p u b l i s h e d b y f a i r c h i l d t r o p i c a l b o t a n i c g a r d e n
s u m m e r 2 0 0 8
T h e M a n g o s o fAfrica
F A I R C H I L D T R O P I C A L B O T A N I C G A R D E N10901 Old Cutler Road, Coral Gables, FL 33156 | 305.667.1651, ext. 3305 | www.fairchildgarden.org | shop online at www.fairchildonline.com Colombian caña flecha tray. Regular price $110, sale price $88, Members sale price $79.20. Photo by Gaby Orihuela/FTBG.
Saturday, August 23 through Sunday, September 7, 2008Members’ Preview Sale | Friday, August 22
Enjoy 20% off All regularly priced merchandise.
Fairchild Members Only: Take an additional 10% off regularly priced merchandise.Chihuly and Lichtenstein merchandise is 40% off, members receive an additional 10% off. No further sale discount applies.
Questions? Call The Shop at Fairchild at 305.667.1651, ext. 3305.Shop hours: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. You can also shop online at www.fairchildonline.com
The Shop at FairchildSUMMER SALE
departmentsfrom the executive directornewsexplainingdisplayingcalendarleaving a legacytropical cuisineask marthaplant societiesvis-a-vis volunteersexploringconservingvistasgifts & donorsgarden viewsfrom the archives
BUTTERFLY DAYS AT FAIRCHILD 26
21THE INTERNATIONAL MANGO FESTIVAL; CELEBRATING THE MANGOS OF AFRICA
SOY GOOD: PLANTS THAT CHANGED THE WORLD
15HOW TO MAKE YOUR TREES
ELANE NUEHRING, Ph.D., ProgramChair for the North American ButterflyAssociation, Miami Blue Chapter, hasorganized Fairchild’s Butterfly Days’program of speakers since the event beganin 2004 as a partnership between thegarden and the Miami Blue Chapter. Dr.Nuehring is an avid butterfly watcher andbutterfly gardener, and she is a long-timebirder and volunteer with the TropicalAudubon Society. Dr. Nuehring is aprofessor at Barry University’s School ofSocial Work.
RICHARD J. CAMPBELL, Ph.D., is theSenior Curator of Tropical Fruit and Headof the Tropical Fruit Program at FairchildTropical Botanic Garden. A South Floridanative, Dr. Campbell cut his teeth amongthe exotic tropical fruit of South Florida.He draws on his years of travel andexperience collecting and researchingtropical fruit in Asia and the Americas toprovide the latest information, quality treesand tropical fruit tastes to an enthusiasticpublic. He has authored over 100 scientificand popular articles on fruit culture in thelast decade, as well as two books, Mangos:A Guide to Mangos in Florida (1992) andTropical Mangos: How to Grow theWorld’s Most Delicious Fruit (2002).
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Cel: 786-512-6301 Phone: 305-246-8863ON THE COVERMangifera indica - Celebrating mangosPhoto by Gaby Orihuela/FTBG
GARY NOEL ROSS, B.S., M.S., Ph.D.Dr. Ross is a native of New Orleans,educated at Louisiana State University,and Professor Emeritus of SouthernUniversity (Baton Rouge). After 24 years ofteaching at Southern University, LouisianaState University and University ofManitoba, he retired in 1992 to fullydevote his time to research and topopularize his specialty, butterfly biology.Endearingly referred to as “Louisiana’sButterfly Man” and the “ButterflyEvangelist,” Dr. Ross is a celebratednatural history photographer, lecturer andan award-winning author. His work hasappeared in over 460 major professionalpublications and popular magazines,including TIME and National Geographic,as well as in five television productions.Dr. Ross is the Director of ButterflyFestivals for the North American ButterflyAssociation, which actively promotesbutterfly events, gardens, conservatoriesand education.
5www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
from the executive director
n June, the fruit stalls along the streets of Mombassa were redolent with the first of this season’s applemangos. Their scent, combined with that of the pineapples and passion fruits, filled the air. This was anindication of great things to come at Fairchild. One of my favorite events at Fairchild is the mango
exhibition at the International Mango Festival, which was held July 12 - 13, 2008. Dr. Richard Campbelland Noris Ledesma displayed hundreds of varieties of mango in the Garden House—to open the door intothe Garden House after the exhibit has been laid out is one of my great pleasures. You are enveloped by aheady wave of mango aroma, and in front of you the “world” of mangos is on display. Nowhere else onEarth do you see so much diversity in one place. Thousands of years of cultivation, selection and tasting arecondensed into one place for one weekend. For a biodiversity aficionado, it does not get better than this.
This year we celebrated the Mangos of Africa. My first tree-fresh mango was picked from a huge treegrowing on the banks of the River Jubba in southern Somalia. That was over 20 years ago, and I can stillremember the event—after weeks in very dry and open bush country, the pleasure of big shade trees andripe mangos was nothing but profound.
I have just returned from a research trip in Kenya with our partners from the Al Ain Wildlife Park, and Iwanted them to meet one of Africa’s unsung conservation heroes. As a teenager, I read about the work ofSwiss horticulturist, Dr. Rene Haller, in turning scraped out cement quarries into lush, green-forestedlandscapes. I have visited Rene several times and never fail to be inspired by his vision. Rene arrived inKenya over 40 years ago and now hundreds of acres of forestland cover what was once an industrialwasteland. He applied the skills of a great horticulturist, namely eternal optimism combined with a love ofplants and an ability to find a practical answer to any problem, to regrow a tropical landscape. Nowretired, Rene is creating a community nature reserve by restoring a patch of degraded bush land to createan educational and economic resource for the local communities. Inside the reserve, we saw lushvegetation, regenerating stands of doum palm that were covered with flowering Ansellia orchids, herds ofOryx and giraffe, while outside cows and goats were chewing on a bare degraded landscape.
This visit reminded me that horticulture is a great tool for good, and that Fairchild has always had a greatreputation for high quality tropical horticulture. Sadly, our Director of Horticulture Mike Davenport has leftus for new pastures, and we wish Mike and his family all the best for their future. Mike leaves a legacy ofdedicated colleagues, both staff and volunteers, and a garden that looks wonderful. We hope he comesback to see his baobabs grow. Ana Estevez, our Grants Coordinator, is also leaving for new opportunities,and, similarly, Ana leaves a great legacy of projects throughout Fairchild. A garden’s growth is based onmanaging the green stuff—plants and dollars.
At this year’s festival, we released the first two new mango varieties from the FruitPrograms breeding and selection program. These two new varieties have beendeveloped to thrive in the South Florida garden. Following an established historictradition in fruit production, we named these two beautiful mangos after two veryspecial members of the Fairchild family. The varieties are called ‘Angie’ in tributeto Angie and Bill Whitman’s support for the Tropical Fruit Program and ‘JeanEllen’ in recognition of Jean Ellen Shehan’s leadership and support.
I hope you will explore the garden this summer. Fairchild in summer is a lush,magical garden full of exotic blooms and butterflies. I look forward to seeingyou among them.
Mike Maunder, Ph.D.
To view photos from Dr. Maunder’s trip to Kenya, please visitwww.fairchildgarden.org and click the link Living Collections and GardenLandscapes/Botanical Safari to Kenya.
Jean Ellen Shehan (above left) andAngie Whitman (below) receiveillustrations of their namesakemango from Executive DirectorDr. Mike Maunder and TropicalFruit Curator Noris Ledesma.Photos by Robert Parente.
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7www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
newsFAIRCHILD HOSTSTHE FIRST NORTHAMERICAN PALMCURATORS’MEETING
Fairchild collaborates withother botanic gardens toachieve its mission andworks closely with manyinstitutions to conservetropical plants. The 2008Palm and Cycad Festivalprovided an excellentopportunity to strengthenlinks among some of theworld’s most importantpalm collections.
In partnership with the National Plant Collections Consortiumof the American Public Gardens Association, Fairchild hosteda meeting of curators from the largest palm collections in theUnited States. Held on April 4, 2008, the conference was anopportunity to build a common strategy for growing andconserving the world’s palms.
The meeting included six institutions from South Florida(Fairchild, Florida International University, The Kampong,Montgomery Botanical Center, Pinecrest Gardens and theU.S.D.A. Subtropical Horticultural Research Station),representing a range of public and private collections.Curators from three California gardens (Huntington BotanicalGardens, the San Diego Zoo and the University of CaliforniaBotanical Gardens at Berkeley) and two Hawaii gardens(Harold L. Lyon Arboretum and National Tropical BotanicalGarden) also attended.
As a group, the gardens can grow palms from all of the world’smajor tropical habitats, including rainforests, deserts,mountains, savannas and coastlines. They hold about a thirdof the world’s palms, with over 800 species in cultivation.However, nearly half of these species are found in only asingle garden. The curators discussed ways to exchange palmseeds and plants to ensure that the world’s rarest palms arepreserved in multiple gardens.
Although growing conditions are very different in Florida,California and Hawaii, the gardens face many commonhorticultural challenges. The curators discussed strategies forresponding to new pests and diseases and ways to use newtechnology in collection management.
The curators are now working together to plan joint fieldexpeditions, build community outreach activities and raisefunds for new conservation projects.
FAIRCHILD VOLUNTEER BILL MURPHY HONOREDFOR A LIFETIME OF CREATING MEDICAL DEVICES
On Saturday, May 3, 2008, Fairchild’s beloved volunteer of more than30 years, Dr. Bill Murphy, was inducted into the National InventorsHall of Fame. Responsible for creating, among other things, thecardiac pacemaker, disposable medical trays and heart catheters, Dr.Murphy started a company back in 1957 called Medical DevelopmentCorp., which two years later became Cordis, now a subsidiary ofJohnson & Johnson.
Over the years, volunteers Bill and his wife, Bev, with his love ofmachinery and her flair for creating natural crafts, have had a hugehand in making some of Fairchild’s best known events a memorableexperience for the South Florida community. Dr. Murphy is the manbehind the splendid street organ, known as a waterpoorter, whichresides at the far end of the Bailey Palm Glade during The RambleFestival each November. With 1,100 valves, the organ plays an array ofwonderful old fashioned melodies throughout the weekend whilechildren and adults alike sit and stand in awe of the larger-than-lifeobject. Bev is known for her creative genius in transforming plantmaterials into amazing decorations for Halloween and the annualHoliday Music event. Fairchild’s staff and volunteers are proud tocongratulate Dr. Murphy on his induction and thank him for hisexceptional contributions.
Guests enjoy the delightful music of the Dutch Waterpoorter StreetOrgan during The Ramble - A Garden Festival.
PRESIDENT’S INDUSTRY AWARD
Dr. Richard J. Campbell was awarded the2008 President’s Industry Award at theAnnual Conference of the Florida StateHorticultural Society. The award is given tothe individual who has had a significantimpact on the horticultural industry ofFlorida. Dr. Campbell’s contribution was inthe area of tropical fruit culture for SouthFlorida. Congratulations to Dr. Campbellon this wonderful achievement!Dr. Richard J. Campbell
Fairchild Challenge 2008 Awards ften individuals view Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden asan oasis of tranquility, but for a couple of days in May, itwas anything but: the atmosphere in the Garden House
auditorium crackled with suspense and excitement as hundreds ofstudents, teachers and parents awaited the results of the FairchildChallenge awards ceremonies for middle and high schools. TheFairchild Challenge is a multi-disciplinary environmental educationoutreach program that this year engaged 40,000 students and 1,800teachers in 102 middle and high schools; the exuberant awardsceremonies took place on May 9 for high schools and May 10 formiddle schools.
As part of the Challenge, this year all South Florida Challengestudents turned uninviting school spaces into delightful gardens;they raised environmental awareness in their homes, schools andcommunities; and studied the patterns in plants. The Challengeprograms also set activities geared specifically for the appropriateage groups; for instance, while middle school students designedimaginary plants and investigated traditional uses of plants with theelderly in their communities, high school students created solar-powered gadgets, designed skyways spanning the Everglades anddebated hot-button environmental issues with stunning results!
Congratulations to the almost 40,000 students who participated in theFairchild Challenge 2008 at these 102 South Florida
middle and high schools
High Schools: American • Archbishop Coleman F. Carroll • Barbara Goleman • Carrollton • Christopher Columbus • COPE Center NorthCoral Gables • Coral Reef • Corporate Academy South • Design & Architecture • Doctor’s Charter • Dr. Michael M. Krop • Felix VarelaG. Holmes Braddock • Gulliver Preparatory • Hialeah-Miami Lakes • John A. Ferguson • MAST • Miami • Miami Central • Miami CoralPark • Miami Country Day • Miami Edison • Miami Jackson • Miami Killian • Miami Lakes • Miami Northwestern • Miami PalmettoMiami Southridge • Miami Springs • Miami Sunset • New World School of the Arts • North Miami • Our Lady of Lourdes • PembrokePines Charter • Ransom Everglades • Robert Morgan • Ronald Reagan/Doral • Ruth Owens Krusé • South Miami • South PlantationSouthwest Miami • St. Thomas Aquinas • Thomas Jefferson MS (9th grade) • Westminster Christian • Young Women’s PreparatoryMiddle School: Ada Merritt K-8 • Archimedean • Arthur & Polly Mays • Arvida • Aventura City of Excellence • Carrollton • Centennia lCOPE Center North • Coral Way K-8 • Country Club • Cutler Ridge • David Lawrence Jr. K-8 • Devon Aire K-8 • Doctor’s Charter • DoralEugenia B. Thomas K-8 • Frank C. Martin K-8 • Glades • G.W. Carver • H.D. McMillan • Herbert A. • John F. Kennedy • Jose de DiegoJosé Martí • Kenwood K-8 • Key Biscayne K-8 • Kinloch Park • Lamar Louise Curry • Leisure City K-8 • Miami Lakes K-8 • Miami LakesMiami Springs • Norland • North Miami • Palmer Trinity • Palmetto • Parkway • Ponce de Leon • Ransom Everglades • RedlandRichmond Height s• Ruben Dario • Ruth K. Broad Bay Harbor (6th grade) • Ruth Owens Krusé • Shenandoah • South Dade • South MiamiK-8 • South Miami • Southwood • Sunset Christian • West Miami • Westminster Christian • Westview • Youth Co-Op Charter
FAIRCHILD CHALLENGE AWARDSBy surpassing the annual point goal, these53 schools earnedthe Fairchild Challenge Award
High Schools: Barbara Goleman • CarrolltonChristopher Columbus • Coral Reef Design & Architecture • G. HolmesBraddock • Gulliver Preparatory • Hialeah-Miami Lakes • John A. Ferguson • MASTMiami • Miami Country Day • MiamiJackson • Miami Killian • Miami PalmettoMiami Southridge • Miami Springs • OurLady of Lourdes • Pembroke Pines CharterRobert Morgan • Ruth Owens Krusé South Miami • South Plantation •Southwest Miami • St. Thomas AquinasMiddle Schools • Aventura City ofExcellence • Carrollton • Centennial Cutler Ridge • Devon Aire K-8 • Eugenia B.Thomas K-8 • Frank C. Martin K-8 • Glades• G.W. Carver • Herbert A. AmmonsHomestead • John F. Kennedy • Jose deDiego • José Martí • Key Biscayne K-8Kinloch Park • Lamar Louise Curr y
Leisure City K-8 • Norland • Ponce de LeonRedland • Richmond Height • Ruben DarioRuth Owens Krusé • Shenandoah SouthMiami K- 8 • South Miam i • West Miami
FAIRCHILD CHALLENGE HIGHESTHONORSAwarded to these 16 top-scoring highschools
Runners Up ($250) in alphabetical orderG. Holmes Braddock • Carrollton Christopher Columbus • Coral Reef Barbara Goleman • Gulliver PreparatoryHialeah-Miami Lakes • Miami • MiamiSprings • St. Thomas Aquinas
Runners Up ($500) in alphabetical orderMAST • Miami Killian • Miami PalmettoMiami Southridge • Our Lady of Lourdes
First Place ($1,000)South Plantation
Awarded to these 16 top-scoring middleschools Runners Up ($250) in alphabetical orderAventura City of Excellence • Ruben Dario
Glades • Key Biscayne K-8 • Kinloch ParkNorland Richmond Heights • South MiamiK-8 • South Miami • West Miami
Runners Up ($500) in alphabetical orderHerbert A. Ammons • Carrollton • G.W.Carver • José Martí • Redland
First Place ($1,000)Shenandoah
FAIRCHILD CHALLENGE “SCHOOLSOF EXCELLENCE”The following nine schools have earned theFairchild Challenge Award for fiveconsecutive years
Inducted 2008 George Washington CarverMiddle School • José Martí Middle SchoolMAST• Miami Killian Senior High • MiamiSouthridge Senior High • South MiamiSenior High
Inducted 2007 Coral Reef Senior HighMiami Palmetto Senior High • Our Lady ofLourdes Academy
9www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
Members of theHoneyshine MentoringProgram, a program ofAlonzo MourningCharities, enjoy anoutreach activity in theLisa D. AnnessButterfly Garden.
airchild is busy working to expand the reach of its activitiesto the community. Fairchild’s community outreach activitiesreach thousands of people annually through events both at
Fairchild and across the county.
This June, the second annual “Planting the Seeds, Growing theFuture” event took place in the northwest Miami neighborhood ofLiberty City. This event has grown out of a close friendship andcollaboration between Fairchild, the Belafonte Tacolcy Center andthe Aubrey Watkins Simms Memorial Garden at the Church of theOpen Door. This day-long event is free and open to the public andfeatures environmental displays and workshops, planting activitiesand demonstrations, arts and crafts and other activities with anenvironmental theme. The mission of the event is to educate andinspire citizens to better understand tropical plants, appreciate andvalue biodiversity and reflect on how they can help improve theenvironment.
This partnership is but one of many that Fairchild is activelycultivating in the community. Fairchild also works closely with othercommunity groups and centers, including Breakthrough Miami, theSt. Alban’s Child Enrichment Center in the West Grove andSweetVine Youth Prevention Services in Homestead and Naranja.Outreach to these groups includes sharing resources andeducational materials, collaborating on and hosting special events,assisting with gardening and neighborhood beautification projectsand offering free or reduced-cost field trips to Fairchild.
As an important part of its outreach efforts, Fairchild has a presenceat events across the community, throughout the year. Some of theseevents include Baynanza, Little Haiti Earth Day, the SweetVine E-Fair and various career days and special events at schools county-wide. At these events, Fairchild offers interesting and informative
Community OutreachText and photos by Alison Walker,Community Outreach Coordinator
hands-on displays and activities, which serve to educate andinspire people about both the beauty and value of plants. Theseevents also provide an opportunity to share information aboutFairchild’s programs, events and resources with a wider segmentof the community.
Integral to everything Fairchild does are the partnerships that havedeveloped with over 50 community-based groups and localinstitutions. Fairchild is an active member in EnvironmentalEducation Providers of Miami, an umbrella organization of groupswith the mission to preserve, protect and educate the public onlocal environmental and conservation issues. On a monthly basis,Fairchild educators meet with representatives from other non-profitgroups, government agencies and higher education institutions tocollaborate and support each other, as we serve as a resource toour larger community.
Through Fairchild’s community outreach program, as with allother education programs, the garden celebrates nature, cultivatesminds and inspires action across diverse cultures and multiplegenerations. For more information on how you can help supportFairchild’s community outreach efforts, please contact AlisonWalker, Community Outreach Coordinator, [email protected]
Children from the St. Albans Child Enrichment Center experienced a fun-filled day ofexploration and discovery during their visit to Fairchild.
Nicole Gerard explainskitchen botany toeager learners at anoutreach event inLiberty City.
Audubon of Florida
Belafonte Tacolcy Center
Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve,
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Biscayne National Park
Boy Scouts of America
Carnival Cruise Lines
Center for Ecoliteracy
Citizens for a Better South Florida
Dade Association of Academic Non-Public Schools
Deering Estate at Cutler
Department of Solid Waste Management
The Education Fund
Environmental Education Providers
Everglades National Park
Fantasy Theatre Factory
Florida International University
Friends of the Everglades
Girl Scouts of America
Greater Miami Convention and Visitors Bureau
Haitian-American Senior Center
Haitian Heritage Museum
Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Honey Shine Mentoring Program-
Alonzo Mourning Charities, Inc.
John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park
Kids Ecology Corps
Marjory Stoneman Douglas
Biscayne Nature Center
Miami Blue, North American Butterfly Association
Miami Dade College
Miami-Dade County Department of Environmental
Miami-Dade County Parks and Recreation Department
Miami-Dade County Public Schools
Miami River Commission
Miami Watercolor Society
Miami Worker Center
Montgomery Botanical Center
Museum of Contemporary Art
National Tropical Botanic Garden, The Kampong
Native Plant Society, Miami-Dade Chapter
Oleta River State Park
Operation Green Leaves
Overtown Youth Center
Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science
Aubrey Watkins Simms Memorial Garden
South Florida Water Management District
Southwest Social Services
Sweet Vine Community Outreach & Prevention Services
University of Florida
University of Miami
Youth Environmental Programs
FAIRCHILD EDUCATION PROGRAMS
F A I R C H I L D T R O P I C A L B O T A N I C G A R D E N
11www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
What else is bloomingat Fairchild?
A list of the currently flowering plantswith a plot map is available at theVisitor Center. Our Web site,www.fairchildgarden.org, is also anexcellent source for images andinformation about plants in the garden.
bloomingdisplaying what ’sBy Marilyn Griffiths, Plant RecordsPhotos by Mary Collins/FTBG
Bulnesia arborea, verawoodNative to Venezuela and Colombia,verawood was introduced to SouthFlorida by Dr. David Fairchild inthe late 1940s. Its delicate pinnateleaves frame brilliant yellow flowerstwice a year, in summer and fall.Our large specimens in Plots 34and 37 were grown from seedreceived from Dr. Fairchild.
Hamelia patens, or firebush Photo by Gaby Orihuela/FTBG
Quisqualis indica, Rangoon creeperThis is a vigorous vine from Burma throughNew Guinea. During the warm months,fragrant clusters of flowers open white inthe morning and gradually change to adeep pink during the day. Look for thegarden’s large plant on a mast in the lawnin front of the Vine Pergola (Plot 7).
Rondeletia odorata, Panama-roseThis wonderful shrub native to Cuba andPanama, blooms abundantly in thesummer. The flowers are a brilliantorange-red with a glowing yellow centerand are surrounded by deep green crispleaves. Our best specimens are in Plot 21at the base of the Overlook near the tramroad. Lisa D. Anness
Butterfly GardenIn the Lisa D. Anness ButterflyGarden (Plot 19b), we are thrilled with theprofusion of butterflies that have discoveredthe flowers and foliage that were planted toattract them. At last count, more than 30species have been seen. Visit any time of dayand be surrounded by zebra longwings,monarchs, julias and gulf fritillaries. Keep aneye open for atalas and other rare butterflies.
calendar of events fairchild boardof trusteesMike Maunder, Ph.D.EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
BOARD OF TRUSTEES2008-2009
Bruce W. GreerPRESIDENT
Louis J. Risi, Jr.SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT &TREASURER
W. Bryan Latham, M.D.ASSISTANT TREASURER
Suzanne SteinbergVICE PRESIDENT
Joyce J. BurnsSECRETARY
L. Jeanne AragonVICE PRESIDENT &ASSISTANT SECRETARY
Leonard L. Abess, Jr.
Henry N. Adorno, Esq.
Alejandro J. Aguirre
Raymond F. Baddour, Sc.D.
Norman J. Benford
Faith F. Bishock
Leslie A. Bowe
Robert W. Brockway
Jennifer Stearns Buttrick
José R. Garrigó
Kenneth R. Graves
Willis D. Harding
Patricia M. Herbert
Robert M. Kramer, Esq.
Lin L. Lougheed
Bruce C. Matheson
Robert A. McNaughton, M.D.
Clifford W. Mezey
Stephen D. Pearson, Esq.
T. Hunter Pryor, M.D.
Charles P. Sacher
Jean Ellen Shehan
Janá Sigars-Malina, Esq.
Penelope W. Stamps
James G. Stewart, Jr., M.D.
Vincent A. Tria, Jr.
Reginald N. Whitehead
Angela W. Whitman
Harold E. Kendall, Sr.TRUSTEE EMERITUS
cool down thissummerAT FAIRCHILD AUGUSTFREE SUNDAYSEveryone enjoys free admissionevery Sunday during the monthof August.COALITION FOR ORCHIDSPECIES 2008 ORCHIDSYMPOSIUMSunday, August 3, 8:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.For ticket information, please callErna Maxwell at 305.382.3055.
SEPTEMBERFREE SUNDAYSEveryone enjoys free admissionevery Sunday during the monthof September.VOLUNTEER INFORMATION DAYSLearn how you can become aFairchild Volunteer.Thursday & Friday, September4 – 5, 9:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.OR Saturday, September 13,10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.OR Saturday, September 27,10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.To register, please call305.667.1651, ext. 3324.DOG DAY AT FAIRCHILDSunday, September 14,9:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.This is the ONLY day of the yearthat you can bring your pooch toFairchild. All dogs must be pre-
registered to attend. Please call305.663.8091 to register.AROID SHOW AND SALESaturday & Sunday, September 20 – 21,9:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. Presented bythe International Aroid Society.SLOW FOOD EXOTIC FRUIT BRUNCHSunday, September 21, TropicalFruit Tour, 10:00 a.m., Brunch,11:30 a.m. Visitor Center Ballroom.Proceeds benefit Fairchild TropicalBotanic Garden at Williams Grove.For more information, call305.663.8091 or purchase ticketsat www.slowfoodmiami.com.
OCTOBERMEMBERS’ DAY PLANT SALESaturday, October 4,9:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.BONSAI SOCIETY OF MIAMISHOW & SALESaturday & Sunday, October 11 – 12,9:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. Presented bythe Bonsai Society of Miami.THE RARE EVENT - BIDDINGAGAINST EXTINCTION Saturday, October 18,6:00 – 10:00 p.m.For tickets please visitwww.fairchildgarden.orgThis schedule of events is subject to change. Pleasecall 305.667.1651 for information. For the latestschedule and to purchase tickets, visitwww.fairchildgarden.org.
Photos by Gaby Orihuela and Julie Petrie/FTBG
LEAVING A LEGACY
Daniel J. Comerford III and Kathie Comerford have hada long-standing love affair with Fairchild. In college,Kathie often painted the plants she saw at Fairchild,including the rainbow eucalyptus tree. Inspired byFairchild’s beauty, Kathie attained her Masters of FineArts degree and taught art for the next 15 years. Dan,who was a public school teacher/administrator anduniversity professor, holds a Ph.D. and post doctorate,said he finds Fairchild to be the “perfect place forlearning.” Kathie and Dan reconnected with Fairchildwhen Kathie was ill and found Fairchild as a place forhealing. During this period, Kathie and Dan focused onenhancing their home garden in Jupiter, Florida. Theywould visit Fairchild to research design ideas and buybooks from the shop for inspiration. During their twohour drive home, Kathie would fill her new books withnotes and mark her favorite plants.
On a fruit Safari to Costa Rica, Kathie took BillWhitman’s book, Five Decades with Tropical Fruits. Sheasked the trip leaders if anyone could introduce her toBill Whitman. Upon Kathie’s return to the United States,the Comerfords were invited to the Whitmans’ BalHarbour home. There was an instant connection betweenthe Comerfords and Whitmans. Kathie was a member ofthe Rare Fruit Council and loves diving, swimming and“all things ocean.” Bill was a tropical fruit pioneer, avidsurfer, fisherman, diver and photographer (he inventedthe underwater camera housing). He said he had nevermet anyone as interested in the tropical fruit plants ontheir property as the Comerfords.
As their friendship blossomed, the Comerfords foundthemselves many an afternoon with the Whitmanslearning more about the fascinating world of
There were two inspirations for Dan and Kathie Comerford’s bequest to Fairchild; they wanted to honor
their friends William and Angela Whitman, and they wanted to add to the future success of Fairchild’s
Tropical Fruit Conservation program. The Comerfords also chose to make the gift to Fairchild since
“they knew Fairchild would spend the money intelligently and cost-effectively.”
By Jeremy Davit, Development Associate
GIFT PLANNING AT FAIRCHILD
For more information on gift planning at Fairchild oron the Fairchild Legacy Society, please contactDevelopment Associate Jeremy Davit at 305.667.1651,ext. 3377 or [email protected]
13www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
Kathie Comerford, Jeremy Davit and Daniel J. Comerford III
tropical fruits. Eventually Angela taught Kathie how to play croquet, and Kathiehas been a “croquet nut” since. The Whitmans and Comerfords have alsotraveled extensively together.
A few years ago, Kathie and Dan took on a heightened interest in Fairchild’swork with tropical fruit conservation, specifically the Whitman Tropical FruitPavilion. Dan and Kathie felt this was such a unique exhibit and that theywanted to be part of its future success. “Fairchild is a legacy not only to ourstate, but to the world.” Dan said the decision for the gift was easy to makesince “Anyone can do it. A legacy gift to Fairchild is an excellent way to ensurethat the important work of conservation, preservation and education issupported in the future and that the garden itself is maintained and sustained inperpetuity.” They also feel it is important to, “Ask yourself, when you leave thisplanet, have you left something to enrich someone else’s life?”
Kathie and Dan have also been active with other organizations including theReef Environmental Education Foundation and the FAU Jupiter Tequesta DogClub. Currently, Both Kathie and Dan serve on the board of trustees of PalmBeach Zoo where Kathie is a Zoo Ambassador, and Dan is a past ViceChairman and on the executive committee.
The Comerfords are leaving a legacy that will greatly impact tropical fruitresearch and conservation for years to come.
The Fruit MarketAT WILLIAMS GROVE
Open every Saturday from9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.14885 S.W. 248 StreetHomestead, FL 33032
Be sure to stop by and try a deliciousfruit smoothie and buy some freshtropical fruit from Fairchild’scollection to take home.
Healthy and Delicious LivingBy Noris Ledesma, Curator of Tropical Fruit
ealthy eating can be easy. Smallchanges can equal big results. Workfruits into your daily routine and aim to
eat at least five servings a day. Be sure to servefruit at every meal. This is mango season, and ifyou have mango trees in your yard, use them orbuy mangos from local farmers’ market. It is agreat way to get fresh, tasty produce andsupport local farmers.
Kids, especially younger ones, will eat what’savailable at home. That’s why it is important tocontrol the supply lines—the foods you serve atmeals and have on hand for snacks. Make it easyfor your child to choose healthy snacks bykeeping fruit on hand and ready to eat.Encourage healthy choices by eating wellyourself. Kids will follow the lead of the adultsthey see every day.
The Indian SunriseMango Shake
½ cup mango (fresh or frozen) ¼ cup orange juice 2 Tbsp. wheat germ Honey
Blend all ingredients until smooth and creamy.If you use frozen fruit, no ice is needed.Otherwise, blend with three ice cubes.
The official publication of Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden
The Tropical Garden Volume 63, Number 3. The Tropical Garden is published quarterly.Subscription is included in membership dues.© FTBG 2007 ISBN 1071-0914
Paper is 10% total recovered fiber and 100% post-consumer waste.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may bereproduced without permission.
Accredited by the American Association ofMuseums, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Gardenis supported by contributions from membersand friends, and in part by the State ofFlorida, Department of State, Division ofCultural Affairs and the Florida Arts Council,the National Endowment for the Arts,Institute of Museum and Library Services,Miami-Dade County Department of CulturalAffairs, the Cultural Affairs Council, theMayor, and the Miami-Dade County Boardof County Commissioners, and with thesupport of The City of Coral Gables.
editorial staffexecutive directorMike Maunder, Ph.D.
editor/chief operating officerNannette M. Zapata
designLorena AlbanAlina Balean
copy editorsAmy ButlerMary CollinsPaula Fernández de los MurosAnn Schmidt
staff contributorsArlene FerrisErin FittsNicole Gerard, Ph.D.Marilyn GriffithsMartha KentJack B. Fisher, Ph.D.Noris LedesmaJavier Francisco-Ortega, Ph.D.Carl E. Lewis, Ph.D.
advertising informationMari Novo305.667.1651, ext. 3357
previous editorsMarjory Stoneman Douglas 1945-50Lucita Wait 1950-56Nixon Smiley 1956-63Lucita Wait 1963-77Ann Prospero 1977-86Karen Nagle 1986-91Nicholas Cockshutt 1991-95Susan Knorr 1995-2004
15www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
ecads ago, the oldtimers—homeowners who had seen a “real”storm—did much of the local tree trimming. They would reducethe overall height of a tree by 30-50%, and allow a sturdy trunk
to hold less top weight. Once the trees had their initial hard trim, theywould be maintained at or above those cuts every two years. This wasconsidered responsible maintenance. The initial hard trim in this regimenwould be referred to as a “hatrack.” Subsequent visits would be called a“trim and shape,” usually to the old cuts or just above them.
Both the “wind blowing through” theory and the “hard trim” theories havelegitimacy. Native trees such as oaks, banyans and gumbo limbos do verywell with a natural lift and thinning. Avocados, black olives and Ficusbenjamina do much better on a top and shape regimen. The codes inplace today have arborists handcuffed completely to the “wind blowingthrough” theory, also known as natural shaping. This has created a one-size-fits-all ordinance that is best illustrated by the clean-up of giantficuses from the streets of Coral Gables.
As a homeowner, it is important to understand these concepts when youdecide to have your trees trimmed. The pruning standards set by theAmerican National Standards Institute, which form the basis of ourpruning codes, apply to the whole country from California to Maine.
The trimming techniques allowed by these regulations are natural shapingand thinning and crown reduction. To best understand how this isaccomplished, let’s use the bonsai analogy. Imagine that your 40-foot treeis a 40-inch tree sitting in a bonsai dish. The goal is to limit and reducethe tree’s size while maintaining its natural shape. By flush pruning thelongest leader tips back to the branch and leaving the less protruding tips,you can reduce the size of the tree while leaving a full, naturalappearance. Next, liminate sucker branches and arms that crowd andcompete on the inside of the tree, and lightly shape the canopy. The endresult is natural shaping and thinning.
The constant thinning of a tree’sinterior with limited canopy
reduction creates a tree that isgorgeous, natural-looking and last
but not least, tall.
The removal of more than 30% of the tree’s green canopy is a code violation.
How toHurricane-Proof Your Trees
THE TROPICAL GARDEN 16
Native trees such as oaks, banyansand gumbo limbos do very well witha natural lift and thinning.
The next concept is crown reduction. This refers to lowering the height of the treewithout leaving a large stub cut. Reduction is accomplished by using a techniquecalled drop crotching. If you want to reduce the size of the bonsai severely, youcould choose one or more of the main vertical leaders, usually the tallest, and flushcut them down to the main trunk or to the crotch where another large branch can beleft to maintain the form of the tree. This cut requires a good eye and experience.
These two pruning techniques represent the hurricane preparation that most treecompanies will use. A knowledge of these practices might enable you to makesuggestions or clarify your wishes.
What To Do Now
Start Early: Trees that are pruned correctly from a young age and notallowed to become overgrown will never be in need of severe pruning.
The Roof: Branches touching the roof or stretching over it areconsidered huge no-no’s by your insurance company.
Power and Telephone Lines: It is a given that these serviceswill be disrupted by a big storm. Eliminating hazards from your personaltelephone line and the power drop to the house could save you fromadditional headaches.
Palms: Remove bottom fronds and heavy seed pods. Queens, coconutsand washingtonias will benefit from this; royals should be left alone. For thepalm’s health, limit frond pruning to below the 9:00 and 3:00 o’clockpositions.
Fruit Trees: Most codes allows for the topping of avocados andmangos. Get them down to a comfortable height for picking.
Cut-downs: There are a handful of trees that can often be removedwithout a permit. They are listed as noxious exotics or prohibited species.Removing these can eliminate hazards and make room for newlandscape ideas.
Note: Topping and cut-down regulations are different from city to city.It is important to know your city’s codes.
Most tree companies and independent arborists are aware of all theseprinciples and have your best interests in mind. It is important to know that“certified arborist” does not imply “good tree trimmer.” A good company ortree trimmer is usually one recommended by a friend; not someoneknocking on your door looking for work.
A black olive pruned according to code and ready for thehurricane season.
A Ficus tree that is the victim of hatracking.
Not all tree species respond well to a hard trim.Ph
Martha Kent is a staff horticulturist at Fairchild.Ask Martha your gardening questions by calling
her at 305.667.1651, ext. 3317 or [email protected]
id you know some plant societies do much more than host monthlymeetings and shows and sales? There is another level of satisfaction to beingpart of a plant society. The good works and generosity that many societies
continuously engage in deserve recognition.
The Bromeliad Society of South Florida (BSSF), for instance, donated plants for abromeliad garden at Palmetto Middle School. The BSSF also donated funds to acommunity in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma, and itcontinuously donates to the Bromeliad Identification Center at Marie Selby Gardensand to the ongoing research of eliminating the bromeliad weevil.
The Tropical Flowering Tree Society (TFTS) donated and planted over 200 flowering trees toMiami Metro Zoo’s Rainbow Island. Not only has TFTS produced the Royal PoincianaFiesta for many years, but it has also given over $2,500 in scholarship money to theRoyal Poinciana Queen and princesses.
Students, schools and Girl and Boy Scouts projects that need help finding native plants arefulfilled by the Florida Native Plant Society Dade County Chapter. Each year, one masteror doctoral candidate who conducts orchid research receives scholarship money from theOrchid Society of Coral Gables. And the Tropical Fern & Exotic Plant Society hasawarded three scholarships over the past few years to college students who have madehorticulture their primary study.
Lastly, the South Florida Palm Society (SFPS) helps support individual research,planting projects and educational efforts at Fairchild, Montgomery Botanical Centerand other institutions. To this end, SFPS created a Community Service Committee 27years ago to yearly evaluate palm-related projects and guide the directors inallocating funds.
These horticultural societies as well as others not listed here take their giving andoutreach seriously, and Fairchild and our community benefit from their largesse.Congratulations to all of them—we are grateful for their myriad of contributions.
All societies welcome visitors to their meetings. For meeting times, visitwww.fairchildgarden.org/livingcollections and click the garden landscapes/plantsociety meeting schedule.
Plant Societies, more than meetings, shows and salesBy Martha Kent, Staff Horticulturist
Pine Island Nursery, Inc.The Finest quality fruit trees for the
landscape, garden center,and grove.
16300 SW 184th St., Miami, FL 33187 phone (305) 233-5501 | fax (305) 233-5610
A grouping of Plumeria pudica, one of a number ofplant donations given over the years by the Tropical
Flowering Tree Society to Fairchild.
F A I R C H I L D T R O P I C A L B O T A N I C G A R D E NPhotos by Julie Petrie/FTBG.
t a time when we often hear talk about the death of social clubs, OrchidSociety of Coral Gables (OSCG) meetings easily dispel any notions on thatsubject. Meetings, which are held at Fairchild, are regularly attended by
50-80 members, guests and visitors. Looking around the room during a typicalmeeting, you will see not only a diverse cultural mix, but also people of all ages.Talking with attendees, you will meet orchid growers of all skill levels—from 30-year veteran growers to beginners.
Any orchid club, be it large or small, is only as good as its members’ willingness toroll up their sleeves and volunteer. Earlier this year, OSCG members put in societyexhibits at the concurrent 19th World Orchid Conference and Tamiami InternationalOrchid Festival, and OSCG also hosted their own show just a month later at Fairchild.In addition, OSCG produces the exhibit and educational component for Fairchild’sannual International Orchid Festival. Fairchild is a beautiful setting for an orchid showand sale, and visitors can stroll the gardens after enjoying the bounty of orchids.
After a lecture by an outstanding speaker, members and guests socialize and enjoythe incredible food supplied by the society members. Following the refreshments,members enjoy a raffle of orchid plants supplied by the speaker.
Come and join us for lots of fun, food and new knowledge on growing orchids.Meetings are held the first Tuesday of each month at 7:00 p.m. in the Garden House.
Orchid Society of Coral GablesBy Jill Sidran, Past President, Orchid Society of Coral Gables
Lycaste Larry Cox ‘Electra’ AM/AOS was thegrand champion of the Fairchild show.
Paphiopedilum Crystelle‘Awesome Blossom’
Fairchild’s International Orchid Festival
Become a volunteer at Fairchildand be part of a wonderful community. Gain knowledge and be part
of a global conservation effort right here in South Florida.
Volunteers are needed now to serve as guides, gardening assistants, garden hosts and in avariety of other areas. If you are dedicated to Fairchild’s mission and can give 4 hours once a week, we can find a volunteer job for you!
To learn more come to Volunteer Information Days onThursday, September 4 and Friday, September 5, 9:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.
OR Saturday, September 13, 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.OR Saturday, September 27, 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.
For more information and to RSVP, contact Sandy at 305.667.1651, ext. 3324.
19www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
Fairchild Volunteers Help MadagascarBy Pauline Goldsmith, Volunteer
April DominguezCelebrity Cruises and
Maxi TravelCoty Fragrances Curb Appeal LandscapingGreenstreet CaféJaguar Ceviche Bar
Kerry’s Bromeliad NurseryLiving Colors Nursery Lynn LeverettMiami MetroZooMotes OrchidsNew Theatre of
Paula HamelikPauline GoldsmithTalula’s RestaurantTanSolaire Body SpaUpper Eastside Flowers
Volunteers enjoyed the company of their friends and great food at the season-ending Spring Social.
Garden-to-Garden committee members drew the names of the 12 lucky raffle prize winners at the Spring Social.
airchild volunteers have always been known fortheir generosity, so it was no surprise that thevolunteers enthusiastically supported the newly-
formed Friends of Fairchild (FOF) Garden-to-GardenCommittee. The committee members, Stacy De Meo,George Gates, Pauline Goldsmith, Cornelia Hurst,Lynn Leverett and Yonna Levine, joined to raisefunds to assist Fairchild’s partner gardens around theworld who are striving to preserve the biodiversity ofour planet.
This year the focus was on a little-known area in thesouthwest of Madagascar, home to a key regionalconservation facility, Arboretum d’Antsokay.Fairchild has partnered with this arboretum to furtherdevelop their capacity to preserve the unique spinyforest of Madagascar. A sampling of the plants foundin this extraordinary habitat is displayed in Fairchild’sLin Lougheed Spiny Forest of Madagascar exhibit.
Over the years, the Arboretum d’Antsokay hascollected an amazing and diverse range of plant lifefrom the region and built a priceless living collection.It is now a destination spot for many enthusiasticbotanists and recent field trips have identified 25endangered species. However, there are some areasof the arboretum that require immediateimprovement and where horticultural expertise isneeded. Their seed and clonal propagation experienceis limited, and the arboretum’s actual growingfacilities are inadequate. To compound the issue,basic horticultural tools are also in short supply.
The FOF Garden-to-Garden Committee decided toexplore ways to improve this dire situation and raised$5,700 for the project from both a highly successfulraffle and a generous donation from Fairchild TrusteeLin Lougheed.
This support from the Fairchild community will helpprovide Arboretum d’Antsokay with desperatelyneeded tools and aid conservation in an area ofextreme hardship. Over the next few months,Fairchild staff will visit and train the Arboretumd’Antsokay workers.
The Committee thanks all the generous raffle prizedonors, as well as the volunteers and friends ofFairchild who bought raffle tickets. The drawing of theraffle winners at the Volunteer Spring Social addedfun and excitement to this season-ending event.
The Friends of Fairchild and the Garden-To-Garden,Tools for Madagascar Committee Recognize and
Thank Our Generous Raffle Donors
9995 Southwest 66 Street, Miami, FL 203173 (305) 274-9813 www.palmhammockorchidest.com
Orchids, begonias, ferns,statuary, aroids,supplies, water lilies,butterfly plants, rareplants and more.
Class schedule availableon our website and atthe nursery.
Step into a paradise of tranquility, beauty and the embracing comfort of a secret garden
The Mangos ofAfrica
By Dr. Richard Campbell, Senior Curator of Tropical FruitPhotos by Dr. Richard Campbell and Gaby Orihuela/FTBG
hmed Zeitoun tends to his young mangotrees growing beneath the shade of centuries-old datepalms near Alexandria, Egypt. The dates are stillgrowing and fruiting, but they have long sinceextended beyond the reach of man. Now, mangovarieties with names like ‘Bullock’s Heart,’ ‘Taimour,’and ‘Zebda’ fill the void. These mango varieties arebut a few of the descendants of seed introduced to theNile Delta from India centuries before. From Luxornorth along the Nile, the mango grows to mammothproportions in the deep alluvial soils made rich fromthe natural flood cycles of the river. The Nile is nowkept within her banks, but residual fertility still pushesthe trees onward with vigor unmatched throughout themango world—wonderful for the mango tree, but forthe flowering, fruiting and harvest, these mango forestsare challenging at best —rich in tradition andingenious invention, but incapable of adjusting to amodern world.
Mr. Zeitoun, however, tends to his mangos outside theNile Delta, in the deep sands near the MediterraneanSea. Here, and in many of the desolate tracts of Egypt,the mango is finding new life through the addition ofwater and technology. The trees struggle to findnutrients and water, receiving only what is given tothem, staying small and productive and allowing for apositive change in the industry. The mangos of Egyptnow frequent the Cairo nights, filling blenders for localslooking for a respite from the stifling heat and arrivingin the export markets of the Middle East and Europe.The all-powerful pharaohs, despite their wealth, had nomango to grace their lands. The conquerors whofollowed celebrated hollow victories indeed, for theywere without the sweet fruit. Modern Egypt, in contrast,has seen the mango blossom into a local staple andworld commodity worthy of its heritage.
South across the Sahara, the mango was carried byPortuguese traders. This movement was carried out inthe last two centuries—relatively recent history and notreflective of the importance the mango has assumed forthe people. Coastal towns throughout sub-SaharanAfrica boast huge mango trees of mostly unimprovedgenetic stock. Common villagers, often women, plantthe seeds and live beneath their shade. Make nomistake; just because they are not genetically improved
Ahmed Zeitoun in hisAlexandria, Egypt,orchard.
Dr. Campbell standing in front ofone of the pyramids of Giza.
Gahanian mango farmersnear Accra.
A mango harvester in South Africa.
trees, they are no less tasty, nor less important to thelocal people and economies of the region. Relyingalmost exclusively on Mother Nature for their care,their abundance or their scarcity is unpredictable atbest, resulting in a gracious plenty or grave shortage atthe hands of the weather.
In West Africa, the mango was once again transformedinto a more modern export crop in the countries ofIvory Coast, Cameroon and Ghana in recent decades.Ivory Coast and Cameroon were devastated by civilwar, with the mango suffering greatly, yet in Ghana,which recently celebrated its fiftieth year ofindependence, the mango pushes on. The Ghanaianfarmer is clever and capable of much with little in theway of inputs. They possess deep savannah lands,bursting with fertility and blessed with adequate naturalrainfall. The mango grows well—so well in fact thattheir excessive growth and proper flowering andfruiting are problematic. However, in Ghana, thefarmer is dedicated to the mango, and he molds thefruit into an export crop with the help of varieties fromFlorida and beyond. The export markets of Europe wereopen and receptive to the Ghana mango; yet,quarantine issues have closed the door at present. Theworld should take heed, however, of the mango ofGhana, for its quality is formidable, its locationfortuitous and its people ingenious.
Venturing still southward, to the very limits of mangogrowing, we find the South African mango industry.Coming into existence in an organized manner in thelast half century, the South African mango is unique forthe continent, with bright red colors and modern,innovative growing techniques. In South Africa, themango is not a traditional crop; to the contrary, theSouth African grower is not burdened with the ways ofprevious generations. For the South African grower andresearcher, the mango is treated more as a peach or anapple tree, and the mango does not seem to mind. Thisis fortunate for all of us, for we have much to learnfrom this non-biased approach. Trees are small,pruning exact and varieties specific for the climate.South African technology continues its spread from theTzaneen to Tamale, but for South Africa, there remainsone cruel reality—they are a long way from the exportmarkets of Europe and the Middle East. This fact hasforced great innovation in picking, handling andshipping, but the shape of the industry has turned moretoward local sales and products like dried mango.
A continent of contrasts plays host to the king of fruit.We can celebrate the traditions, the innocent pleasuresand the innovations, for this is the essence of theMangos of Africa.
‘Bullock’s Heart’ mangos
celebrates with july festival
By Dr. Gary Noel Ross and Dr. Elane Nuehring
Since 2004, each July theMiami Blue Chapter of the North
American Butterfly Association
has teamed up with Fairchild
Tropical Botanic Garden to
produce Butterfly Days, a festival
that is filled with butterfly fun
and education. This annual event
is part of a larger partnership
between the chapter and
Fairchild, which aims to promote
butterfly habitat and gardening in
Miami and South Florida through
a growing number of
collaborative initiatives. These
events afford rich examples of
how butterfly conservationists
can partner with their local
27www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
THE TROPICAL GARDEN 28
Butterfly Days 2008 featured the “blue butterflies,” including the Miami Blue.The Friday reception provided a forum for local researchers in biology and botany tointerface with our accomplished keynote speaker from Harvard University, NaomiPierce, Ph.D., who is recognized for her creative and in-depth work on theLycaenidae or “the blues.”
The festival offered many indoor and outdoor butterfly activities. For example, someoutdoor activities included guided walks through the extensive Lisa D. Annessbutterfly garden and tram tours of butterfly viewing spots elsewhere in the garden.Plant vendors marketed butterfly nectar and host plants that are particularlyproductive in South Florida. Several kiosks offered nature-oriented creations. Specialactivities for children included face painting, seed planting and short interpretivebutterfly walks. The Shop at Fairchild was also stocked to entice butterflyaficionados.
Inside the Garden House, booths offered information on the Miami Blue Chapter,Fairchild and select groups whose efforts are significant to butterfly habitats, such asDade County Chapter of the Florida Native Plant Society. Dramatic macro-photographic prints by one of the Miami Blue Chapter’s outstanding photographers,Hank Poor, showcased the life cycle of several butterfly species from egg tocaterpillar, chrysalis to adult. Books authored by the special presenters were for sale inThe Shop at Fairchild.
On both Saturday and Sunday, butterfly experts from national, state and localauthorities gave informative lectures on butterflies, their behavior, habitats andconservation. This year, in addition to Dr. Naomi Pierce and her work with the bluebutterflies of the world, we welcomed Dr. Jaret Daniels (McGuire Center forLepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida,Gainesville), who has provided leadership in the efforts to re-introduce the Miami Bluebutterfly to its former haunts. Dr. Daniels is also a key player in a state-wide effort tosecure the future for our many imperiled butterflies.
In addition, we were also delighted to have Roger Hammer, Director of CastellowHammock Preserve and author of several books on area plants and wild places, andSteve Woodmansee, Director, Pro Native Consulting and founder of the Institute forRegional Conservation. Mr. Woodmansee is also the co-author of the invaluablebook, Rare Plants of South Florida: Their History, Conservation and Restoration. Mr.Hammer shared his vast knowledge of wild butterfly habitats and plant hosts, and Mr.Woodmansee took us back to our home lawns and gardens to explore the butterflyhabitats provided by our “weeds.” For folks just venturing into butterflies, we offered“Butterflies 101” sessions.
The exuberance of Butterfly Days is that every year is different, by design. For example,in 2007, we enjoyed the vibrant presentations of Dr. Gary Noel Ross, “An Enchantmentof Wings” and “The Joy of Butterflies: Personal Reflections;” “Butterflies of the EastCoast” by Rick Cech (New York City, and author of book of same title) and “A Trip tothe Southern Hemisphere: Butterflies of Peru” (also by Cech); “The Atala Butterfly—AFairchild Favorite,” by Sandy Koi (a regional biologist recognized for her studies of thehistoric plight and more recent conservation success of the Atala in South Florida);”Butterfly Gardening in Zone 11,” by Cindy David (a local in-demand butterflylandscape designer); and “Butterfly Gardening in Highly Urbanized Areas,” by SamWright (field biologist and coastal habitat restoration authority with Fairchild).
Since Fairchild is located within an extreme southern zone of the U.S., subtropical/tropical butterflies dominate the landscape and are tantalizing targets for national andinternational butterflyers. A cumulative list of species recorded from the garden now
totals 53, including the commonly seen: Polydamas Swallowtail, Great SouthernWhite, Florida White, Dina Yellow, Orange-barred Sulphur, Large Orange Sulphur,Statira Sulphur, Lyside Sulphur, Atala, Fulvous Hairstreak, Cassius Blue, CeranusBlue, Gulf Fritillary, Julia Heliconian, Zebra Heliconian, White Peacock, MangroveBuckeye, Ruddy Daggerwing, Monarch, Queen, Mangrove Skipper, HammockSkipper, Dorantes Longtail, Baracoa Skipper, Monk Skipper, Tropical CheckeredSkipper and Brazilian Skipper. Others sightings are possible. For example, theMalachite has been seen and photographed in recent months and efforts are beingmade to encourage its host, the green shrimp plant (Blechum brownei).
The richness of butterflies at Fairchild is the result of several factors: a policy of nopesticides, reduced mowing in select habitats containing herbaceous butterfly host plantsand recently amplified butterfly gardening throughout the facility, including the newlyexpanded Lisa D. Anness Butterfly Garden. The original butterfly garden was installed byEagle Scout Florian Feiberg and members of Troop 457, along with youngsters ages 8–11 from the Let’s Explore at Fairchild Program. From the beginning, the butterflygarden has been maintained by the diligent work of Mary Ann and Hank Poor, Fairchildvolunteers and Miami Blue Chapter members. This pioneering work was enlargedmultifold in 2006 by Fairchild’s generous benefactor, Larry Rutherford, in honor ofLisa D. Anness, a tireless supporter of the Miami Blue Chapter, Fairchild and butterflyhabitat in residential gardens.
Butterfly gardening at Fairchild also has the robust backing from Executive Director, Dr.Mike Maunder, former Director of Living Collections and Garden Landscapes, MikeDavenport, and the Fairchild Trustees—especially Bruce Greer (President), Sue Steinberg(Vice President) and Willis Harding (trustee and new NABA member). The expandedLisa D. Anness Butterfly Garden was orchestrated by Mike Davenport and a jointplanning committee of Fairchild staff, Fairchild volunteers and Miami Blue Chaptervolunteers. Adding even more energy to the butterfly agenda, a cadre of Fairchildvolunteers was trained to lead weekly butterfly walks in the garden, spurred by theleadership and mentoring of Linda Evans, Miami Blue Chapter Vice President, LisaBlackwelder and other Fairchild volunteers and Miami Blue Chapter members.Butterflies will also now be part of Fairchild’s education programs in which over 45,000school children visit annually and learn about many aspects of the natural world.
The partnership between Fairchild and the Miami Blue Chapter of NABA has proven to beunique and mutually tactical. For example, Fairchild consists of 83 acres on the shore ofBiscayne Bay—a prestigious property and the gateway to the popular Everglades NationalPark and the Florida Keys. Besides reigning as the county’s oldest cultural institution, withover 45,000 members, Fairchild is recognized internationally as a leader in tropical plantconservation, education and horticulture. With its dynamic leadership, reputation,financial base and physical layout, Fairchild has the infrastructure necessary to host majorpublic events. Of tremendous significance is the genius and enthusiasm found in theFairchild’s Special Events Department, where Director Ann Schmidt and her team seem tosee only promise and possibility, never barriers and obstacles.
In contrast, like most NABA chapters, the Miami Blue Chapter has a smallmembership, no paid staff, a low budget and no physical venue for events. However,the chapter has a president with vision, Dennis Olle (recently elected to NABA’sBoard of Directors), an expert advisor, David Lysinger, who gave his encouragementand wisdom about butterflies, plants and habitats to the development of our butterflypartnership, a committed, hard-working membership and the capacity to accessleading figures in butterfly study both locally and nationally. So, by joining forces,the Miami Blue Chapter and Fairchild have succeeded in producing an annual publicevent that showcases the region’s free-ranging butterfly species and a magnificentbotanical garden. Upping the ante, the collaboration enhances the shared focus ofboth—namely wildlife and botanical conservation.
Fairchild: A butterfly habitat
F A I R C H I L D T R O P I C A L B O T A N I C G A R D E N
Sunday, September 14, 20089:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.
This is the ONLY day of the year that you canbring your pooch to Fairchild. All dogs must be pre-
registered to attend. Please call 305.663.8091 toregister. For more information, please visit
Enjoy FREESundaYsat FairchildIn August and September! Bring yourfriends.
F A I R C H I L D T R O P I C A L B O T A N I C G A R D E N
oy holds a celebrity status among “vegetable wonders.” Used for numerous productsincluding bioplastics, fuel and food, today’s domesticated soybean Glycine max, isthe descendent of the Chinese Glycine soja. Historical evidence points to the origin ofsoybean domestication in northern China at around 11th century B.C. Sea and land
routes, including the Silk Road, enabled the movement and distribution of soybeans duringhundreds of years to southern China, the Korean peninsula and beyond. During the 16thand 17th centuries, European explorers in China and Japan made notes on the usage of alocal and abundant bean. John Locke once wrote on the two “sauces” brought into Englandfrom the East Indies; mango and soy. The history of soy is fascinating and its success as weknow it today is due in part to our friend Dr. David Fairchild. More on this shortly, but first,a quick look at the soybean plant:
The soy plant is a legume. Modern soy plants grow to approximately 36 inches in height,exhibit trifoliate leaves and produce hundreds of pods. Pods, typically containing two to fourbeans, are directly attached to the stem of the plant. Commercial soybeans are typicallystraw yellow as a result of genetic selection, but can come in many different colors. Theroots of this plant harbor nodules created by Rhizobium japonicum, which allow the plants’roots to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil. Nitrogen fixation helps stimulate thegrowth of this plant as well as other plants that are rotated in the same planting areas. Soy isa fast growing plant and, in most cases, are harvestable only 100 days after planting.
Soy most likely entered Europe through the Netherlands in the 1730s. During this time,Linnaeus described the soybean in the Hortus cliffortianus based on a plant found at theHartecamp garden. Later, in 1790, the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew featured their ownsoybean plantings. It is interesting to note that soybean plants in Europe were only plantedfor display purposes at that time.
Soy first reached the United States in the mid-1700s when Samuel Bowen brought theplants to his Savannah plantation from China. There, he harvested the plants for theproduction of soy sauce and soy noodles, which he later exported to the United Kingdom.Benjamin Franklin also played a crucial role in the introduction of soybeans into the UnitedStates. In 1770, he sent seeds from London for his garden in Philadelphia.
Henry Ford was probably one of the most important soy product pioneers. He used hismarketing talents to bring soy products into the public eye despite heavy skepticism. Mr.Ford’s drive was to develop technological and agricultural uses of soy which could then beused to help farmers. As always, Mr. Ford was way ahead of his time.
Dr. David Fairchild and his friends in the USDA’s Office of Foreign Seed and PlantIntroduction were instrumental in a massive effort to establish soy plants in the UnitedStates. From 1929-1932, Dr. Fairchild’s friends Palemon Howard Dorsett and William
A soybean field in mid-July in northern Illinois.Soya piled bundles, 1929.
Dr. David Fairchild and hisfriends in the USDA’s
Office of Foreign Seed andPlant Introduction were
instrumental in a massiveeffort to establish soy plants
in the United States.
33www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
Joseph Morse from the USDA, researched and collected soybean plants from China. Theseplants were then introduced into the United States, a move that is still considered thegreatest contribution to American soybean production. During World War II and the twodecades immediately after the war, soybean production greatly expanded.
Soy is the cheapest source of protein cost per kilogram bases. The demand for soy hasdoubled that of corn in the last 10 years and surpassed that of wheat and cotton by seventimes. The United States is currently the primary producer of soy in the world, contributing38% of total world crop. Brazil comes in second with 25%, and Argentina in third placewith 19%. Other producers include China, India, Canada and Paraguay. Soy’s role in thehealth food industry took a center stage when the U.S. Food and Drug Administrationapproved that “foods containing 6.25 grams or more of soy per serving are low in fat,cholesterol and sodium.” There are also many critics of soy who site scientific studiesshowing increased estrogen levels and risk of cancer associated with soy consumption.
The increasing demand for soy and shifting of crop focus in numerous countries is addingpressure to ecosystems and rainforests. American soy farms have moved to growing corn tosupplement the ethanol biofuel industry in the United States. Brazil, being our neighborand the second largest producer of soy, is perfectly poised to provide the U.S. market withnecessary soybeans. Many environmental leaders fear this change will increasedeforestation of rainforest and other habitats in Brazil.
Brazilian soybeans are grown in the Cerrado grasslands. As megafarms continue to takeover the Cerrado, smaller farmers move to the neighboring Amazon rainforest where theymake space for their own subsistence farms. At the same time, soy farms are pushing northtoward the Amazon region as sugar cane plantations expand to supplement Brazil’ssugarcane-based ethanol industry. Soy plantations in the Amazonian region of Brazilcurrently cover more than eight million hectares and soy production in Brazil has beengrowing at almost 17% each year. Soy production is also a driver in the construction ofnew highways, which dramatically contributes to rainforest deforestation and open areas topreviously remote cultures.
The various products and consequences of soy seem endless. Just how will the worldhandle the increasing need for soy products with limited plantation space? There is stillmuch to research and learn. We certainly know that soy will continue, as it has forthousands of years, to change the way we feed and industrialize our world.
The United States iscurrently the primary
producer of soy in theworld, producing 38% of
total world’s crop
Soybean field in New Jersey.
Glycine max, soybeanHerbarium/FTBG
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THE TROPICAL GARDEN 36
Sustainable LivingAT FAIRCHILD’S
WILLIAMS GROVEText and photos by Noris Ledesma, Curator of Tropical Fruit
After harvest, proper mulching and pruning maintains the mango tree’s health, productivity and size.
37www.fairchildgarden.org SUMMER 2008
aily decisions regarding what we do, what we consume,where we buy, how we choose to live and the values that we holdand promote, affect the Earth and the communities we live in.
Sustainable living requires following a model of natural resourceconservation and innovation. At Fairchild Tropical Botanic Gardenat Williams Grove, we believe in the preservation of agriculture inSouth Florida, as well as providing a living heritage and improvingour quality of life through sustainable living. By using innovativehorticultural techniques and proper genetic resources, we canrealize this potential. It is a simple equation; yet, the modern worldworks against us, through a fear of the natural world and aperceived need for chemical inputs.
The research collection at Williams Grove is maintained in just thismanner. In less than five acres, we house the entire genetic bank foravocado, mango, jackfruit, mamey sapote, sapodilla, canistel, abrico,caimito, Spanish lime and tamarind. The management techniques weuse also provide guidance for your own back yard.
Mulch is used with a heavy hand given the spartan nature of SouthFlorida soils. As the mulch decomposes, it releases nutrients to thetrees, retains water and builds soil structure. Four to six inches ofmulch are used annually, and care is taken not to place the mulchdirectly on the trunk since this can introduce pathogens or causethe trunk to rot. Weeds are suppressed for a time in order to allowthe trees to grow and provide future weed control through shading.
Pruning maintains a tree’s health, productivity and size. Afterharvest, the trees are pruned by hand, and the branches, twigs andleaves are mulched or ground up for use as mulch in other locations.Height, width and training techniques depend on the species anddesired results. The constant is consistency.
Irrigation is used for water-loving species like jackfruit, avocado andmamey sapote, but frequency is never more than once per week.Mango, canistel, sapodilla, Spanish lime and abrico receive nowatering after establishment.
Weeds are allowed to provide a nectar source for bees, flies andwasps during the spring flowering season. Weed control isaccomplished mechanically, through mulching and shading by thetrees themselves.
Organic wastes, such as fruit peelings and kitchen compost arerecycled through our chickens, geese and worms. The animals alsoprovide assistance in the production of organic fertilizers, weedcontrol, eggs and as educational tools for children.
Insects are presumed innocent until proven guilty of damage. Since2004, no insecticides have been applied. Control has beenachieved through understanding and patience and throughbeneficial insects such as bees.
Eco-friendly materials are used when possible, such as the 100%corn cups in which we serve our smoothies.
Farm animals help children learn about thebenefits of sustainable living.
During the spring flowering season, weeds are allowed to provide a nectarsource for bees, flies and wasps.
At Williams Grove, bees are used as a natual insecticide.
F A I R C H I L D T R O P I C A L B O T A N I C G A R D E N
Growth potentialMEMBERSHIP AT FAIRCHILD
embers of Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden make a big difference, because they are part of a globalcommunity focused on tropical conservation and education. Fairchild members support programsin far away places like Madagascar and Kenya. And, Fairchild members support conservation and
education programs right here in South Florida. In fact, Fairchild’s scientists are leading plant conservation effortsin our local areas and neighborhoods.
In addition to supporting a global habitat recovery efforts, Fairchild members receive free admissioneveryday during regular hours; free admission to more than 500 other U.S. gardens, arboreta and museums; a freesubscription to The Tropical Garden; 10% discount at The Shop at Fairchild; priorityregistration and discounts for educational courses and free use of the research and member libraries.Members also receive special invitations to members’ only events such as moonlight tours, spring andfall plant sales, lectures and trips.
So join or renew your membership today. Your Fairchild membership has growth potential. For more information, please call the membership department at 305.667.1651, ext. 3362 or visitwww.fairchildgarden.org.
What’s In StoreBy Erin Fitts, Director of Retail and Visitor Services
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Fairchild’s Estate Jewelry ProgramDo you have estate or antique jewelry that you no longer use? Fairchild’s recentlyestablished Estate Jewelry Program is a perfect way to give these items a new life andsupport the garden.
Please consider donating necklaces, bracelets, watches, tie clips, cuff links or smallcollectibles, such as Limoges boxes. They will be displayed for sale in The Shop atFairchild, and all proceeds from this program will go directly to support Fairchild’sprograms.
The Shop at Fairchild will accept donations every day from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.Please ask any sales associate for assistance with the donation registration. Each donorwill receive a letter by mail acknowledging the donation. If you have any questionsconcerning this program, please call The Shop at Fairchild at 305. 667.1651, ext .3305or e-mail us at [email protected]
Lichtenstein Beach TowelAs summer continues and thoughts turn to long days relaxing at the beach, be sure to takealong a Lichtenstein at Fairchild beach towel! This gorgeous, oversized towel sports awhimsical image perfect for Miami beaches. The towel is screened with Roy Lichtenstein’sHot Dog with Mustard image, a reproduction exclusively allowed by a private Miami artcollector. The towel is available now in The Shop at Fairchild at the special price of $28(regular price $38). 3.5 feet x 6 feet.
THE TROPICAL GARDEN 40
Joint Meeting of the Florida Rare PlantTask Force and Center for PlantConservationDr. Joyce Maschinski, Conservation Ecologist/Team Leader
he joint meeting of the Florida Rare Plant Task Force and Center for PlantConservation was held at Fairchild April 24-27, 2008. Co-hosted by HistoricBok Sanctuary and Fairchild, the event was sponsored by the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry andthe Center for Plant Conservation (CPC). State and national land managers andplant conservation professionals attended to learn about new rare plantconservation research and management. This professional network helps to moveplant conservation efforts forward more efficiently and effectively. Highlightsincluded a keynote address by Dr. Bruce Hungate, Co-Director of the WesternRegional Center of National Institute for Climatic Change Research at NorthernArizona University, who spoke about evidence of climatic change and itspotential effects on important U.S. terrestrial systems; a plant monitoring workshopconducted by Rob Sutter, Senior Conservation Ecologist/Regional Scientist for theSouthern U.S. Region of The Nature Conservancy, where key components ofmonitoring methodology, design, and analysis were discussed; and a specialperformance by the Coconut Grove Ballet.
Fairchild’s South Florida Conservation team led field trips to pine rockland, marlprairie, hardwood hammock and coastal dune habitats. At Bill Sadowski Park,Fairchild’s Jennifer Possley showed guests an ongoing community restoration areaand some of Florida’s rarest ferns. At Luis Martinez Army Reserve, Dr. JoyceMaschinski explained a recent introduction of the federally endangered Amorphaherbacea var. crenulata, crenulate leadplant, a study in collaboration with Dr. BruceSchaffer from the University of Florida Tropical Research and Education Center. AtNorth Shore Open Space Park, Sam Wright engaged guests in hands-on invasiveplant removal while they reviewed our recent introductions of Jacquemontiareclinata. Joie Goodman led a group to Everglades National Park, where theylearned about the recent joint national effort between CPC participating institutionsand the National Park Service to collect and store seeds of the park’s rarest plants.Happily, Dr. Christina Walters, Lead Scientist from USDA-ARS National Center forGenetic Resources Preservation, who is coordinating seed storage tests for these rarespecies, was able to see the rare plant species from Fairchild’s collections in theirnatural habitats.
C insDonate yourchange toFairchild’sconservationprogramsHelp fund Fairchild’s conservation programs byrounding up your purchaseto the next dollar or bydonating the change fromyour purchase next timeyou’re at The Shop atFairchild. Your donationwill go toward Fairchild’sconservation programs inSouth Florida and morethan 20 countries.
Please speak with any of oursales associates thenext time you visit Fairchild.
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2009 Gala in the Garden
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Brenda Nestor Castellano � Swanee DiMarePhilanthropic Chairmen
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For more information contact Suzanne Kores, 305.667.1651, x3323, [email protected]
RECENT VISITS TO FAIRCHILD
Sargent and Eunice ShriverThe Shrivers recently visited Fairchildwhile on their vacation in South Florida.Development Associate Jeremy Davitguided the Shrivers who said, “It was amost delightful few hours togetherexploring the gardens.” Mrs. Shriverenjoyed the various colors and textures ofthe flowers that were in bloom andmarveled at the “lovely staff.” They wereboth excited to learn about Fairchild’smission in tropical plant conservation.
Douglas S. Cramer and Hugh BushDouglas S. Cramer, contemporary artcollector and producer of such televisionseries as “The Love Boat,” “Dynasty,”“The Brady Bunch” and “MissionImpossible,” and Hugh Bush recentlyvisited Fairchild. Mr. Cramer and Mr.Bush enjoyed the Lichtenstein sculptures.A Fairchild volunteer, who happened tobe reading Danielle Steele’s most recentn