Transcript
• Prepared by the Outlier Research & Evaluation and Wolcott School research practice partnership through work

supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant # 1542963).

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Lesson-Specific Adjustment Guide: Unit 3 Algorithms and Programming This Lesson-Specific Adjustment Guide highlights adjustments you can make to the Code.org CSP lessons. The adjustment recommendations are particularly well-suited for students with diagnosed

learning differences (that is, students with specific learning disabilities and related attention deficit disorders) as they engage in the CSP lessons. All adjustments stem from what is known about the range of learning disabilities and attention deficit

disorders common in classrooms and the types of adjustments typically made to support learners with these differences in any discipline. Adjustment recommendations apply to a variety of lesson sections (e.g., Teaching Guide, Student

Videos). Recommendations in this guide that apply to each lesson section are grouped together and

labeled as an Adjustment set. Use the Reference Booklet to help you navigate the information in this Guide.

The number of Adjustment sets per lesson varies:

Lesson number Lesson name Number of sets

1 The Need for Programming Languages 5

2 The Need for Algorithms 4

3 Creativity in Algorithms 2

4 Using Simple Commands 5

5 Creating Functions 2

6 Functions and Top-Down Design 6

7 APIs and Using Functions with Parameters 4

8 Creating Functions with Parameters 4

9 Looping and Random Numbers 4

10 Practice PT Design a Digital Scene 1

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 1 The Need for Programming Languages Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Getting Started Task Description: Partners discuss what they think an algorithm is and why they might want to create algorithms for

Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Collaborative Work.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 1 The Need for Programming Languages Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Getting Started Task Description: Students come together for a whole-class discussion about what they think an algorithm is, and why

they might want to create algorithms for daily tasks. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 1 The Need for Programming Languages Adjustment Set 3 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Activity Description; Student Materials Activity Guide Task Description: Small groups complete the Lego Algorithm Activity Guide. Groups create a figure with five to six Lego

blocks and record instructions that other individuals can use to create the same arrangement. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

see the Collaborative Work task challenges

Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Collaborative Work. Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Reading & Writing Activities.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 1 The Need for Programming Languages Adjustment Set 4 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Activity Description Task Description: Student groups trade their Lego Algorithm instructions and attempt to follow others instructions.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

reading and understanding the instructions written by their classmates

placing the pieces in the proper order and sequence

Circulate and assist students who may be having trouble reading and comprehending the instructions written by their classmates. If necessary, read some of the wording aloud and provide

guidance if it is felt that the students comprehension of the instructions is impeded because of a learning difference rather than the ambiguity of the written instructions (a, r, 2, 5, 10, 11, 15).

Circulate and assist students with using the given instructions to physically manipulate the Lego

blocks (n, 2, 15, 17, 23, 24, 25). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Reading & Writing Activities.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 1 The Need for Programming Languages Adjustment Set 5 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Wrap-Up Task Description: Prompts: Students reflect on two prompts and explore possible points of miscommunication.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 2 The Need for Algorithms Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Getting Started Task Description: Remarks: The teacher makes lengthy remarks to help students recall some of the ideas and

vocabulary introduced in the previous lesson (Lesson 1). New terms are introduced using sophisticated language such as in the following: The art (and science) of using a well-defined language of primitive operations to solve problems is the art and science of algorithms, and The CS Principles definition of algorithm is: Algorithms are precise sequences of instructions for processes that can be executed by a

computer and are implemented using programming languages. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

processing and retaining information and vocabulary presented verbally

understanding terminology and phrasing

Ensure that students fully understand what is meant by primitive operations. The definition provided in the Teaching Guide for primitive operations is a sophisticated explanation that may

need to be further deconstructed for students. Linking the language to examples from the previous

days work may help students better understand the meaning (r, 1, 5, 6, 11, 12). Check for understanding of the information about language and algorithms. If necessary, rephrase

and restate to clarify (n, r, 1, 5, 6, 11, 12, 14, 18, 23). Add the words commands, primitive operations, and algorithms to a running class glossary (r, 5, 11).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 2 The Need for Algorithms Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Activity Description Task Description: Remarks: The teacher presents opening remarks that introduce new terminology and dense

information. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

processing and retaining information and vocabulary presented verbally

understanding terminology and phrasing

Distribute the Activity Guide prior to presenting the Remarks. The introduction to the Activity Guide contains the language used in the opening remarks and provides a visual of the Remarks content

(n, r, 1, 5, 6, 11, 12, 14, 18, 23). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 2 The Need for Algorithms Adjustment Set 3 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Activity Guide Task Description: Activity 2 -The "Human Machine" Language: Students read information in the Activity Guide and

then complete the activity with a partner. The activity includes reading and following commands that are new to students. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

visually processing and comprehending the commands introduced in the Activity Guide

Read the Activity Guide aloud as group. Pause and clarify vocabulary and content as needed.

Check for understanding by asking questions (a, n, r, 5, 11, 15, 23, 29). While reading the Activity Guide, review the commands and demonstrate what the commands

convey as well as how information can be inserted into the commands to guide the human

machine. Demonstrate the first set of commands in the Activity Guide. If necessary, continue to work through the additional set of commands as a group in place of having students work in pairs (n,

20, 22, 23). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Reading & Writing Activities.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 2 The Need for Algorithms Adjustment Set 4 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Wrap-Up Task Description: Remarks: The teacher presents two facts that embody the art of programming.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

processing and retaining the information being presented because it is presented verbally without any visual supports

understanding the terminology used in the final remarks, such as embody

Place the key parts of the final remarks on a presentation slide so that this information is

presented visually and verbally (n, r, 1, 5, 6, 12, 14, 18, 23). Check for understanding of the presented information. Restate and clarify when necessary (n, r, 1,

5, 6, 11, 12, 14, 18, 23). Check for understanding of the word embody and what it means in this context. Clarify if

necessary (r, 1, 5, 6, 11). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 3 Creativity in Algorithms Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Activity Guide Task Description: Activity Guide - Human Language - Part 2: Min to Front: Students are asked to write a program to

find the smallest (min) card and swap it to the front of the list, keeping the order of the rest of the cards the same. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

designing an algorithm that moves the card with the smallest to the front (position 0) (Thinking flexibly and systematically about the command use and card positions is difficult. Note, there are good suggestions in the Teacher Guide about how to support students and factors that can be

introduced to them as supports and suggestions.) Adjustment Recommendations:

Work directly with small groups or individual students who need extra support to make progress

on the task (m, n, 2, 4, 15, 16, 23). Expand on the suggestions listed in the Teacher Guide to assist students with designing an

algorithm (m, n, 2, 4, 15, 16, 23).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 3 Creativity in Algorithms Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Wrap-Up Task Description: Wrap-Up: The teacher presents a significant amount of information verbally. Some of the information

is presented lecture style and other information through discussion prompts. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

processing and retaining information and vocabulary presented verbally

understanding the discussion prompts and terms (sequencing, selection, and iteration) and low-level language used within the prompts

Place the key parts of the remarks on a presentation slide so that this information is presented

visually and verbally (n, r, 1, 5, 6, 12, 14, 18, 23). Define and check for understanding of the terms sequencing, selection, iteration, and low-level

language and place the terms in a running class glossary (r, 1, 5, 11). Check for understanding of the discussion prompts. Restate and clarify when necessary (n, r, 1, 5,

6, 11, 12, 14, 18, 23). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 4 Using Simple Commands Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Getting Started Task Description: Remarks: The teacher presents opening remarks that are lengthy and introduces new terminology,

including ambiguous. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending information presented through lengthy, complex language without accompanying visual supports (e.g., the word unambiguous)

Define the term ambiguous and provide examples (r, 1, 5, 11). Demonstrate the meaning of unambiguous by showing examples of things that may be

unambiguous and things that may be ambiguous, then have students classify the examples (r, 1, 5,

11). Place key points from the opening remarks on a presentation slide so that the information is

presented visually (n, r, 6, 11, 23).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 4 Using Simple Commands Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Activity Description; Student Materials Background/Puzzle Task Description: Code Studio - Video/Puzzles: Students watch an introductory video and then are asked to use a

turtle and four commands to form a rectangle and square. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

learning new terms and attaching them to meaning

understanding concepts conveyed with words

Teach the concept of the vocabulary term turtle (s, 5). Watch the Code Studio video together as a group and stop the video as needed to provide

clarity and check for understanding (s, 1, 6, 21).

Show examples of a rectangle and define rectangle (s, 1, 5, 6, 21). Before beginning Puzzle 2, define turnRight and turnLeft as it pertains to the turtle and provide

students with a post-it-note or sticker to help distinguish left and right. Students may benefit from

physically getting up and practicing left and right (s, 1, 5, 6, 21).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 4 Using Simple Commands Adjustment Set 3 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Puzzle Task Description: Code Studio - Puzzles 3 and 4: Students are expected to understand the term 1x1 square and

3x3 grid in order to complete a puzzle. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

managing visual figures

remembering the sequences used while exploring and developing systematic approaches

managing the multiple components of the task from beginning to end Adjustment Recommendations:

Give students graph paper to sketch and highlight a plan for drawing the square and grid (2, 14,

15).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 4 Using Simple Commands Adjustment Set 4 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Wrap-Up Task Description: Compare Solutions and Discuss: Students work in pairs to compare their solutions for three problems

and determine which is the most efficient. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

reflecting and explaining how they approached the puzzles and how they solved the problem

Review students completed puzzles. Have them look at their solutions while explaining them to a partner. Circulate and model phrasing and appropriate interactions (n, r, 1, 8, 9, 11, 13, 27).

To assist students in comparing their solutions, suggest they discuss the number of commands that

they each used to draw the rectangle, the 1x1 square, and 3x3 grid (n, r, 1, 8, 9, 11, 13, 27).

Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 4 Using Simple Commands Adjustment Set 5 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Wrap-Up Task Description: Remarks: The teacher leads a discussion using prompts and important discussion points. There are

words such as collaboration, command and microcosm within the prompt. There are also discussion points that students may not understand or understand how they apply to this context. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending vocabulary used in the prompts

understanding concepts conveyed with words

Teach the vocabulary terms collaboration, command, and microcosm. Add the words to a word

bank or a running class glossary (r, 1, 5, 6). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 5 Creating Functions Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials - Activity Description/Student Materials - Video Task Description: In Code Studio and the related video, students are introduced to new vocabulary terms and concepts.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending new vocabulary introduced quickly in a short period of time

comprehending familiar words used in a different/unfamiliar way

sustaining attention while new information is presented

processing visual information quickly and accurately Adjustment Recommendations:

Provide students with structured notes that will help them accurately define the new words (n, r, 1,

5, 6, 23). Consider creating a handout with the key video information. Pause the video several times to

reinforce concepts and give students time to locate the information on their handout, or to complete

their own notes if they do not have a handout (n, r, 1, 5, 6, 23). Replay the App Lab sections multiple times or project a computer screen and demonstrate App

Lab. Direct students attention to specific procedures and the movement of the turtle (2).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 5 Creating Functions Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

completing simultaneous demands to complete the puzzles - for example: remembering the directions, recalling the new vocabulary, retaining the image that they are to design in mind, managing the functions and monitoring the movement of the turtle

To avoid having students scroll up and down to see the entire image and directions for each

puzzle, create handouts of the information in the windows (n, 2, 4, 12, 13, 14, 23, 24, 25). Circulate and provide support to students who may be having significant difficulty with the task

some students may need significant guidance with the planning and execution (n, 2, 4, 12, 13, 14,

23, 24, 25). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 6 Functions and Top-Down Design Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Getting Started Task Description: Recall: Students are asked to recall the diamond shaped figure from the previous lesson (Lesson 5).

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

recalling the different procedures to complete the task in the prompt section when students are asked to recall the diamond shaped figure

Project the diamond-shaped figure from the previous lesson on the screen to refresh students

memory (13).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 6 Functions and Top-Down Design Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Getting Started Task Description: Prompt: Students respond to a verbal discussion prompt from the teacher.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending new vocabulary and phrasing like functions and primitive commands

comprehending and retaining new information presented verbally without visual support

formulating their thoughts

sustaining attention throughout the discussion to fully understand the key points that the teacher is supposed to highlight

Before the discussion, refer students to a running class glossary with key terms and concepts

defined (r, 5). As students discuss the key points, provide a visual with a summary of those key points (n, r, 1, 3, 5,

6, 11, 14, 23). During the discussion, give students adequate time to think about their responses so that those with

oral formulation or retrieval issues have time to process and come up with responses (r, 8, 9, 11).

Throughout the discussion, help students by modeling phrasing (n, r, 8,11).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 6 Functions and Top-Down Design Adjustment Set 3 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Activity Description Task Description: Students are asked to work in pairs to read and process information on worksheets without teacher

guidance. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

reading dense and complex text and understanding specific terminology like Top-Down Design and Stepwise Refinement

comprehending and applying Top-Down Design without time to process the meaning

working effectively and efficiently in pairs

developing names for the functions because the shape is difficult to describe

As a whole group, read the first page of the Top-Down Worksheet slowly, and model the problem-solving process on available tools (whiteboard, smart board etc.) (a, n, r, 5, 11, 28, 29).

As students begin the Practice with Top Down Design, develop a list of words to describe aspects of

the design that they may choose to use for their functions (a, n, r, 5, 11, 28, 29). Before students work on the worksheet, demonstrate the Top Down Design strategy with a figure

other than the diamond on a surface that the whole group can see (a, n, r, 5, 11, 29). As a class, develop the beginning of a plan, then have students move into pairs to complete page

2 of worksheet (a, n, r, 5, 11, 29). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Collaborative Work.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 6 Functions and Top-Down Design Adjustment Set 4 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Wrap-Up Task Description: Some points about functions and abstraction: Students listen to the teacher provide information that

includes language that is dense and sophisticated. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

sustaining attention and may miss critical concepts and procedures

learning verbal labels and attaching a specific meaning

understanding concepts conveyed with words

Help ensure that students are grasping critical concepts by simplifying the language and referring

students to a running class glossary (r, 1, 5, 23, 29). Simplify difficult concepts through rephrasing for example, you might say: Today we learned

about how to write a function that we could use in other functions. By approaching writing programs in this way, we improve the efficiency of both how we write our programs and how readable the code is that we create when others look at it. Both aspects of writing code are very significant. Therefore, improving the efficiency and readability of the code helps all readers of

that code (r, 1, 6). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 6 Functions and Top-Down Design Adjustment Set 5 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Wrap-Up Task Description: Prompt: The teacher poses a question to students about abstraction in real life situations without any

background information or examples. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending complex language

expressing their thinking in a way comprehensible to others

Before posing the question, refresh students memories of the Chris Bosh video in Code Studio and discuss what levels of abstraction means. Simplify language with the suggestions below (r, 1, 5, 11).

For example: Lets take a quick look at the Chris Bosh video one more time (playing the relevant segment applicable for driving home levels of abstraction). Where did you see abstraction coming into

play there? Now identify two other situations in your lives that demonstrate abstraction.

Possible responses: a) Get ready for school. b) Make sure I have taken a shower/bath. c) Make sure I have checked my backpack for everything I need. d) Make sure I have my cell phone and my house keys.

Allow enough wait time before calling on any student (r, 8, 9, 11). For students that seem to be struggling to express a particular thought, expand and model

responses by phrasing and rephrasing (Oh, I see what you mean. Youre saying...) (r, u, 8, 9, 11).

Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Discussion.

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 6 Functions and Top-Down Design Adjustment Set 6 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Assessment Task Description: Students read and respond in writing to free response and multiple choice questions.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending complex language and new terminology

naming functions to draw the figure

independently starting question responses

decoding (reading the words) in the question

comprehending the nature of the task

For students who need additional support, explain the terms to them and refer them to a running

class glossary (r, 1, 5). For students who appear to have difficulty analyzing the figure, provide a sheet that has the

figure printed several times and give students different color highlighters to break the figure down

into four segments (2, 4, 14, 22, 25). For students who seem to have difficulty naming functions, provide suggestions to help them get

started (r, 1, 5). For students who have difficulty initiating the written response, provide sentence stems to get them

started (e, 5, 8).

Offer students the use of text-to-speech software to read the questions (a). For students who need additional support, provide them with alternate phrasing/clarification for

the questions and multiple choice options (a, r, 1, 3, 4, 5). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Reading & Writing Activities. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 7 APIs and Using Functions with Parameters Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Background/Intro page Task Description: Students are introduced to a number of new technical terms.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending new terminology introduced quickly, and that may hold a different meaning for them in a different context

Refer students to a running class glossary with key terms and concepts defined (r, 1, 5, 11).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 7 APIs and Using Functions with Parameters Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Puzzle Task Description: In Puzzle 3, students are asked to draw an equilateral triangle with sides 100 pixels long.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

using trial and error if they have weak math reasoning skills or struggle with flexible thinking

Tell students to begin with moveForward (100), turnRight (100), moveForward (100), and tell them to play around with the angle measurement until they have the angle measure that forms the first

part of the triangle (m, 2, 4, 14, 15, 25). Review the characteristics of an equilateral triangle (all angles are equal) by drawing the figure

on whiteboard. You may also want to refresh students memories about angle measures/turns (m).

Provide additional support for students who appear to be stuck after their initial attempts to

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 7 APIs and Using Functions with Parameters Adjustment Set 3 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Activity Description Task Description: Students are asked to draw with dots, create an image of a snowman, draw concentric circles, draw

overlapping circles, and draw a smiley face. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending proportion, knowledge of radii, and x and y coordinates Adjustment Recommendations:

Provide students with a link to a website that will allow them to determine the hex codes for the

colors of their choice (not related to a specific learning difference). Provide additional review opportunities for students who need more time on visual spatial

constructs (like radii and proportion) before engaging in the lesson's problem-solving task (m, 2).

Support students having difficulty completing the task with direct guidance and possible

suggestions. For instance, a) demonstrate proportional shapes in PowerPoint, and b) explain proportion with a simple example and then move to the length of a radius and its relationship to

circumference (m, 2, 13).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 7 APIs and Using Functions with Parameters Adjustment Set 4 Lesson Section:

Student Materials - Wrap-Up Task Description: Students are expected to retain new vocabulary terms.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

retaining information only presented verbally

comprehending new terminology used in a different context Adjustment Recommendations:

Add the definitions for the terms Parameter, Library, API, and Documentation to a running class

glossary (r, 1, 5, 11). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 8 Creating Functions with Parameters Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Getting Started Task Description: Students are asked to recall the previous lessons designs and the turtle commands that were used to

complete those designs. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

recalling all the aspects of the previously learned material in the transition section when students are asked to recall the turtle commands that accept parameters learned in the previous lesson

visually reconstructing images from the previous lesson and keeping in mind the multiple steps to finish each design

Project the designs and App Lab commands used to construct the designs from the previous lesson

on the screen to refresh students memory (13). Provide a large screenshot of the programming environment from the previous App Lab lesson

annotated with specific vocabulary (for example, function, commands, and parameters) to facilitate

discussion (15, 20).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 8 Creating Functions with Parameters Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Puzzle Task Description: In Puzzles 2 through 12, the students are asked to view instructions presented in a narrow window at

the top of the screen that doesnt permit the reader to see much information at a single glance. As they complete the puzzles, they are supposed to utilize commands using parameters and scripts presented in the small windows.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

reading and comprehending information presented in a small space (window)

recalling information related to directions, commands, and configurations

spelling some commands and remembering when to capitalize

Provide a hard copy of the directions, commands, and designs presented in the windows (n, 13,

14, 15, 18, 23, 25). Provide the students with a copy of the Teacher Code Studio Reference table shown in the teacher

guide as a reference for all the commands and their spelling (f, 13).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 8 Creating Functions with Parameters Adjustment Set 3 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Puzzle Task Description: In the introduction for Puzzle 4, the phrasing make 2 calls is introduced.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending the vocabulary and phrasing make two calls in Puzzle 4 Adjustment Recommendations:

Refer to a running class glossary with key terms and concepts defined. Add the term function call

and explain how make two calls connects to function call (s, 5).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 8 Creating Functions with Parameters Adjustment Set 4 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Puzzle Task Description: In Puzzles 2 through 5, students are asked to draw squares and triangles of different border widths.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending how to use x- and y- coordinates Adjustment Recommendations:

Provide additional review opportunities for students who need more time on visual spatial constructs like proportion and x- and y- coordinates before engaging in the lesson's problem

solving task (m, 2, 13). Support students having difficulty completing the task with direct guidance and possible

suggestions. For example, demonstrate proportional shapes in PowerPoint, and be prepared to

help students identify that the default coordinates sometimes create the images outside of the

screen (m, 2, 13). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 9 Looping and Random Numbers Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials - Getting Started/ Student Materials - Background Task Description: New terminology is introduced in the Teacher materials Remarks section, and the Code Studio

Background section. Students listen to teacher explanation, read text, and watch a video, and each activity introduces new vocabulary terms. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending verbal information and processing language related to concepts like looping

sustaining attention while information is presented verbally

comprehending new vocabulary terms and sustaining attention while learning them

process both visual and verbal information in the video to learn additional terms related to looping. This may be challenging for some students because of the attention, visual demands, and

Consider creating a handout with the key information from the Remarks and video for students to

reference (a, n, r, 5, 11, 23). Before students read and watch a video in Code Studio, a) Preview the variety of terms related to

looping that will be presented; b) Add terms to a running class glossary and help students

understand the connection between looping and iteration; and c) When the video is over, review

the terminology once more with students (a, n, r, 5, 10, 11, 23).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 9 Looping and Random Numbers Adjustment Set 2 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Puzzle Task Description: In Puzzles 2 through 13, the students are asked to view instructions presented in narrow windows at

the top of the screen that require scrolling up or down to view the instructions and then complete puzzles. As they complete the puzzles, they are supposed to write scripts or modify scripts by adding loops and particular parameters that were briefly shown to them in the windows.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending information presented quickly and in small segments in the windows

recalling the directions, commands, and configurations of the designs

spelling some the commands and remembering when to capitalize

Provide a hard copy of the directions, commands, and designs presented in the window above

their work space (n, 13, 14, 15, 18, 23, 25). Provide the students with a copy of the Teacher Code Studio Reference table shown in the teacher

guide as a reference for each task. [Keep in mind that it does not contain all of the components

that students are required to include in the puzzles.] (f, 13).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 9 Looping and Random Numbers Adjustment Set 3 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Puzzle Task Description: In Puzzle 8, students are asked to draw 15 fish in the top 360 pixels, and in Puzzle 9, they are asked

to draw starfish in the bottom pixels, y-values between 360 and 450. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

comprehending how to use x and y coordinates Adjustment Recommendations:

Provide additional x and y coordinate support to students who are in need. Additionally, provide them with an explanation of pixel values and how they relate to the App Lab screen to support

problem solving in this task (m, 2, 13). Provide students struggling to complete the task with direct guidance and suggestions (m, 2, 13).

Provide students struggling to complete the task with guidelines enumerating the screen in App

Lab, meaning how many pixels are available on the screen and what is the range of values used

to determine position on the screen when using x and y coordinates (m, 2, 13).

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 9 Looping and Random Numbers Adjustment Set 4 Lesson Section:

Student Materials Assessment Task Description: Reflection: Students are asked to respond in writing to a free response question.

Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

developing a rationale for when to write a function and when to use a loop

articulating the reasoning for when a function should be used versus when a loop should be used

As a class, create a Venn diagram that outlines when functions would be used and when loops should be used, and the instances when both may be considered. Allow students to use the Venn

diagram to complete the free response question (e, r, 8, 9, 11, 29). Refer to Recurring Adjustment Suggestions for Reading & Writing Activities. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Adjustment Category: = Presentation, = Response, = Timing, = Setting, = Social Interaction

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Unit 3, Lesson 10 Practice PT Design a Digital Scene Adjustment Set 1 Lesson Section:

Teacher Materials Activity Description Task Description: Students are asked to work in groups, and then work individually to create a digital scene in Code

Studio. Then, they write a program for the scene. Task Challenges - Some students may have difficulty:

identifying a scene to design, and then breaking it down into components to be programmed by group members

determining a plan to write their code for their individual scenes

recalling how to program Adjustment Recommendations:

Circulate and provide support to students who are having difficulty determining the type of scenes to design, ways in which to break the scene into subcomponents, and how to write a program that will create the components of the scene. Provide suggestions or model the process for students who

need significant support to move forward (n, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Citing this Work Please acknowledge Outlier Research & Evaluation and Wolcott Schools NSF-supported study (Grant # 1542963) that generated this content in any distribution or publication use. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

About the Outlier-Wolcott CSP Study: The Computer Science and students with learning differences study is a two-year exploratory research-practice partnership project funded by the NSF (# 1542963). The study seeks to make the CSP course more accessible for students with specific learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders. Learn more about this work at http://outlier.uchicago.edu/accessCSP/.

http://outlier.uchicago.edu/accessCSP/