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    ENGLISH PHONETIC AND

    PHONOLOGY

    FINAL ASSIGNMENT

    Consonant And Consonant Cluster

    Name : Reza Rizkyanto

    Registration Number : 2225106408

    Class : 10SBMDR

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    First and foremost, I thank Allah (subhana wa taala) for endowing me with health,

    patience, and knowledge to complete English Phonetic and Phonology final assignment,I

    would also like to give my biggest thanks and gratitude to Ifan Iskandar,Spd. as my English

    Phonetic and Phonology lecturer,also, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to mymother, father,and all other relatives especially my classmate at 10SBMDR,for their

    emotional and moral support throughout my academic career and also for their love,

    patience,encouragement and prayers.

    For those people i mention above , may Allah bless them with health,guidance, and

    luck.

    The writer is fully aware that this assignment has a lot of mistake and still far from

    perfect,so any constructive critics or advice to improve this assignment is welcome.

    F

    inally,i hope this assignment can improve my knowledge to be a better englishspeaker and i hope this assignment can meet Mr.Ifan Iskandar,Spd expectation.

    Jakarta, January-1- 2012

    Reza Rizkyanto

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.. 1

    TABLE OF CONTENTS.... 2-3

    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

    1.1Background of the study .. 41.2Reason for choosing the topic...................... 51.3Writing method..... 51.4Purpose....................................................................................................................5

    CHAPTER II CONTENTS

    2.1 The definition of consonant and consonant table6-7

    2.1.1 Consonant (Pulmonic) table................................................................8

    2.2 The definition of consonant cluster..........9

    2.3 Consonant cluster in English...............................................9-10

    2.4 Consonant cluster reduction...................................................................................10

    2.4.1 H-cluster reduction................................................................................11

    2.4.1.1 Wh-cluster reduction..........................................................11

    2.4.1.2 Yeh-Hew merger.......................................................... 11

    2.4.1.3 hl-cluster, hr-cluster and hn-cluster reductions.................12

    2.4.2 Y-cluster reduction................................................................................12

    2.4.2.1 Yod dropping.....................................................................12-13

    2.4.2.2 Yod coalescence....................................................13

    2.4.3 Final-consonant-cluster reduction..........................................................14

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    2.4.4 Other initial-cluster reductions...............................................................14

    2.4.4.1 Rapwrap merger..............................................................14

    2.4.4.2 Notknot merger................................................................14

    2.4.4.3 Nomegnome merger........................................................15

    2.4.4.4 S-cluster reduction.............................................................15

    2.5 Consonant-cluster addition......................................................................................15

    2.5.1 Prince-prints merger...........................................................................15-162.6 Consonant-cluster alterations ..................................................................................16

    2.6.1 Yod rhotacization.....................................................................16

    2.6.2 S-cluster metathesis..................................................................16-17

    2.6.3 Screamstream merger........ ..............................................................17-18

    2.7 Consonant clusters in another language...................................................................18-19

    2.8 Consonants versus vowels........................................................................................20

    CHAPTER III CONCLUSION.......21

    REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................22

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    CHAPTER I

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background ofThe Study

    English as the global language is used internationally by all of the people from around

    the world to do their daily activities like: trade,communicate,teach,study and other.English

    mostly used in the developed country where the speaker is fluent of english or if english is

    their second language from their mother tongue.

    In Indonesia,English is a foreign language,but among all the of foreign language in

    Indonesia,English is one of the foreign language that is used oftenly,however most of

    Indonesian poeple have major flaws/mistake when using their english,this major

    mistake/flaws is considered as a critical mistake that can cause understanding problem.

    Some major mistake that usually occur on Indonesian speaker when they are speaking

    english are :

    1. Pronouncing Stressed Vowel, vowel reduction2. Pronouncing Consonant Cluster ,consonant cluster simplification or

    consonant cluster reduction

    3. Pronouncing the wrong intonation and juncture and - etcThis mistake can be identified clearly through dipthongs, and vowel identification

    process . Because Consonant Cluster is one of major mistake that's essentially done by most

    Indonesian speaker,Now I would like to discuss more about consonant cluster function in

    English language.

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    1.2 Reason for choosing the topic

    1. To describe about consonant cluster and all of its aspect

    2.

    To describe consonant VS Vowel

    3. To describe consonant1.3 Writing Method

    The writer doing this assignment by collecting the data from various sources. Mostly

    the data is taken from the internet

    1.4 Purpose

    The purpose of writing this assignment is to increase the writer knowledge, and to complete

    the final assignment of English Phonetic and Phonology.

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    CHAPTER II

    CONTENT

    2.1 The definition of consonant and consonants table

    Consonant is speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the

    vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the

    tongue; [k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the throat; [f] and [s],

    pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have

    air flowing through the nose (nasals) or a speech sound produced by a partial or complete

    obstruction of the air stream by any of various constrictions of the speech organs, such as (p),

    (f), (r), (w), and (h).

    Each spoken consonant can be distinguished by several phonetic

    features:

    The manner of articulation is how air escapes from the vocal tract when theconsonant or approximant (vowel-like) sound is made. Manners include stops,

    fricatives, and nasals.

    The place of articulation is where in the vocal tract the obstruction of the consonantoccurs, and which speech organs are involved. Places include bilabial (both lips),

    alveolar (tongue against the gum ridge), and velar (tongue against soft palate). In

    addition, there may be a simultaneous narrowing at another place of articulation, such

    as palatalisation or pharyngealisation.

    The phonation of a consonant is how the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.When the vocal cords vibrate fully, the consonant is called voiced; when they do not

    vibrate at all, it is voiceless.

    The voice onset time (VOT) indicates the timing of the phonation. Aspiration is afeature of VOT.

    The airstream mechanism is how the air moving through the vocal tract is powered.Most languages have exclusively pulmonic egressive consonants, which use the lungs

    and diaphragm, but ejectives, clicks, and implosives use different mechanisms.

    The length is how long the obstruction of a consonant lasts. This feature is borderlinedistinctive in English, as in "wholly" [holli] vs. "holy" [holi], but cases are limited

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    to morpheme boundaries. Unrelated roots are differentiated in various languages such

    as Italian, Japanese, and Finnish, with two length levels, "single" and "geminate".

    Estonian and some Sami languages have three phonemic lengths: short, geminate, and

    long geminate, although the distinction between the geminate and overlong geminate

    includes suprasegmental features.

    The articulatory force is how much muscular energy is involved. This has beenproposed many times, but no distinction relying exclusively on force has ever been

    demonstrated.

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    2.1.1 Consonant (Pulmonic) table

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    2.2 The definition of consonant cluster

    Consonant cluster (orconsonant blend) is a group of consonants which have no

    intervening vowel. In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in

    the wordsplits.

    Some linguists argue that the term can only be properly applied to those consonant

    clusters that occur within one syllable. Others contend that consonant clusters are more useful

    as a definition when they may occur across syllable boundaries. According to the former

    definition, the longest consonant clusters in the word extra would be /ks/ and /tr/,[1] whereas

    the latter allows /kstr/. The German wordAngstschwei (/astvas/; "fear sweat") is another

    good example, with a cluster of five consonants: /stv/.

    Consonant clusters occurring in loanwords do not necessarily follow the cluster

    limits set by the borrowing language's phonotactics. The Ubykh language's root psta, a loan

    from Adyghe, violates Ubykh's rule of no more than two initial consonants; also, the English

    words sphere /sfr/ and sphinx /sfks/, Greek loans, violate the restraint (or

    constraint, see also optimality theory) that two fricatives may not appear adjacently word-

    initially.

    2.3 Consonant cluster in English

    In English, the longest possible initial cluster is three consonants, as in split /splt/ and

    strudel /trudl/, all beginning with /s/ or // and ending with /l/ or /r/;[3] the longest

    possible final cluster is five consonants, as in angsts /ksts/, though that is rare and four,

    as in twelfths /twlfs/, sixths /skss/, bursts /brsts/ and glimpsed /lmpst/, is

    more common.

    However, it is important to distinguish clusters and digraphs. Clusters are made of two

    or more consonant sounds, while a digraph is a group of two consonant letters standing for a

    single sound. For example, in the word ship, the two letters of the digraph sh together

    represent the single consonant []. Also note a combination digraph and cluster as seen in

    length with two digraphs ng, th representing a cluster of two consonants: //; or even

    lights with a silent digraph gh followed by a cluster t, s: /ts/.

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    2.4 Consonant cluster reduction

    In phonology and historical linguistics, cluster reduction is the simplification ofconsonant clusters in certain environments or over time. In some dialects of English such as

    AAVE certain historical consonant clusters reduce to single consonants at the ends of words:

    friendrhymes withBen, and coldis homonymous with coal. In both cases, a historical cluster

    of homorganic consonants loses a plosive: /frn/, /kol/ However, in colder, where the

    consonant cluster falls between vowels, the /d/ remains: /kold/. The similar word-final

    reduction of */mb/ to /m/ and *// to // is complete in standard English (eg. lamb, long), as

    it is in many other Germanic languages (eg. Swedish lamm, lng).

    2.4.1 H-cluster reductions :

    The h-cluster reductions are various consonant reductions that have occurred in the

    history ofEnglish involving consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have lost the /h/ in

    certain varieties of English

    2.4.1.1 Wh-cluster reductions

    y The hole-whole merger is the replacement of // with /h/ before the vowels /o/and /u/.which occurred in Old English. This is due to the effect that rounded

    back vowels have on /h/, giving it velar and labial characteristics making /hw/ an

    allophone of /h/ before these vowels; the true phonetic /hw/ then eventually

    became perceived as this allophone of /h/ and no longer a phonologically distinct

    speech sound.

    y The wine-whine merger is the merger of // or /hw/ (spelt wh) with /w/.It occursin the speech of the great majority of English speakers. Notable dialects that retain

    the distinction include Irish English, Scottish English, and Southern American

    English. This occurred after theholewhole merger meaning that wh- is usually

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    /w/ before orthographic a, e, i and y, but /h/ before orthographic o. (Orthographic a

    is usually phonologically // or // after /w/ in some varieties of English.)

    2.4.1.2 Yewhew merger

    The yewhew merger is a process that occurs in some dialects of English that

    causes the cluster /hj/ to be reduced to /j/.[2] It leads to pronunciations like /jud/ for huge

    and /jumn/ for human; hew and yew become homophonous. It is sometimes considered a

    type of glide-cluster reduction, but is much less widespread than wh-reduction, and is

    generally stigmatized where it is found. Aside from accents with h dropping, this reduction is

    in the United States found mainly in accents of Philadelphia and New York City; also in Cork

    accents of Hiberno-English. In some dialects of English, the cluster /hj/ (phonetically [j])

    has been reduced to [] so that hew and yew differ only by the initial consonant sound (i.e.

    [u] and [ju]).

    2.4.1.3 hl-cluster, hr-cluster and hn-cluster reductions

    The hl-cluster, hr-cluster and hn-cluster reductions are three reductions that

    occurred in Middle English that caused the consonant clusters /hl/, /hr/ and /hn/ to be reduced

    to /l/, /r/, and /n/. For example, Old English hlf, hringand hnutu became loaf, ringand nutin

    Modern English.

    2.4.2 Y-cluster reductions :

    2.4.2.1 Yod dropping

    Yod dropping is the elision of the sound [j]. The term comes from the Hebrew

    letter yod, which represents [j].

    Yod dropping before [u] occurs in most varieties of English in the following environments:

    After [t, d, j], for example chew [tu], juice [dus], yew [ju]

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    After //, for example rude [ud] After consonant+/l/ clusters, for example blue [blu]

    There are accents, for example Welsh English, in which pairs like chews/choose, yew/you,

    threw/through are distinct: the first member of each pair has the diphthong [u] while the

    second member has [u].[1]

    Many varieties of English have extended yod dropping to the following environments, on

    condition that the [j] be in the same syllable as the preceding consonant:

    After /s/, for example suit [sut]After /l/, for example lute [lut]After /z/, for example Zeus [zus]After //, for example enthusiasm [nuzizm]

    Yod dropping in the above environments was formerly considered nonstandard in England,

    but today it is heard even among well-educated RP speakers.In General American yoddropping is found not only in the above environments but also:

    After /t/, /d/ and /n/, for example tune [tun], dew [du], new [nu]Glide retention in these contexts has occasionally been held to be a shibboleth distinguishing

    Canadians from Americans. However, in a survey conducted in the Golden Horseshoe area of

    Southern Ontario in 1994, over 80% of respondents under the age of 40 pronounced student

    and news without yod.

    2.4.2.2 Yod coalescenceYod coalescence is a process that changes the clusters [dj], [tj], [sj] and [zj] into

    [d], [t], [] and [] respectively.

    This occurs in unstressed syllables in many varieties of English. Occurring in unstressed

    syllables, it leads to pronunciations such as the following:

    educate

    /duke

    t/

    nature /netr/

    pressure /prr/

    measure /mr/

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    azure /r/

    It also occurs in some accents in stressed syllables as in tune and dune. Yod coalescence in

    stressed syllables occurs in Australian, Cockney, Estuary English, Newfoundland English,

    and to a certain extent in New Zealand English, resulting in further examples as follows:

    dew /du/

    tune

    /tun/

    resume

    /rum/

    assume

    /um/

    This can lead to additional homophony; for instance, in the case of /d/, dew, due, andJew

    come to be pronounced identically. Yod coalescence has traditionally been considered non-

    RP.

    2.4.3 Final-consonant-cluster reduction

    Reduction of final consonant clusters occurs in African American Vernacular

    English and Caribbean English. The new final consonant may be slightly lengthened as an

    effect.

    Examples are:

    test tes' ([tst] [ts])

    desk des'([dsk

    ] [ds])

    hand han'([hnd

    ]

    [hn])

    send sen'([snd

    ] [sn])

    left lef' ([lft] [lf])

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    wasp was'([w

    sp]

    [ws])

    The plurals of test and desk may become tesses and desses by the same English rule that

    gives us plural messes from singular mess.

    2.4.4 Other initial-cluster reductions :

    2.4.4.1 Rapwrap merger

    The rapwrap merger is a reduction that causes the initial cluster /wr/ to be

    reduced to /r/, making rap and wrap, rite and write etc. homophones.Old English had a

    contrast between /wr/ and /r/, the former characterized by lip rounding. In Middle English,

    the contrast disappeared and all cases of initial /r/ came to be rounded.

    2.4.4.2Notknot merger

    The notknot merger is a reduction that occurs in modern English where the

    historical cluster /kn/ is reduced to /n/ making knot and not homophones.

    All of the kn words stem from Old English forms beginning with cn-, and at the time all were

    pronounced with an initial /k/ before the /n/. These words were common to the Germanic

    languages, most of which still pronounce the initial /k/. Thus, for example, the Old English

    ancestor of knee was cno, pronounced /kneo/, and the cognate word in Modern German

    is Knie, pronounced /kni/.

    Most dialects of English reduced the initial cluster /kn/ to /n/ relatively recently; the change

    seems to have taken place in educated English during the seventeenth century, meaning that

    Shakespeare did not have the reduction.

    2.4.4.3 Nomegnome merger

    The nomegnome merger is the reduction of the initial cluster /n/ to /n/.

    In Middle English, words spelt with gn like gnat, gnostic, gnome, etc. had the cluster /n/.

    The humorous song The Gnu jokes about this, even though the g in gnu may actually have

    always been silent in English, since this loanword did not enter the language until the late

    18th century.The trumpeter Kenny Wheeler wrote a composition titled "Gnu High", a pun on

    "New High".

    2.4.4.4 S-cluster reduction

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    S-cluster reduction is the dropping of /s/ from the initial consonant

    clusters with voiceless plosives (environments /sp/, /st/, and /sk()/) occurring in Caribbean

    English. After the initial /s/ is removed, the plosive is aspirated in the new word-initial

    environment, resulting in pronunciations such as:

    spit 'pit ([spt] [pt])

    stomach 'tomach([stm

    k] [tmk])

    spend 'pen([spnd

    ]

    [pn]) (also affected by final consonant-cluster

    reduction)

    squeeze 'queeze([skwi

    z] [kwiz])

    2.5 Consonant-cluster addition

    2.5.1 Prince-prints merger

    The prince-prints merger is a merger of /ns/ and /nts/ occurring for many

    speakers of English. For them, "prince" and "prints" are homonyms as [prnts]. A [t] is

    inserted between the [n] and the [t]. Likewise the fricative [] often becomes [t] after [n],

    so that "pinscher" and "pincher" are homophones.

    These vowel clusters may also merge:

    /nz/ and /ndz/ as in "bans", "pens" and "Hans" sounding the same as "bands", "pends"and "hands". The merged form being [nz]

    /n/ and /nt/ as in "pinscher" sounding the same as "pincher". The merged formbeing [nt].

    /mt/ and /mpt/ as in "dreamt" and "attempt". The merged form being [mpt]./ms/ and /mps/ as in "camps" and "hamster". The merged form being [mps].

    2.6 Consonant-cluster alterations

    2.6.1 Yod rhotacization

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    Yod rhotacization is a process that occurs for some Southern AAVE speakers

    where /j/ is rhotacized to /r/ in consonant clusters causing pronunciations like:

    beautiful

    /brutfl/

    cute /krut/

    music

    /mruzk/

    2.6.2 S-cluster metathesis

    S-cluster metathesis is the metathesis of final consonant clusters starting with/s/ occurring in African American Vernacular English[13] as well as many other varieties of

    English.

    For AAVE speakers with S-cluster metathesis the following words can undergo the following

    changes:

    ask /ks/

    grasp

    /rps/

    wasp

    /wps/

    gasp /ps/

    S-cluster metathesis is lexically determined.

    The above pronunciations in fact have a long history, and all the metathesised forms have

    existed in English for around as long as the words themselves, with varying degrees of

    acceptance.

    F

    or example, the Old English verb scian also appeared as acsian, and both forms continuedinto Middle English. The two forms co-existed and evolved separately in various regions of

    England, and later America. The variant ascian gives us the modern standard English ask, but

    the form "axe", probably derived from Old English acsian, appears in Chaucer: "I axe, why

    the fyfte man Was nought housband to the Samaritan?" (Wife of Bath's Prologue, 1386.) It

    was considered acceptable in literary English until about 1600[14] and can still be found in

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    some dialects of English including African American Vernacular English. It is, however, one

    of the most stigmatized features of AAVE, often commented on by teachers. It also persists

    in Ulster Scots as /aks/ and Jamaican English as /aks/, from where it has entered the

    London dialect of British English as /ks/.

    2.6.3 Screamstream merger

    The screamstream merger is the pronunciation of the consonant cluster /str/

    as /skr/ occurring for some speakers of African American Vernacular English making"scream" and "stream" homophonous as /skrim/.[13]

    This phonological pattern in AAVE is a phonological pattern that's been mentioned from time

    to time, often by speech pathologists. Presumably the speech pathologists were concerned

    about this use of "skr" in place of standard English "str" because it was not clear whether thecombination of sounds was an indication of a disorder or dialectal pattern. Still the scream

    stream merger has not been observed or recorded in the literature nearly as often as other

    sound patterns. There are three possible reasons for this: (1) One is that because "skr" only

    occurs in positions where "str" can occur in general American English, there will be limited

    opportunity to produce the sound. (2) Secondly, the screamstream merger may be viewed as

    a feature of the speech of young AAVE speakers that is not maintained in adult AAVE. (3)

    Thirdly, the screamstream merger may be associated with AAVE spoken in certain regions

    of the United States.

    Common words in which the /sk/ sequence occurs are given below:

    street

    /skrit/

    stretch

    /skrt/

    straight

    /skret/

    In summarizing her research on the cluster, Dandy (1991) notes that the form is found inGullah and in the speech of some young African Americans born in the Southern United

    States. She explains that the streamscream merger is a highly stigmatized feature and that

    many of the students in her study who used it were referred to speech pathologists. She goes

    on to note the following about her research: "I also found a continuum that may indicate

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    sound change in progress. If children said skretch for stretch, they probably have used the skr

    alternation in other words that contained the feature: skreet for street, skrong for strong,

    skrike for strike, skranger/deskroy for stranger/destroy. There were some who said skreet for

    street but did not make alteration on other words with that sound". (p. 44). Also, although

    Dandy does not make this point, it is important to note that the students' use of /skr/ may have

    been affected by the training they were getting from the speech pathologists.

    2.7 Consonant clusters in another language

    Languages' phonotactics differ as to what consonant clusters they permit.Many

    languages do not permit consonant clusters at all. Maori and Pirah, for instance, don't

    permit any two consecutive consonants in a word. Japanese is almost as strict, but it allows

    clusters of consonant plus /j/ as in Tokyo [tokjo], the name ofJapan's capital city.

    Across a syllable boundary, it also allows a cluster of a nasal consonant plus another

    consonant, as in Honsh [honu] (the name of the largest island) and tempura [tempua]

    (a traditional dish). A great many of the languages of the world are more restrictive than

    English in terms of consonant clusters; almost every Malayo-Polynesian language forbids

    consonant clusters entirely. Tahitian, Samoan and Hawaiian are all of this sort. Standard

    Arabic does not permit initial consonant clusters, or more than two consecutive consonants in

    other positions; neither do most other Semitic languages, although Modern Israeli Hebrew

    permits initial two-consonant clusters (e.g. pkak "cap"; dlat "pumpkin"), and Moroccan

    Arabic, under Berber influence, allows strings of several consonants.Khmer, as do most

    MonKhmer languages permits only initial consonant clusters with up to three consonants in

    a row per syllable. Finnish has initial consonant clusters natively only on South-Western

    dialects and on foreign loans, and only clusters of three inside the word are allowed. Most

    spoken languages and dialects, however, are more permissive. In Burmese, consonant

    clusters of only up to three consonants (the initial and two medialstwo written forms of /-j-/, /-w-/) at the initial onset are allowed in writing and only two (the initial and one medial) are

    pronounced. These clusters are restricted to certain letters. Some Burmese dialects allow for

    clusters of up to four consonants (with the addition of the /-l-/ medial, which can combine

    with the above-mentioned medials.

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    At the other end of the scale, the Kartvelian languages ofGeorgia are drastically more

    permissive of consonant clustering. Clusters in Georgian of four, five or six consonants are

    not unusualfor instance, /brtqli/ (flat), /mtsvrtnli/ (trainer) and /prtskvna/

    (peeling)and if grammatical affixes are used, it allows an eight-consonant cluster:

    /vbrdvnis/ (he's plucking us). Consonants cannot appear as syllable nuclei in Georgian,

    so this syllable is analysed as CCCCCCCCVC. Some Slavic languages such as Slovak may

    manifest formidable numbers of consecutive consonants, such as in the words tvr

    /tvrt/,zmrzlina /zmrzlna/, andblnknutie /blknutje/, but the liquid

    consonants /r/ and /l/ can form syllable nuclei in Slovak, and behave phonologically as

    vowels in this case. Another example is the Serbo-Croatian word opskrbljivanje

    /pskrbia/, though note that lj and nj here are digraphs representing single

    consonants: [] and [], respectively. Some Salishan languages exhibit long words with no

    vowels at all, such as the Nuxlk word /xptpskts/: he had in his

    possession a bunchberry plant. It is extremely difficult to accurately classify which of these

    consonants may be acting as the syllable nucleus, and these languages challenge classical

    notions of exactly what constitutes a syllable.

    2.8 Consonants versus vowels

    Consonants and vowels correspond to distinct parts of a syllable: The most sonorous part

    of the syllable (that is, the part that's easiest to sing), called the syllabic peak or nucleus, is

    typically a vowel, while the less sonorous margins (called the onset and coda) are typically

    consonants. Such syllables may be abbreviated CV, V, and CVC, where C stands for

    consonant and V stands for vowel. This can be argued to be the only pattern found in most of

    the world's languages, and perhaps the primary pattern in all of them. However, the

    distinction between consonant and vowel is not always clear cut: there are syllabic

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    consonants and non-syllabic vowels in many of the world's languages .One blurry area is in

    segments variously called semivowels, semiconsonants, or glides. On the one side, there are

    vowel-like segments that are not in themselves syllabic but that form diphthongs as part of

    the syllable nucleus,as the i in English boil[bl]

    On the other, there are approximants that behave like consonants in forming onsets but

    are articulated very much like vowels, as they in Englishyes [js]. Some phonologists

    model these as both being the underlying vowel /i/, so that the English word bitwould

    phonemically

    /bit/, beet would be /biit

    The other problematic area is that of syllabic consonants, segments articulated as consonants

    but occupying the nucleus of a syllable. This may be the case for words such as church in

    rhotic dialects of English, although phoneticians differ in whether they consider this to be a

    syllabic consonant.

    CHAPTER III

    CONCLUSION

    Indonesian people may have difficulty pronouncing English consonant cluster

    because Bahasa Indonesia consonant cluster is not as difficult as English consonant

    cluster.Mostly Indonesian people have difficulty pronouncing the consonant cluster

    simplification or assimilation processes because in Bahasa Indonesia there was almost no

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    simplification when speaking,usually when we speak we pronounce all the word exactly in

    that sentence without any interruption,simplification,gliding or assimilation process,also the

    way we read alphabet letter in Bahasa Indonesia is mostly different from the way English

    people read the alphabet so this is one of the factor why its very difficult for us to pronounce

    english correctly.Also indonesian people found out that gliding between vowel to vowel

    (Dipthong and tripthong) is very hard cause we need to articulate our organ of speech

    correctly.So if we want to pronounce english correctly we need to understand what is

    consonant cluster,assimilation process,gliding between vowel and other,we can learn the

    basic of consonant cluster simplification first to learning dipthong and tripthong easier,so if

    we want to pronounce English correctly it take a lot of practice in uisng

    dipthong,tripthong,consonant cluster,intonation,and other so be sure to practice everyday,its

    like they say practice make perfect,and thanks a lot for reading this assignment.

    REFERENCES

    - Roach, Peter. 2000. English Phonetics and Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge.

    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonological_history_of_English_consonants

    - http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/knowledge-wiki/consonant-cluster

    - http://www.thefreedictionary.com/consonant

    - http://dictionary.sensagent.com/consonant+cluster/en-en

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    - http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/4/556

    - http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/clustersindex.html

    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consonant_cluster

    - http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/clustersindex.html