohibited slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment gave former slaves citizenship, and guaranteed all citizens that they would enjoy “equal protection of the laws” and “due process of law” from state governments. The Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed freed slaves the right to vote.

2- ______ John Brown_________ was an abolitionist who believed one should fight the evil of slavery. He organized a raid on the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859, hoping to seize weapons to arm slaves and start an uprising. He was captured, tried, and executed, but his action epitomizes the growing split in the nation. He became a martyr in the North, and verses and songs were written about his attempts to end slavery. Meanwhile, Southerners had expanded their rhetoric in defense of the institution of slavery.

3- The American Civil War became on April 12, 1861 when the Confederate States of America attacked the federal fort, Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. After two days of shelling, the garrison surrendered and was allowed to leave. War had begun. The four states of the Upper South seceded to join the Confederacy. The capital was then moved to Richmond, Virginia. Robert E. Lee, a graduate of West Point, accepted the command of the army of his home state of Virginia, having turned down command of the Union army. Several states that had been considered Southern did not secede. Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware remained in the Union, and what is now ____ West Virginia__________ broke off from the state of Virginia during the war to form a new state.

4- The Civil War was bloody – one million casualties in a population North and South of approximately 31 million; expensive – the estimated cost of over $20 billion; and long – it lasted four arduous years. The South’s strategy was to hold on and wear the North down. The North’s strategy was to blockade the South in order to isolate it from _______ Markets_______________ and potential allies; to capture the capital of the Confederate States of America, Richmond; and to split the South into two parts along the Mississippi River and then by a thrust through Georgia to the sea to split it further into three units.

5- The North___________________ won the Civil War. The North had immense long-term advantages: a larger population, more money, more railroad lines, greater manufacturing facilities, and superior naval power. Yet despite these advantages, it took the North four years to defeat the South.

6- One of the most important events of the Civil War was the issuance of the ____ Emanciaption Proclomation_______ (1862). Lincoln announced that all slaves in states still in rebellion on January 1, 1863 would be freed. The Proclamation gave a moral purpose to the war. However, it soon became unclear whether Lincoln had the constitutional power to free the slaves. Congress proposed the Thirteenth Amendment. When it was ratified in 1865, it abolished slavery throughout the United States.

7- _____Reconstruction_______________ , the name given to the process of reestablishing the Union to again include the seceded states, began during the war and lasted until 1877. Abraham Lincoln believed secession was unconstitutional, and so legally, the Southern states were still in the Union. He believed the executive branch, particularly the president, should establish the process of reconstruction and the terms should be generous. Members of Congress in 1864 presented their own much less generous plan, but Lincoln did not sign the bill, angering the radical or extreme Republicans in Congress. The Radical Republicans, led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, had been a force in Congress since before the war. They were intolerant of slavery, strong abolitionist, and prepared to make the South “pay” for the war.

8- President Lincoln believed the Southern states should be treated leniently. But only a few days after the South surrendered, Lincoln was assassinated. The new President, Andrew Johnson, sought to follow Lincoln’s plan. Congress established the Freedmen’s Bureau to help freed slaves (known as freedmen). However, Southern states passed _________ Black Codes ____________ to preserve traditional Southern life-styles despite the ban on slavery. For example, it was made illegal for freedmen to hold public office, travel freely or serve on juries.

9- Northerners were outraged at the election of rebel leaders in the South and the passage of Black Codes. Congress refused to recognize the new Southern governments. The _____ Radical Republicans ___________ , a group of Northern Congressmen with a majority in Congress, wanted the freedmen to have political equality. The Radical Republicans passed a Civil Rights Bill guaranteeing freedmen’s rights, and imposed military rule on the South. To ensure that this legislation would not be held unconstitutional, they rewrote the act as the Fourteenth Amendment – granting citizenship to all former slaves.

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10- President ______ Lincoln and Johnson____ opposed the Congressional program. The Radical Republicans suspected Johnson, a Southerner from Tennessee, of being overly sympathetic to the South. Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, limiting the President’s power to dismiss his own Cabinet members. When Johnson dismissed his Secretary of War, the House of Representatives impeached (indicted) Johnson. In the Senate, the Radical Republicans fell just one vote short of convicting and removing him from office.

11- Starting in the 1880s, Southern legislatures passed “_____ Jim Crow______________ ” laws segregating African Americans from whites. African Americans were not permitted to ride in the same train cars, attend the same schools, or use any of the same public facilities as whites.

Word Bank: Standard Oil Company, Muckrakers, Laissez-faire, “The Gospel of Wealth”, Social Darwinism, Closed Shops, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Gilded Age, Unions, Trusts, Robber Barons, Northern Europe

1- Because of the lavish lifestyles of those who became rich from industry, the period from 1856 to 1900 became known as the _______ Gilded Age____________ . Gilded means covered in gold.

2- Through the efficiencies of large-scale production, these industrialists lowered the prices of goods, making them more affordable. But some called these entrepreneurs _________ Robber Barrons____________ because of the ruthless tactics they used to destroy competition and to keep down worker’s wages.

3- Two of the most famous entrepreneurs in the Gilded Age were Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919). Carnegie worked his way up from a penniless Scottish immigrant to become one of America’s richest men. His steel mills ruthlessly undercut all competition. His workers put in 12-hour shifts at low wages. Carnegie hired thugs to crush any worker attempts to unionize. John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) formed the ____ Standard Oil Company______________ in 1870. Rockefeller forced railroad companies to give him special, secret rates for shipping his oil, while they charged his competitors higher prices.

4- Beginning with the Depression of 1873, many large producers like Carnegie and Rockefeller began driving smaller companies out of business or acquiring them. In other cases, rival companies reached agreements to consolidate (join together), often in _____ Trusts_________________________ . Many producers hoped to eliminate competition by establishing a monopoly (a single seller dominating a market). Monopolistic power allowed them to dictate their own price to consumers.

5- Many business leaders in the late 19th and early 20th centuries followed the tenets of __ Social Darwinism___________. This philosophy loosely applied Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution to economics. Taking Darwin’s suggestions of the survival of the fittest as the determinant in evolution, proponents of this philosophy believed that the state should not interfere in economic life. They believed those on top in the business world were there because they were the fittest. They had survived the battle of the marketplace because they were the best.

6- Social Darwinists believed that any interference in the free market operation would wreck the economy and upset its natural evolution. This view of economics is referred to as ____Laissez Faire___________________. Social Darwinists believed any person with ability could rise to the top, and laborers were where they were because of natural selection.

7- By the end of the century one millionaire, Andrew Carnegie, added a new twist to Social Darwinism in a speech “___Gospel of Wealth_________________.” In 1889, Carnegie argued that wealth was essential for civilization and by the natural law of competition only a few could achieve it. However, what these few did with their wealth was crucial for society. Carnegie argued that the rich should administer their wealth through their lifetime to benefit society.

8- With the rise of big business, individual workers lost all bargaining power with their employers. Many workers realized that some form of labor organization was needed to protect their interests. They formed ______Unions___________ so that they could act as a group. Together workers organized strikes and other forms of protest to obtain better working conditions. Industrialists like Carnegie used immigrant workers or closed down factories rather than negotiate with these labor associations.

9- The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was formed in 1881 by Samuel Gompers. Gompers hoped to create a powerful union by uniting workers with similar economic interests. Unlike the Knights of Labor, the AFL consisted of separate unions of skilled workers joined together into a federation. Gompers limited his goals to winning improved wages and working conditions for workers, higher pay, and an 8-hour work day. Gompers fought hard to improve

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members’ job security by seeking ___Closed Shops_______________ (places where only union members were hired). The AFL quickly emerged as the principal voice of organized labor.

10- In the early 20th century, the attitude of the government and public towards unions began to change. One event that caused this change was a fire at the ___Triangle Shirt Waist Company____________________________ in 1911. The fire occurred on the evening of March 25, 1911, in a New York City sweatshop. A sweatshop is a shop or factory in which employees work for long hours at low wages and under unhealthy conditions. The fire touched off a national movement for safer working conditions.

11- Late 19th-century America experienced a sudden flood of immigrants. Up until 1880, most immigrants had come from ____North Europe__________________. In general, these “Old Immigrants” were Protestant, except for Irish Catholics, and most spoke English. Immigration patterns changed in the 1880s. Railroads and steamships made the voyage to America more affordable. Most “New Immigrants” came from Southern and Eastern Europe, especially Poland, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Greece, and Russia. They were Catholics and Jewish, spoke no English, were poor, and dressed differently from Northern Europeans. Asian immigrants also arrived.

12- Among the most influential Progressives were investigative reporters, writers, and social scientists that exposed government corruption and the abuses of industry. These writers became known as _____Muckrackers ____ . They examined the rise of industry and the abuses that often led to the accumulation of large fortunes. They also examined business practices affecting consumers and the lives of the poor. They provided detailed, accurate journalistic accounts of the political and economic corruption and social hardships caused by the power of big business in a rapidly industrializing United States.