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Transcript
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>*l-l

.vi

DOCIJfl^LlMT \

.COLLECTION./

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA CENTER

MANUAL SERIES

OCEANOGRAPHIC CONVERSION TABLES

FOR USE BY THE INTERNATIONAL

INDIAN OCEAN EXPEDITION

PUBLICATION M-1

\\j^

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The National Oceanographic Data Center is sponsored by six

government agencies having an interest in the marine environ-

ment; it is governed by an Advisory Board composed of

representatives of these activities and the National Academyof Sciences. The U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office is assigned

responsibility for management of the National Oceanographic

Data Center.

The sponsoring agencies are:

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY

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FOREWORD

This pulDllcation contains tatles of the standardized obser-vational units and codes currently used In conjunction with theNational Oceanographlc Data Center's computer programs. Thesetables have been excerpted fl-om NODC publication "ProcessingPhysical and Chemical Data From Oceanographlc Stations," Publi-cation M-2. It Is Intended that through the use of these tablesInternational Indian Ocean Expedition participants may make thefullest and most expeditious use of the processing facilitiesavailable at the Data Center. Copies of the sample form (page 105

)

and additional copies of this publication may be obtained by vrltlngto the National Oceanographlc Data Center, Washington 25, D. C.

/(./ CyicX^^-6^^W. C. 4^C0BSDirectorNational Oceanographlc Data Center

III

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TABLE OF CONTFNTS

Page

POREWORL ill

LIST OF TABLES vll

INTRODUCTION 1

APPENDIX I - PHYSICAL AND CHEl^aCAL DATA FORM,NHO-NODC-316T/1 (9-61) AND OCEANOGRAPHIC STATIONCARD 105

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLENUMBER PAGE

1. COUNTRY CODE - International Geophysical Year(IGY) Code 23

2. TENTH CONVERSION - Conversion from Seconds (of

Position or Minutes (of Time)to Tenths of Minutes or Hour 26

3. MARSDEN SQUARE CHART 2?

h. TIME - Conversion from Local to Greenwich Mean Time(GMT) 29

5. DEPTH - Conversion from Fathoms to Meters 30

6. DEPTH - Conversion from Feet to Meters (tenths) 32

7. ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS 3^

8. WATER COLOR - Porel-Ule Scale and Conversion fromother Color Scales 35

9. DIRECTION - In Tens of Degrees from vhich Wavesand/or Winds are Coming 36

10. DIRECTION - Conversion from Points, Quarter Points,or a Scale of 32, To a Scale of 36 Points 37

11. HEIGHT - WMO Code 1555 for Recording Height of theDominant Waves 38

12. PERIOD - WMO Code 3155 for Recording Period of the

Dominant Waves 39

13. SEA STATE - Conversion from the Douglas Scale toWMO Code 3700 ^0

1^. WIND SPEED - Conversion from Meters per Secondto Knots ^1

15. WIND SPEED - Conversion from Miles per Hour to Knots ^2

16. WIND SPEED - Conversion from Kilometers per Hour toKnots 43

VII

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LIST OF TABLES (CONT'D)

TABLENUMBER PAGE

17. WIND SPEED - Conversion from Feet per Second to Knots kk

18. WIND FORCE - Conversion from Knots,, Meters per Second,Kilometers per Hour, and Miles per Hourto the Beaufort Wind Scale I15

19. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE - Conversion from Inches ofMercury to Millibars k6

20. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE - Conversion from Millimetersof Mercury to Millibars ^7

21. TEMPEE^TURE - Conversion from Fahrenheit toCentigrade 50

22. PRESENT WEATHER - WMO Code i)-501 for RecordingPresent Weather 58

23. PRESENT WEATHER - Conversion from Beaufort WeatherNotation to WMO Code ^501 59

2k. PRESEJW WEATHER - Conversion from I936 InternationalMeteorological Organization Code

to the WMO Code J^501 60

25. PRESENT WEATHER - WMO Code 4677 for Recording PresentWeather 6k

26. CLOUD TXPE (genus) - WMO Code O5OO for RecordingCloud Type (Genus) 68

27. CLOUD AMOUTW - WMO Code 2700 for Recording CloudAmount 69

28. VISIBILITY - WMO Code ^300 for Recording Visibilityat Surface 70

29. PRECISION OF MEASUREMENT 71

30. SALINITY - Conversion from Chlorinity to Salinity {L) 72

31. OXYGEN - Conversion from Milligrams per Liter toMilliliters per Liter (NTP) 87

VII

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LIST OF TABLES (CONT'D)

TABLENUMBER PAGE

32. OXTGEN - Conversion from Milligram-Atoms per Literto Milliliters per Liter 88

33. PHOSPHORUS - Conversion from Micrograms per Literof Inorganic P to Microgram-Atoms perLiter of P 93

34. PHOSPHATE - Conversion from Micrograms per Literof PO4 to Microgram-Atoms per Liter of

POI4.-P 9k-

35. PHOSPHORUS PENTOXTDE - Conversion from Microgramsper Liter of P2O5 to Microgram-Atcms per Liter of P 96

36. NITRITE - Conversion from Micrograms per Liter of NO2to Microgram-Atoms per Liter of NO2-N 97

37. NITRATE - Conversion from Micrograms per Liter of NO3

to Microgram-Atoms per Liter of NO3-N 98

38. SILICON - Conversion from Micrograms per Liter of Si

to Microgram-Atoms per Liter of Si 100

39. SILICON DIOXIDE - Conversion from Micrograms per Literof SiOg to Microgram-Atoms perLiter of SiOg-Si 102

kO. SILICATE - Conversion from Milligrams per Liter of

SiOo to Microgram-Atoms per Liter of

Si03-Si ,103

IX

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INTRODUCTION

As peirt of the United States' contribution to the InternationalIndian Ocean Expedition, the processing facilities of the NationalOceanographic Data Center (NODC) are made available to the Expeditionso that the observed data and the interpolated and computed valuesmay be furnished for publication at the earliest possible date. Theprocessing and computing techniq.ues currently used by NODC are gearedto a set of standardized observational units and codes. In order toprocess these data efficiently for the oceanographic community, itis desirable that they be reported in the units or codes which arepresently used and programmed for the NODC computers. Submission of

data on the NODC Physical and Chemical Data Form for OceanographicStations, form NODC-EXP 316t/12 (2-62), and conversion to properstandard units or codes (described in a special tri-llngual tableof units) vlll avoid time consuming delays during processing. (See

Appendix I, page 105, for sample Physical and Chemical Data Form.)If the data from a peirticular cruise or group of stations can besupplied in this standard form, the processing to the publicationlisting stage can usually be completed in about three months . Thepublication listing -will contain, in addition to the original obser-vations, the following data: Interpolated temperature, salinity,sigma-t, oxygen, and sound velocity values at standard depths, andcomputed values of sigma-t, sound velocity, specific voliome anomaly,and dynamic depth anomaly. Most of these computations are based onformulas published in "The Oceans, Their Physics, Chemistry, and GeneralBiology" by Sverdrup, Fleming, and Johnson.

During the processing of historical data by NODC, a great varietyof observational units was encountered; tables were required to convertthese units to a series of standard \inits or codes. These tables havebeen reproduced as a publication for the sole use of the InternationalIndian Ocean Expedition participants.

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TABLE 1

Country Code

International Geophysical Year (IGY) Code

CODE NAME

01

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TABLE 1 (Cont'd)

CODE NAME

06

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TABLE 1 (Cont'd)

CODE NAME

73 Romania

29 Spain

76 Sudan

79 Surinam

77 Sweden

78 Switzerland80 Syria

86 Thailand88 Tunisia89 Turkey

91 Union of South Africa

90 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

7^ United Kingdom of Great Britainand Northern Ireland

31 United States of America92 Uruguay

93 Venesuela^k Viet-Nam

95 Yugoslavia

NOTE: 69 and 71 have not been assigned.

COUEOTRT CODE OF COmriRIES PARTICIPATING IN TIE IGY METEOROLOGYPROGRAM AS GIVEN IN "INTERMAIIONAIi GEOPHYSICAL. YEAR 1957-1958"METEOROLOGICAL PROGRAMVCE, OMM/wMO-NO, 58 AGl-IGY-2 1957

25

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TABLE 2

Tenths Conversion

Conversion from seconds (of position) or minutes (of time)to tenths of minutes or hours

Range of

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TABLE 3

MARSDEN SQUARE CHART

H,0. 17041

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TABLE 4

FOLLOWING DAY

Eh

O

0)

o•H

0)

Q)

Uoo-p

aioo

g

o•H

u

oo

Q

to

I/)

<

oo

T

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TABLE 5

Depth

Con-version from fathoms to meters

(1 fathom = 1.8288 meters)

Fathoms

Meters

0.0

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TABLE 5 (Cont'd)

Depth

Conversion frc3m fathoms to meters(l fathom = 1.8288 meters)

Fathoms

300400500

600

700800900

00

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TABLE 6

Depth

Conversion from feet to meters (tenths)

(l foot = 0.30ii8 meter)

Feet

001020

30^0

5060

7080

90

100110120130lifO

150i6o170IBO190

200210220

2302i|0

250260270280290

h- 7

0.0

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TABLE 6 (cont'd)

Conversion from feet to meters (tenths)

(1 foot = 0.3048 meter)

Feet

3004oo

5006oo700800900

1000110012001300li+OO

15001600170018001900

20002100220023002i<-00

25002600270028002900

300031003200

00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

91.4

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TABLE 7

Additional Observations

This table is to be added later.

34

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TABLE 8

Water Color

Forel-Ule scale and eonversions from other color scales

Percent

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TABLE 9

Direction

In tens of degrees from which waves and/or windsare coming

Code

00 Calm (no Waves- no motion)

01 5°- 14°

02 15°- 24°

03 25°- 34°

04 35°- 44°

05 45°- 54°

06 55°- 64°

07 65°- 74°

08 75°- 84°

09 85°- 94°

10 95° -104°

11 105° -114°

12 115°-124°

13 125° -134°

14 135° -144°

15 145° -154°

16 155°- 164°

17 165° -174°

18 175° -184°

19 185° -194°

20 195° -204°

21 205° -21 4°

Code

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

49

99

215°

225°

235°

245°

255°

265°

275°

285°

295°

305°

315°

325°

335°

345°

355°

•224°

234°

•244°

254°

•264°

•274°

284°

294°

304°

314°

324°

334°

344°

354°

Waves confused, direction

indeterminate (waves equal

to or less than 4% metres)

Waves confused, direction

indeterminate (waves grea-

ter than 4% metres)

Winds variable, oral! direct-

ions or unknown

Table 9 is a comhlnatlon of WMO Codes O885 and 08T7.

36

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TABLE 10

Direction

Conversion from points, qfuarter points, or a scale of 32, to a sceile of 36 points

POINTS

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TABLE 11

Height

WMO Code 1555 for recording height of the dominant waves

Code

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

X

CodeIf 50 is added to direction

Less than V4 m (1 ft)

1/2 m ( 1 % ft)

1 m ( 3

1 1/2 m ( 5

ft)

ft)

2 m ( 6 1/2 tt)

2 1/2 m ( 8 ft)

3 m ( 9 1/2 ft)

31/2^ (11 ft)

4 m (13 ft)

4 1/2 m (14 ft)

Height not determined

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Code

2

3

4

5

6

7

TABLE 12

Period

WMO Code 3155 for recording period of dominant waves

5 seconds or less

6 or 7 seconds

8 or 9 seconds

10 or 11 seconds

12 or 13 seconds

14 or 15 seconds

Code

8

9

1

X

16 or 17 seconds

18 or 19 seconds

20 or 21 seconds

Over 21 seconds

Calm, or period not determined

Notes

(1) The period of the waves is the time between the passage of two successive wavecrests past a fixed point (it is equal to the wave length divided by the wave speed).

(2) The average value of the wave period is reported, as obtained from the largerwell-formed waves of the wave system being observed.

39

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TABLE 13

Sea State

WMO Code 3700 for Reeording Sea State

Description

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TABLE ih

Wind Speed

Conversion from meters per second to knots(im/sec - 1. 9^+25^4- knots)

m/sec

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TABLE 15

Wind Speed

Conversion from miles per hoirr to knots(l mpti = 0.86839 knot)

mph 00 01 02 03 ok 05 06 07 08 09

00102030^0

50

607080

90100

110

00

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OiABIiE 16

Wind Speed

Conversion from kilometers per hour to knots

(1 km/hr = 0.539593 knot)

km/hr

001020

3040

50

60

7080

90100

110120130i4o150

160170180

00

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TABLE IT

Wind Speed

Conversion from feet per second to knots

(l ft/sec = 0.5921 knot)

ft/ sec 00 01

001020

3040

50

60

7080

90100

110120130lij-O

150

160

02 03 Ok 05 06 07 08 09

00

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TABLE 18

Wind Force

Conversion from knots, meters per second, kilometers perhour, and miles per hour to the Beaufort wind scale

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TABLE 19

Atmospheric Pressiore

Conversion from inches of mercury to millibars*(l inch of H„ = 33-8639 mbs)

Inches

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TABLE 20

Atmospheric Pressure

Conversion from millimeters of mercury to millibars-'^

(1 ram of Hg = 1.33322 mbs)

mm of Hg

708

TO9710

71171271371^TI5

716717718

719720

721722723J2k725

726

727728729730

731

73273373^

735

0.0

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TABLE 20 (Cont'd)

Atmospheric Pressure

Conversion from millimeters of mercury to millibars*(l mm of Hg = 1.33322 mbs)

(Cont'd)

mm of Hg 0.0

736737738

7397ij-0

7^17^27^374^

7^5

lk67^7Jk87k9

750

751752753754

755

756

757758759760

761762763764

765

81.382.6

83.985.386.6

0.1

81.482.784.185.486.7

0.2

81.582.984.285.586.9

0.3

81.783.084.385.787.0

0.4

81.883.184.585.887.1

0.5

81.983.384.6

85.987.3

0.6

82.183.484.786.187.4

0.7

82.2

83.584.986.2

87.5

0.8

82.383.785.086.387.7

0.9

82.583.885.186.587.8

87.9

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TABLE 20 (Cont'd)

Atmospheric Pressure

Conversion from millimeters of mercury to millibars* (Cont'd)(l mm of Hg = 1.33322 mbs)

mm of Hg

766

767768769770

77177277377^775

776

777778

779780

78178278378U

785

786787

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 o.k 0.5 0.6 0.7 0. 0.9

21.222.6

23.925.226.6

27.929.230.6

31.933.2

3h.6

35.937.238.6

39.9

4l.242.6i^3.9

i^5.2

46.6

47.949.2

21.422.724.025.426.7

28.029.430.732.033.4

34.736.037.438.74o.o

41.442.744.045.446.7

48.049.4

21.522.824.2

25.526.8

28.2

29.530.832.2

33.5

34.836.237.538.840.2

4i.542.844.245.546.8

48.2

49.5

21.6

23.024.325.627.0

28.329.631.032.333.6

35.036.337.639-040.3

41.643.044.345.647.0

48.349.6

21.8

23.124.425.827.1

28.4

29.831.132.433.8

35.136.437.839-140.4

41.843.144.445.847.1

48.449.8

21.9 22.0

23.2 23.424.6 24.725.9 26.027.2 27.4

28.6

29.931.232.6

33.9

35-236.6

37.939.240.6

41.943.244.6

45.947.2

48.6

49.9

28.730.031.432.734.0

35.436.738.039.440.7

42.043.444.746.047.4

48.750.0

22.2

23.524.826.2

27.5

28.830.231.532.834.2

35.536.838.2

39.540.8

42.2

43.544.846.247.5

48.850.2

22.323.625.026.327.6

29.030.331.633.034.3

35.637.038.339-64i.o

42.343.645.046.347.6

49.050.3

22.423.825.126.427.8

29.130-431.833.134.4

35.837.138.439-841.1

42.443.845.146.447.8

49.150.4

*rhe hundreds and thousands digits are not recorded. The truerange of this part of Table 20 is 1021.2 mbs. - 1050.4 mbs.

49

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TABLE 21

Temperature

Conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.^ 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

5^.4

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TABLE 21 (Cont'd)

Temperature

Conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade

0.0

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op

TABLE 21 (Cont'd)

Temperature

Conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade

0.0

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TABLE 21 (Cont'd)

Temperature

Conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

09.^

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TABLE 21 (Cont'd)

Temperature

Conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade

op

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TABI£ 21 (Cont'd)

Temperature

Conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade

0.0

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TABLE 21 (Cont'd)

Temperature

Conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade

op

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TABLE 21 (Cont'd)

Temperature

Conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade

°F 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 o.k 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

-58

59

-60

-61

-62

63

-64

-65

-66

-67

-68

-69

-70

-50.0

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TABKE 22

Present Weather

WMO Code ^501 for recording present weather

Codefigure

Clear (no cloud at any level)

1 Partly cloudy (scattered or broken)

2 Continuous layer(s) of cloud(s)

3 Sandstorm, duststorm, or blowing snow

4 Fog, thick dust or haze

5 Drizzle

6 Rain

7 Snow, or rain and snow mixed

8 Shower(s)

9 Thunderstorm(s)

58

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TABLE 23

Present Weather

Conversion from Beaufort weather notation to WMO Code U501

Abbreviation Description Code

b. Blue sky whether with clear or hazy atmosphere,or sky not more than one-q^uarter clouded.

be. Sky between one-quarter and three-quarters 1clouded.

c. Mainly cloudy (not less than three-quarters 1covered.

)

d. Drizzle or fine rain. 5e. Wet air without rain falling. k

f. Fog. 1+.

fe. Wet fog. kg. Gloomy. 2h. Hail. 9kq.. Line squall. 9

1. Lightning 9m. Mist. ko. Overcast sky (i.e., the whole sky covered 2

with unbroken cloud).

p. Passing showers. 8q.. Squalls

.

9

r. Rain. 6rs. Sleet (i.e., rain and snow together). 7s. Snow. 7t . Thunder

.

9tl. Thunderstorm. 9

u. Ugly, threatening sky. 2V. Unusueil visibility.z. Dust haze; the turbid atmosphere of dry weather. k

59

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TABLE 24

Present Weather

Conversion from 1936 International Meteorological Organization Code to the

WMO Code 4501

Code Underlined WMOCode

ABBREVIATED DESCRIPTION OF SKY AKD SPECIAL PHENOMENA 4501(modified)

GO Cloudless01 Partly cloudy. 102 Cloudy. 103 Overcast. 204 Low fog, on ground or over sea. k05 Haze (but visibility greater than 2,000 m., 2,200 y<ls)

.

k06 Dust devils seen. 407 Distant lightning. 908 Light fog or mist (visibility between 1,000 and 2,000 m., 4

1,100 and 2,200 yds).

09 Fog at a distance, but not at the ship. 410 Precipitation within sight. 611 Thunder, without precipitation at the ship. 912 Dust storm within sight, but not at the ship. 313 Ugly, threatening sky. 914 Squally weather. 915 Heavy squalls, ) ^^ ^^^^ 3 ^^^^^ 916 Waterspouts seen. ) 9

PRECIPITATION IN LAST HOUR BUT NOT AT TIME OF OBSERVATION

20 Precipitation (rain, drizzle, hail, snow, or sleet) \

21 Drizzle \ I 522 Rain ( ^-u ^v i, I 6^_ _, > other than showers / . -, ^ i. ^23 Snow I I i.n last hour J24 Rain and snow or sleet / I but not at 725 Rain shower (s). /time of 8

26 Snow shower (s). I observation. 727 Hail or rain and hail shower (s). I 928 Slight thunderstorm. I 929 HeaAry thunderstorm. / 9

60

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TABLE 2k- (Cont'd)

Conversion from 1936 International Meteorological Organization Code to the

WMO Code if 501

303132

333^^

3536

3738

39

1^0

Ui

k2h3kkh3k6

hikQh9

50

5152

533h

5556

5758

59

DUST STORMS AMD STORMS OF DRIFTING SROW

(Visibility less than 1,000 m., 1,100 yards)

Dust or sand storm.Dust or sand storm, has decreased.Dust or sand storm, no appreciable change.

Dust or sand storm, has increased.Line of dust storms.Storm of drifting sncrw.

Slight storm of drifting snowHeavy storm of drifting snov?-

Slight storm of drifting snowEeavj^ storm of drifting snow

generally low.

generally high.

WMOCode^4-501

(modified)

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

FOG

(Visibility less than 1,000 m., 1,100 yards)

Fog.Moderate fog in last hour K ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ observation.Thick fog in last hour J

Ihas became thinner during last hour.

Ino appreciable change during last hour

I

Fog, sky discernibleFog, sky not discernibleFog, sky discernibleFog, sky not discernibleFog, sky discernibleFog, sky not discernibleFog in patches.

has begun or become thicker duringlast hour

DRIZZLE

(Precipitation consisting of numerous minute drops)

DrizzleIntermittent )

Continuous I

Intermittent I

Continuous '

Intermittent )

Continuous '

Drizzle and fog.Slight or moderateThick

slight drizzle.

moderate drizzle.

thick drizzle.

drizzle and rain.

k

k

h

h

kh

k

k

kk

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

61

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TABLE 2k (Cont'd)

Conversion from I936 International Meteorological Organization Code to the

WMO Code i+501

RAIN

60 Rain.61 Intermittent62 Continuous

63 Intermittent6h Continuous

65 Intermittent66 Continuous

67 Rain and fog.

68 Slight or moderate

69 Heavy

slight rain.

moderate rain.

heavy rain.

rain and snow, mixed.

SNOW

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

77

707172

737^

7576

7778

79

8081

82

838^

8586

87

Snow or sleetIntermittentContinuousIntermittentContinuousIntermittentContinuousSnow and fog.

Granular snov (frozen drizzle).

Ice crystals;

Islight snow in flakes

moderate snow in flakes

heavy snow in flakes

ShowerShowerShowerShowerShowerShowerShowerShowerShowerShower

^s)

is)

(s)

is)

(s)

s

SHOWERS (S)

i)

fs) of slight or moderate

s

(s)

of heavyof slight or moderateof heavyof slight or moderateof heavyof granular snowof slight or moderateof heavy

ram

snow

rain and snow.

hail, or rain and hail.

77777

77

7

7

888

7

77777

7

62

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TABLE 2k (Cont'd)

Conversion from 1936 International Meteorological Organization Code to the

WMO Code 4501WMOCode

THUKDERSTOEM ^4-501

(modified)

90 Thunderstorm 991 Rain at time ) thunderstorm during last hour, but not at 9

92 Snow, or sleet at time ) time of observation. 9

93 Thunderstorm, slight vithout hail or soft hall, 9but with rain (or snow)

9k Thunderstorm slight with soft hail \ 9

95 Thunderstorm moderate without hail, but withJ

9rain (or snow) /

96 Thunderstorm moderate with soft hall f ^t time of 997 Thunderstorm heavy without hail, but with / observation. 9

rain (or snow) I

98 Thunderstorm combined with dust stormj 9

99 Thunderstorm heavy with hail/ 9

63

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TABIiE 25

Present Weather

WMO Code hSjJ for recording present weather

(0

>- oO 4^ 0)

o EX o

o

Code figure

WW00

"S

E

Q.

0)

OE(0

ocCO

(O

I

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

characteristic changeof the state of sky

during the past hour

Cloud development not observed or not

observable

Clouds generally dissolving or becoming less

developed

State of sky on the whole unchanged

Clouds generally forming or developing

Visibility reduced by smoke, e.g. veldt or forest fires, industrial smokeor volcanic ashes

Haze

Widespread dust in suspension in the air, not raised by wind at or near

the station at the time of observation

Dust or sand raised by wind at or near the station at the time of observa-

tion, but no well developed dust whirl(s) or sand whirl(s), and no dust-

storm or sandstorm seen

Well developed dust whirl(s) or sand whirl(s) seen at or near the station

during the preceding hour or at the time of observation, but no duststormor sandstorm

Duststorm or sandstorm within sight at the time of observation, or at the

station during the preceding hour

Mist

Patches of | shallow fog or ice fog at the station, whether on land or> sea, not deeper than about 2 metres on land or 10 metres

at seaMore or less

I continuous

Lightning visible, no thunder heard

Precipitation within sight, not reaching the ground or the surface of the sea

Precipitation within sight, reaching the ground or the surface of the sea,

but distant (i. e. estimated to be more than 5 km) from the station

Precipitation within sight, reaching the ground or the surface of the sea,

near to, but not at the station

Thunderstorm, but no precipitation at the time of observation

Squalls1^

at or within sight of the station during the preceding

Funnel cloud(s) **| hour or at the time of observation

* The expression "at the station" refers to a land station or a ship.•• Tornado cloud or waterspout.

64

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TABLE 25 (Cont'd)

ww= 20-29 Precipitation, fog, ice fog or tliunderstorm at the station during the preced-

ing hour but not at the time of observation

Code figure

WW

20 Drizzle (not freezing) or snow grains

21 Rain (not freezing)

22 Snow23 Rain and snow or ice pellets, type (a)

24 Freezing drizzle or freezing rain

25 Shower(s) of rain

26 Shower(s) of snow, or of rain and snow

27 Shower(s) of hail*, or of rain and hail*

28 Fog or ice fog

29 Thunderstorm (with or without precipitation)

not falling as shower(s)

WW =30 -39 Duststorm, sandstorm, drifting or blowing snow

WW

30

31

32

33

34

35

Slight or moderate dust-

storm or sandstorm

- has decreased during the precedinghour

- no appreciable change during the

preceding hour

- has begun or has increased during

the preceding hour

- has decreased during the preceding

hour

- no appreciable change during the

preceding hour

- has begun or has increased during

the preceding hour

36 Slight or moderate blowing snow 1,, , ,. , ,.„,,,,.,. ; generally low (below eye level)

37 Heavy driftmg snow|

38 Slight or moderate blowing snow|^

39 Heavy blowing snow|

Severe duststorm or

sandstorm

generally high (above eye level)

WW = 40 -49 Fog or ice fog at the time of observation

WW40 Fog or ice fog at a distance at the time of observation, but not at the station

during the preceding hour, the fog or ice fog extending to a level above

that of the observer

41 Fog or ice fog in patches

42 Fog or ice fog, sky visible 1 has become thinner during the preceding

Ihour43 Fog or ice fog, sky invisible

Hail, ice pellets, type (b), snow pellets. French : grele, gresil ou neige roulee.

65

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TABLE 25 (Cont'd)

Code figure

44 Fog or ice fog, sky visible\ no appreciable change during the preced-

45 Fog or ice fog, sky invi-sible |ing hour

46 Fog or ice fog, sky visible 1 has begun or has become thicker during

47 Fog or ice fog, sky invisible jthe preceding hour

48 Fog, depositing rime, sky visible

49 Fog, depositing rime, sky invisible

WW = 50 - 99 Precipitation at the station at the time of observation

ww= 50-59 Drizzle

WW50 Drizzle, not freezing, intermittent

(

51 Drizzle, not freezing, continuous f

52 Drizzle, not freezing, intermittent\

53 Drizzle, not freezing, continuous f

54 Drizzle, not freezing, intermittent|

55 Drizzle, not freezing, continuous |

56 Drizzle, freezing, slight

57 Drizzle, freezing, moderate or heavy (dense)

58 Drizzle and rain, slight

59 Drizzle and rain, moderate or heavy

slight at time of observation

moderate at time of observation

heavy (dense) at time of observation

WW =60 -69 Rain

WW60 Rain, not freezing, intermittent

61 Rain, not freezing, continuous

62 Rain, not freezing, intermittent

63 Rain, not freezing, continuous

64 Rain, not freezing, intermittent

65 Rain, not freezing, continuous

66 Rain, freezing, slight

67 Rain, freezing, moderate or heavy

68 Rain or drizzle and snow, slight

69 Rain or drizzle and snow, moderate or heavy

slight at time of observation

moderate at time of observation

heavy at time of observation

WW =70 -79 Solid precipitation not in showers

WW70

71

72

73

Intermittent fall of snow flakes

Continuous fail of snow flakes

Intermittent fall of snow flakes

Continuous fall of snow flakes

slight at time of observation

moderate at time of observation

66

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TABLE 25 (Cont'd)

heavy at time of observation

Code figure

74 intermittent fall of snow flakes\

75 Continuous fall of snow flakes |

76 Ice prisms (with or without fog)

77 Snow grains (with or without fog)

78 Isolated starlike snow crystals (with or without fog)

79 Ice pellets, type (a)

WW = 80 -99 Showery precipitation, or precipitation with current or recent thunder-storm

WW80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

Rain shower(s), slight

Rain shower(s), moderate or heavy

Rain shower(s), violent

Shower(s) of rain and snow mixed, slight

Shower(s) of rain and snow mixed, moderate or heavy

Snow shower(s), slight

Snow shower(s), moderate or heavy

jShower(s) of snow pellets or ice j - slight

pellets, type (b), with or without

rain or rain and snow mixed

Shower(s) of hail*, with or

without rain or rain and snowmixed, not associated with

thunder

Slight rain at time of observation

Moderate or heavy rain at time of

observation

Slight snow, or rain and snow mixedor hail** at time of observation

Moderate or heavy snow, or rain andsnow mixed or hail** at time of

observation

Thunderstorm, slight or moderate,without hail**, but with rain and/orsnow at time of observation

Thunderstorm, slight or moderate,

with hail** at time of observation

Thunderstorm, heavy, without hail**,

but with rain and/or snow at time of

observation

Thunderstorm combined with dust-

storm or sandstorm at time of obser-

vation

Thunderstorm, heavy, with hail**

at time of observation

- moderate or heavy

- slight

- moderate or heavy

thunderstorm during the pre-

ceding hour but not at time of

observation

thunderstorm at time of

observation

* French : grele.** Hail, ice pellets, type (b), snow pellets. French : grele, gresil ou neige roulee.

67

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TABLE 26

Cloud Type (Genus)

WMO Code 0500 for recording cloud type (genus)

Code

Cirrus Ci

1 Cirrocumulus Cc

2 Cirrostratus Cs

3 Altocumulus Ac

4 Altostratus As5 Nimbostratus Ns

6 Stratocumulus Sc

7 Stratus St

8 Cumulus Cu

9 Cumulonimbus Cb

X Cloud not visible owing to darkness, fog, duststorm, sandstorm, or other analog-

ous phenomena

68

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Code

TABLE 27

Cloud Amount

WMO Code 2700 for recording cloud amount

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TABLE 28

Visibility

WMO Code 4300 for recording visibility at surface

Code

Less than 50 metres (less than 55 yards)

(approx. 55-220 yards)

(approx. 220-550 yards)

(approx, 550 yards-5/8 n.m.)

(approx. 5/8-1 n.m.)

(approx. 1- 2 n.m.)

(approx. 2- 6 n.m.)

(approx. 6-12 n.m.)

(approx. 12-30 n.m.)

(30 n.m. or more)

1

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TABLE 29

Precision of Meas\irement

This table is to "be added later.

71

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TABLE 30

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity °/oo

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity(,/oo)

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABUE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

Ci

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

Ci

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity(,/ooj

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity (°/ooj

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinty

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABLE 30 (Cont'd)

Salinity

Conversion from chlorinity to salinity ( /oo)

CI

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TABLE 31

Oxygen

Conversion from milligrams per liter to milliliters per liter (NTP)

(1 mg/l = 0.6998 ulL/i)

Milligramsper

Liter of Or

0.0

0.6

0.70.80.9

.00

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TABLE 32

Oxygen

Conversion from mlUlgram-atcaiis per liter to milliliters per liter(l milligram-atom per liter of = II.I96 milliliters per liter of )

Milligram

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TABLE 32 (Cont'd)

Oxygen

Conversion from milligram-atoms per liter to milliliters per liter(l milligram-atom per liter of O2 = II.I96 milliliters per liter of Op)

Milligrara-

atoms/literof Oo

0.310.320.330.340.35

0.360.370.380.39o.4o

0.4l0.420.430.440.45

0.46

0.4t0.480.490.50

0.510.520.530.540.55

0.560.570.580.590.60

.000

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TABLE 32 CCont'd)

Oxygen

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TABLE 32 (Cont'd)

Oxygen

Conversion from milligram-atoms per liter to milliliters per liter(l milligram-atom per liter of O2 = II.196 milliliters per liter of Op)

Mill igrair

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lABLE 32 (Cont'd)

Oxygen

Conversion from milligram-atoms per liter to milliliters per liter(l milligram-atcm per liter of Op = II.196 milliliters per liter of O2)

Ml 1 1 igram-

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TABLE 33

Phosphorus

Conversion from micrograms per liter of inorganic P

to microgram-atoms per liter of P

(1 Jig of P = 0.032285 ug-at of P)

Microgramsper

Liter of

inotganic P 0.0 0.1 0.2

00

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03

Micrograms perLiter of in-

organic P 0.0

00

10

20

3040

50

60

70

80

90

100

110120

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0

0.00

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Microgramsper Literof PO4

00

TABLE 34

Phosphate

Conversion from micrograms per liter of POi,. tomicrogram-atoms per liter of PO^^-P

(1 ug of PO^ = 0.010529 ug-at of PO^-P)

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0,5 0.6 0.7

0.00 0.00 0,00 0.00 0,00 0,01 0.01 0.01

0.8

0.01

0.9

0.01

Microgramsper Literof PO,,

00

1020

304050

60

7080

90100

110120

130

140150

160

170180

190200

210220

230

240250

0.0 1.0 2.0 3,0 4,0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0

0.00

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TABLE 34 (Cont'd)

Phosphate

Conversion from micrograms per liter of PO^ to

microgram-atoms per liter of PO^-P

Microgramsper Literof PO4

260

270

280

290300

310320330340350

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9,0

2.74

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TABLE 35

Phosphorus Pentoxide

Conversion from micrograms per liter of P2O5 to microgram-atoms per liter of P

(1 ug of P2O5 = 0.014090 jug-atom of P)

Micrograms

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TABLE 36

Nitrite

Conversion from micrograms per liter of NO2 to microgram-atoms per liter of NO„-N(1 ug of NO2 = 0.0217365 ug - at of NO2-N)

Microgramsper Liter

of NOo

00

10

20

304050

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140150

160

170180190200

0,0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0

0,00

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TABLE 37

Nitrate

Conversion from micrograms per liter of NO to microgram-atoms per liter of NO -N^ 3

Micrograms perliter of N0„ 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

00

10

20

3040

50

60

70

80

90

00.0

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TABLE 37 (Cont'd)

Nitrate

Conversion from micrograms per liter of NO to microgram-atoms per liter of NO--N3 ^

Micrograms per

liter of NO 003

210022002300

2U002500

26002700280029003000

NOTE:

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

33.9

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TABLE 38

Silicon

Conversion from micrograms per liter of Si to microgram-atoms per liter of Si

(1 Ug of Si = 0.0356049 ug-atom Si)

Microgramsper

Liter of Si

000100200

300

400500

600

700

800900

00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

000

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TABLE 38 (Cont'd)

Silicon

(1) Interpolation between 4100 and 4200 to nearest whole number, 149;

or (2) Since 4180 = 4100 + 80, find L46 corresponding to 4100 and 003corresponding to 80.

Add 146 and 003 to get 149.

101

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TA3LE 39

Silicon Dioxide

Conversion from micrograms per liter of Si02 to microgram-atoms per liter of SiOg-Si(l iig of SiOg = O.Ol66k3 ;ug-atcm of Si)

MicrogramsperLiter of

Sio„ 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

000

100200

300400500

600700

800

900

000

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TABLE 40

Silicate

Conversion from milligrams per liter of SiO_ to microgram-atoms per literof SiO -Si (1 milligram of SiO„ = 13.1433 microgram-atoms of SiO^-Si)

Milligramsper Literof SiO,

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

1415

16

17

18

19

20

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

000

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APPENDIX 1

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FORMFOR OCEANOGRAPHIC STATIONS

HPKIAltY PREP«tD FOR THE

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN OCEAN EXPEDITIONST THE NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA CENTER

WASHINGTON 2S, D C

SURfACE

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