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    RHS Plan t Trials an d Aw ardsRHS Plan t Trials an d Aw ards

    Perennial Yellow DaisiesJan et CubeyPrincipal Botanist, RHS Garden W isley

    Mike GrantSenior Botanist, RHS Garden W isley

    Bulletin Num ber 6

    Septem ber 2004

    Perennial Yellow DaisiesJan et CubeyPrincipal Botanist, RHS Garden W isley

    Mike GrantSenior Botanist, RHS Garden W isley

    Bulletin Num ber 6

    Septem ber 2004

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    Trials of Perenn ial Yellow Daisies (1998-2002)

    RHS Plant Trials and Awards2

    Objectives of the trials

    The aims of each of th e individual peren nial yellow daisy

    trials in cluded:

    the identification of the most reliable, distinctive and

    garden worth y cultivars for the RHS Award of Gard en


    th e establishm ent of the correct nom enclature

    th e production of a permanen t record, through

    representative h erbarium and phot ographic records

    together with written descriptions.


    In to tal, for the eight t rials, three plan ts of each of 282

    ent ries were obtained from 52 sources. These send ers of

    plan ts to th e trials (listed on page 15) com prised retail and

    wh olesale nu rseries, National Plant Collection h olders,

    gardens and private individuals.

    The number of entries submitted to each individual trial

    was as follows:

    Coreopsis 38 entries

    Helenium 56 entries

    Helian th us 48 entries

    Heliopsis 20 entries

    Inu la,Buph thalm um & Telekia 20 entries

    Rudbeckia 48 entries

    Silphium 3 entries

    Solidago an d Solidaster 49 entries

    Plant Trials

    The Royal Horticultural Society, the UKs leading gardening

    charity, has conducted plant trials since its foundation in

    1804. Th ey are an in trinsic part of the charitable work th e

    RHS does for all gardeners, aimin g to in form, inspire an d

    advise. Today, over 60 trials of different groups of plants

    (herbaceous, vegetable, fruit, ann ual, bulb, rock garden

    and woody) are held at RHS gardens each year. Aroun d

    3,000 ent ries are judged for garden worth iness by 13 RHS

    plant committees, made up of professional gardeners,

    nu rserymen , plantsm en and en thu siasts with th e support

    of RHS staff and scient ists.

    RHS plan t t rials are cond ucted t o iden tify good, reliable garden

    plant s by awarding th e RHS Award of Garden Merit to

    cultivars of particular value. Botan ists examin e th e plant s

    to en sure they are correctly n amed . Each p lant is also

    described in detail, photographed and a dried specimenprepared for storage in th e RHS Herbarium.

    Perennial Yellow Daisy Trials

    The peren n ial, mostly yellow, daisies can provide

    wonderful colour in a late summer border, they are

    tolerant o f a range of different con dition s and are easy to

    grow. An d yet, for some reason, th ey have been ou t of

    fashion in recent years. To h elp rekind le their pop ularity,

    and provide a vibrant, golden display for the Millennium

    (2000) and t h e Queen s Golden Jubilee (2002), th e Floral

    Trials Sub-committee decided that a series of trials (listed

    below) should be carried out on the Portsmouth Field at

    RHS Garden , Wisley.

    Trial ofCoreopsis (19992001)

    Trial ofHelen iu m (19992001)

    Trial ofHel ia nthu s (19992001)

    Trial ofHel iops is (19982001)

    Trial ofInula , Buph tha lm um & Telekia (20002002)

    Trial ofRudbeckia (19992002)

    Trial ofSilphium (19992002)

    Trial ofSolidago an d Solidaster (20002002)

    Above:Rudbeckia Trial (Mike Sleigh /RHS)

    Above left: Aerial view of t he RHS Trials, August

    2000 (Clive Morris/RHS)

    Above right:Helenium Trial (Mike Sleigh /RHS)

    Front Cover:Heliopsis h eliant hoides var. scabra

    Spitzentnzerin (Tim Sandall)

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    Th e Award of Garden Merit

    Perennial Yellow Daisies 3

    The Award of Garden M erit

    The Award of Garden Merit requires a plant :

    to be excellent for garden decoration or use

    to be available from nurseries or specialist growers

    to be of good constitution

    n ot t o require specialist care

    n ot to be particularly susceptible to any p est or disease

    n ot be subject to an un reasonable degree of reversion

    Judging Crit eria

    The criteria used for judging th e perenn ial daisy trials

    varied slightly from t rial to trial, with each t rial bein g

    closely examined for a minimum of two flowering seasons.

    In general th e characters th at were observed, included: habit/uprightness






    period of flowerin g





    weath er resistance

    AGM Winners

    **Coreopsis verticillata Moonbeam

    Coreopsis verticillata Old Tim er

    Coreopsis verticillata Zagreb*Coreopsis verticillata Grandiflora

    Helenium Baudirektor Linne

    Helenium Bltentisch

    Helenium Butterpat

    Helenium Feuersiegel

    Helenium Gartensonne

    Helenium Karneol

    Helenium Moerheim Beauty

    Helenium Ring o f Fire

    Helenium Rubinzwerg

    Helenium Sahin s Early Flowerer

    Helenium Summer CircleHelenium Waltraut

    Helenium Wesergold

    Helian th us Gu llicks Variet y

    Helian th us Lemon Queen

    *Helianthus Loddo n Gold

    Helian th us Miss Mellish

    *Helianthus Monarch

    Heliopsis h elian th oides var. scabra

    Ben zinggold

    Heliopsis h elian th oides var. scabra

    Light of Loddon

    Heliopsis h elian th oides var. scabra


    Heliopsis h elian th oides var. scabra


    Heliopsis helianth oides var. scabra

    Waterperry Gold

    Inu la m agnifica Sonnenstrahl

    *Rudbeckia fulgida var. deamii

    Rudbeckia fu lgida var. speciosa

    *Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii


    Rudbeckia lacin iata GoldkugelRudbeckia lacin iata Goldquelle

    Rudbeckia lacin iata Herbstsonne

    Silphium perfoliatum

    Solidago Gardone

    All of th ese plants are H4 plants hardy

    throughout the British Isles

    * AGM reconfirm ed durin g trial

    ** Moon beam is often raised from seed, leading t o

    great variation p articularly in th e density of

    flowers. It is recommended to buy plants in

    flower, or propagate vegetatively from a free-flowering clone.

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    4/16RHS Plant Trials and Awards4

    Recommended for t he AGM

    S ub j e ct t o a v a i l a b il it y i n t he U K :

    Rudbeckia lacin iata Starcadia Razzle Dazzle

    Rudbeckia subtom entosa Loofahsa Wh eaten Go ld

    S ub j e ct to t he a pp l ic a t ion o f a cu l t i v ar na m e a nd

    ava i labi l i ty in the UK:

    Rudbeckia californica var. intermedia

    (Sen t by M r A Brooks)

    S ub j e ct to v e r i fic a t i on o f th e c or re ct na m e :

    The subm itted plants ofHeleniu m Goldrausch and

    Helenium Zimbelstern were considered to be


    Lis t of i l lus tra t ions on oppos i te page:

    Coreopsis verticillata Moonbeam

    Heleniu m Sah in s Early Flowerer

    Helian th us Loddo n Gold

    Heliopsis helian thoides var. scabra Ben zinggold

    Inu la hook eri

    Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii Goldsturm

    Silphium perfoliatum

    Solidago Gardone

    s t y l e ( n o ta l wa ysp r e se n t )

    An example of a daisy flower head

    r a y fl o r e t

    p h y l l a r y

    Cultivation Notes

    Each en try for each trial consisted of three plant s, planted

    into rotary-cultivated groun d in either spring or autum n.

    Top dressing with Vitax Q4 was carried out at th eapprop riate rates and in terval for each p articular trial.

    Requiremen ts did vary between th e trials, for examp le the

    Solidago Trial was only to p d ressed in its final year, whereas

    th e Heleniu m Trial required a feed every spring.

    Staking requ iremen ts for peren n ial yellow d aisies also vary,

    depending up on the stature of the in dividual plant. All

    Helian thus, and the taller forms ofHelenium ,Heliopsis an d

    Rudbeckia do p erform better when staked. Solidago and the

    taller Coreopsis verticillata cultivars, althou gh it is not

    essent ial, benefit from som e twiggy support.

    Two trials were found to ben efit from t he Chelsea chop.

    Helian thus growing to over 2m were cut back to 30cm in

    height in late May and sim ilarlyRudbeckia growing t o over

    2m t all were cut back to 45cm in late May. This was sho wn

    to be an easy meth od of obtaining shorter, bushier plants.

    No significant pest and disease problems were encountered

    durin g the cou rse of th ese trials.

    All these perennial yellow daisies are excellent for

    encou ragin g wildlife in th e garden; they are very pop ular

    with insects and flower late in the season.

    Th e Coreopsis Trial proved th at th ese are a very useful

    group of plants with an incredibly long flowering period,

    benefiting enorm ously from deadh eading. During th e trial

    it became apparen t h ow variable th e seed-raised plants can

    be and h ow people need to be aware of this when m aking

    a purchase. Unfortun ately, all th e C. grandiflora cultivars in

    the Trial were found to be inconsistently winter hardy and

    not to h ave a strong enough constitution to be considered

    suitable for the RHS Award of Garden Merit.

    The only known variegated Heliopsis was included in th e

    trial, but LORAINE SUNSHINE (Helh an ; Lorain e Sunsh ine, in

    US) did n ot p erform , in t h is trial, as well as th e Award of

    Garden Merit winning cultivars.

    Th e Solidago an d Solidaster, although very attractive

    when in bud, m ostly flower for too short a time p eriod to

    be con sidered for th e RHS Award of Garden Merit.

    Nomenclatural Comment s

    Helian thus Capen och Star has an Award of Garden Merit

    from 1993. However, none of th e plants submitted un der

    th is nam e to th e trial were considered to be correctly

    named. There is therefore some doubt as to how widely

    available th e true Capenoch Star n ow is.

    Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii An th on y Brooks,

    Goldschirm and Pot of Gold, although considered to be

    of Award of Garden Merit qu ality, were all very similar to

    Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii Goldstu rm AGM. As th is

    cultivar is comm on ly raised from seed, an d in variably

    comes true when raised in such a m ann er, new cultivars

    derived from Goldsturm seeds may not differ significantly

    from the parent.

    disc flore t

    sty le

    a n t h e r s

    co r o l l a

    p a p p u s

    o va r y

    recep tac le

    o va r y

    p a p p u s

    l i g u l e

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    5/16Perennial Yellow Daisies 5

    Th e Gen era


    The tickseeds have sm all flowers an d

    are wiry in h abit compared with th e

    oth er genera. They ten d to h ave

    feathery or ferny foliage and are mo re

    suitable for the front of a border or as

    patio or con tainer plants. Most are

    short-lived perennials and are often

    raised from seed and grown as ann uals.

    HeleniumThe sneezeweeds are very useful for

    providing yellow, orange and red-brown

    flower colours over a long period. The

    flower heads often h ave an eye of a

    darker colour surrounding the central

    disc. Botanically they differ from

    Helian th us an d Heliopsis in h aving

    leaves th at are always held altern ately

    at th e base of the plant and the absence

    of scales between t h e ray florets.


    The perennial sunflowers are perhapsthe most familiar group here, not least

    because this gen us contain s well-

    known garden plants such as the

    ann ual sunflower (Helian thus annu us)

    and the Jerusalem artichoke (H.

    tuberosus). The p erenn ial sun flowers

    exhibit t h e greatest structu ral diversity

    of tho se trialled; som e have semi-

    dou ble or fully double flower h eads.


    The oxeyes are superficially similar to

    the sunflowers and have similar usesin t he garden . Botan ically they differ

    in their blunt-tipped phyllaries (bracts

    enclosing th e base of the flower h ead),

    ligules (out er petals) persisting on th e

    seed heads and th e ray florets (which

    bear th e ligules) bein g fertile and

    possessing a style.


    The harvest daisies are mostly

    herbaceous perennials, though the

    genus does cont ain a few species that

    are ann ual or bienn ial. They are

    characterised by the m ultitude of fine,

    narrow, tubular ligules. Telekia speciosa

    (heart-leaved oxeye) and Buph thalm um

    salicifolium (willow-leaved oxeye),

    from the small closely related genera,

    were also included in th is trial.Inula is

    distinguished from Telekia an d

    Buph thalm um by the absence of scales

    between th e ray florets.


    The coneflowers, as their common

    nam e suggests, are typified by th eir

    conical or columnar disc at the centreof th e flower h ead. It is usually black

    or greenish-brown an d earns th em

    their other comm on n ame of black-

    eyed Susan. Although predominantly

    grown as herbaceous perenn ials,

    cultivars derived from R. h irta are

    bienn ials or short-lived peren nials

    th at are often raised from seed and

    grown as an nu als. The ligules are

    often slight ly dropping, althou gh t his

    effect is much more pron oun ced in

    the related Ratibida.


    Som etimes referred to as prairie dock

    or rosinweed, Silphium are t all, stiff,

    coarse-leaved perenn ial herbs that are

    particularly suitable for n aturalistic

    planting situations in areas with a

    m oisture-retent ive soil. Closely related

    to sunflowers, they differ in having

    female ray florets and m ale disc florets

    and upp er leaf pairs that are fused at

    the base, forming small bathtubs.


    Garden hybrids of goldenrod arem ostly derived from S. canadensis an d

    S. virgaurea, two species that are n ow

    naturalised in Britain; hence their

    invasive reputat ion. The garden

    hybrids ho wever, do n ot deserve to be

    tarred with the same brush. Their

    vibrant yellow p lum e-like sprays of

    flowers are easily recognisable an d are

    commonly seen in florists, as they

    m ake excellent cut flowers.

    Solidaster, the bigeneric hybrid

    between Solidago an d Aster, is more

    like Solidago than Aster. It has sm all,

    creamy yellow flowers that are slightly

    larger than that ofSolidago, but they

    are held in similar dense sprays.

    The Genera

    The yellow daisies in cluded in th ese Trials are m ostly from

    North Am erica and are all herbaceous peren nials. They

    flower in mid t o late summ er and are suitable for sunn y

    borders or prairie-style planting. They differ greatly in

    hab it, especially in size, ranging from 60cm to over 3m .

    The flower heads, whilst th ey are predom inan tly yellow,

    come in a wide variety of sizes, sh ades and shapes. Brief

    introductions to the genera involved are given below:

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    Coreopsis verticillata Grandiflora

    A G M ( H 4 ) 1 9 9 3 R e co n fi r m e d 2 0 0 1

    Sent b y Beeches N ursery.

    This has particularly large bright golden

    yellow flowers over a lon g flowering

    period an d fin e filigree foliage. The outer

    petals are larger and overlap more th an in

    other C. verticillata cultivars.

    Flowers early July to late Septem ber. Plant

    90cm high, 80 cm wide; tall, erect habit with

    stiff , airy, branched flowering stems. Leaves

    sessile, palm ately divided into filiform

    segments, 6.5cm long and 10cm wide. Flower

    heads 6cm diam eter, single; disc 0.8cm

    diameter, 0.4cm h igh, lemon yellow to dark

    brown on ageing; ligules 8, 3 1.4cm,

    overlapping at base, deep golden yellow (17B),

    tips pointed.

    Helenium Baudirektor Linne

    A G M ( H 4 ) 2 0 01

    S e nt by H e i nz K l ose Sta ud e ng r tne re i

    a n d W a t e r p e r r y G a r d e n s.

    Flowers of a sparkling rich warm gold

    colour, streaked with orange-red.

    Requires staking for the best


    Flowers mid August to early September. Plant

    1.7m high; tall, upright, vigorous clumps.

    Leaves to 18cm long an d 4cm wide. Flower

    heads 6cm diam eter, single, horizontal; disc

    2cm diameter, 1.5cm high, gold-red outercircle and brown-red centre (166A/18 7A)

    covered in rich gold anthers (17A); ligules 12-

    14, 3 1.6 cm, gaps between near disc, red

    (45A/42 A/34 A) flecked with vivid gold (14A)

    fading to reddish orange brown (171A /B/

    179A), underside (180A/179A/171A/B), tip

    reflexed, three lobed.

    Helenium Bltentisch

    A G M ( H 4 ) 2 0 01

    Sent b y Four Season s.

    A cultivar of uniform height th at h as

    brilliant sunny gold flowers flushed red

    on th e underside and with a green,matu ring to light brown , disc. A good late

    season flowerer. This cultivar was raised

    by Karl Foerster and th e nam e literally

    tran slates as flower table. Requires stakin g.

    Flowers early August to m id September. Plant

    to 1.5m high, vigorous yet compact with

    much-branched growth. Leaves dense, m id-

    dark green, sessile, 18cm long and 3.5cm

    wide, decreasing up the stem. Flower heads

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    contrast between t he dark brown disc

    and bright yellow rays. The name

    literally translates as garden sun .

    Requires staking.

    Flowers late July to mid September. Plantto 1.9m high; tall, erect, vigorous, neatly

    branching in the crown. Leaves light green

    (138A /14 3C), shallowly serrated m argin,

    surface smooth, lower leaves 14cm long

    and 4cm wide, upper stem leaves smaller.

    Flower heads

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    RHS Award of Garden Merit descrip tion s

    RHS Plant Trials and Awards8

    long and 3.5cm wide, decreasing up the

    stem. Flower heads to 6cm diameter,

    single, strongly reflexed and increasingly

    so with age; disc to 2.3cm diameter and

    2cm high, dark chocolate brown (darker

    than 166A) and covered in golden styles;

    ligules 3.5 1.4cm, overlapping, 3-lobed

    at tip and wavy, edge often incurved, first

    opening deep rust red (44A/45A) turning

    rich orange-red (46A/44A) and ageing to

    old gold-orange (169A), paler dulled tones

    beneath (178/1 79).

    Helenium Ring of Fire

    A G M ( H 4 ) 2 00 1

    S en t b y M r s F A r n o ld .

    A vibrant flower com posed of a rich

    golden yellow backgroun d colour with

    a striking strong red ban d, wh ich givesthe effect of a wheel. Selected and

    nam ed by Mrs Arnold. This tall plant

    requires staking.

    Flowers mid August to late September.

    Plant to 1.7m tall, 80cm wide; erect and

    strongly branched. Leaves mid green,

    surface smooth, to an average size of

    13cm long and 3cm wide. Flower heads

    to 5cm, single, flat and solid-looking;

    disc to 1.6cm diameter and 1cm high,

    yellow-green (1 51 A) at first progressively

    turning dark chocolate red (18 7A) w ith

    golden styles (166A); ligules 2.5 1.2cm

    neatly spaced, only overlapping at outside

    edge, 4-lobed with inner 2 being pointed,dark red tinged orange (44A/ 46A), with a

    circle of bright yellow (14A) beside disc

    and at the m argin, underside red-brown

    (179 A) turning orange-red (34 B) with

    age. Phyllaries distinctive wh en in bud,

    up to 1.2cm long, very narrow and

    twisted am ong one another.

    Helenium Rubinzwerg

    A G M ( H 4 ) 2 00 1

    S e nt by G re e n Fa rm P l a n ts .

    Masses of rich m aho gany red flowers

    surroun d a green disc that m atures to

    a dark chocolate brown and openswith a h alo of golden an thers. The

    lower stems can h ave a tendency to be

    somewh at bare, and t herefore it is best

    plant ed wh ere they cant be seen. This

    was bred by zur Linden and t he n ame

    literally translates as ruby dwarf.

    Flowers early August to lat e September.

    Plant 1m high, 80cm wide; compact and

    densely branched. Leaves light to m id

    green, narrow, surface sm ooth, 1 2 cm

    long and 2 cm wide, decreasing up the

    stem. Flower heads to 4 .5cm diam eter,

    single, flat; disc to 1.7cm diameter and

    1cm high, green at first but rapidlybecomin g dark red (187A) with gold

    styles and then brown (165A) in old age;

    ligules 2.3 1.2cm, neatly spaced, tip

    with 3 rounded lobes, strong red (46A/ B)

    with slight orange cast and gold (14A -17A)

    at extreme base m ost noticeable when

    youn g, ageing to brown-oran ge (c.171A ).

    Helenium Sahin s Early Flowerer

    A G M ( H 4 ) 2 0 01

    S e nt by C otsw o l d Ga rd e n F low e rs.

    For a long period, this cultivar is full of

    good-sized rich bright yellow an d

    orange streaked flowers with dark

    chocolate coloured d iscs. Requires


    Flowers late June to late August. Plant 1.3m

    high; erect, vigorous an d densely branched.

    Leaves m id green, rough-textu red, lower ones

    to 18cm long and 6 .5cm wide, decreasing

    up the stem to 11cm long and 3cm wide.

    Flower heads to 7cm diameter, single, slightlyreflexed when young but fully dropping with

    age; disc to 2.4cm diameter and 1.8cm high,

    mahogany brown (187A/1 66A) at first,

    turning to chocolate brown (166A ) with

    gold anthers as the flower fully opens; ligules


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    9/16Perennial Yellow Daisies 9

    Flowers mid July to late August. Plant t o

    1.2m high; vigorous and erect. Leaves mid

    green (138A), surfaces slightly rough and

    both covered in tiny hairs, 17 cm long and

    4cm wide, decreasing up the stem. Flower

    heads 7cm diameter, single, ligules not

    uniformly held giving the effect of

    tumbling around the disc; disc

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    RHS Award of Garden Merit descrip tion s

    RHS Plant Trials and Awards10

    1cm , overlapping, convex across their

    width and slightly twisting, reflexing at

    tip, yellow gold (9A/1 4A) t ip pointed

    with a small cleft. Phyllaries dark green

    alm ost black, staying closed at the base

    of the open flower.


    A G M ( H 4 ) 1 9 9 3 R eco n fi r m e d 2 0 0 1

    S e nt by G re a t D i x te r N urs e r ie s.

    Mon arch has large semi-double

    brilliant golden yellow flowers on stout

    stems. Requires strong stakin g. Flower

    size m ay be increased by disbuddin g,

    i.e. pinchin g out th e side buds.

    Flowers mid August to late September.

    Plant to 2 .9m ; very tall, erect, not densely

    branched with thick stems to 3cm

    diam eter. Leaves m id green, barelyserrated, scabrous, lower leaves

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    11/16Perennial Yellow Daisies 11

    (17A ); ligules 3.5 0.9cm , narrow and

    overlapping, golden yellow (17A ) turning

    paler (14B) with age, tips pointed and

    trifurcate becoming m ore apparent and

    twisted as the flowers age.

    Heliopsis heliant hoidesvar. scabra

    Wat erperry Gold

    A G M ( H 4 ) 2 00 1

    R a ise d a nd se n t b y W a t e rpe r ry

    Ga rde ns .

    An elegant floriferous cultivar, th at

    h olds the flowers in sprays, so that

    th ey are held in man y different

    angles. The flowers are semi-double

    and gold, fading to lemon yellow with

    tim e. Requires staking.

    Flowers m id July to early October. Plant

    1.2 m high; vigorous with arching, airygrowth . Leaves dark green, scabrous, widely

    toothed, basal leaves 10cm long and 6cm

    wide, considerably smaller and softer

    looking higher up the stem. Flower heads 7-

    8cm, semi-double with many rows, flat but

    tips reflexing and increasingly so with age;

    disc to 2.5cm wide and 1.2cm high,

    prominent, conical, golden yellow (23A)

    turning to look like old gold (163B) with

    age; ligules c.30, 3 0.9cm, overlapping,

    opening pale yellow (9A ) tinged green,

    rapidly turning golden yellow (23A/17A/B)

    before fading back to pale yellow (9A) with

    age, tips trifurcate, pointed.

    Inula magnifica Sonnenstrahl

    A G M ( H 4 ) 2 00 2

    S e nt by G re e n Fa rm P l a n ts .

    This cultivar was raised by Ernst Pagels.

    It is not to o tall and very floriferous

    with dark green foliage. The flowers

    have nu merous long outer petals

    giving a shredd ed appearan ce. The

    name literally translates as sunbeam.

    Flowers m id July to late August. Plant 2m

    high, 1.5m wide (when contained by

    staking); tall, erect habit. Leaves dark

    green (147A), alm ost glabrous on upper

    surface, pubescent beneath, base slightly

    auriculate, basal leaves 40cm long and

    28cm wide. Stem pale green (144C), hairy

    with purple patches, especially on lower

    portion. Flower heads c.15cm diam eter,

    single, borne in top third of plan t; disc

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    lower surface with green veins and tips,

    toothed at tip. Phyllaries arranged in

    three rows, progressively wider and longer.

    Rudbeckia laciniata GoldkugelA G M ( H 4 ) 2 00 2

    S e nt by P & B z ur L ind e n .

    A tight t idy double flower with att rac-

    tive foliage. A useful plan t for th e back

    of th e border. Very distin ct. Requ ires


    Plant to 1.6 m high, tall an d erect. Leaves

    dark to m id green (137A), lower surface

    slightly lighter (138 A/B) an d glossier

    than above. Flowering stem very pale

    yellow green (14 D), glaucous, glabrous,

    waxy, distinctive dark purple patches in

    leaf axils. Flower heads to 6.8 cm, double;


  • 7/30/2019 Yellow Daisies 04


    Award o f Garden Merit winn ers selection guide

    Perennial Yellow Daisies 13

    Name Flower Colour Height Flowering Season

    Coreopsis vert icillat a

    M o o n b eam ver y p a le y e llo w 1 ear ly Ju ly la t e Sep t em b er

    O l d T i m e r g o l d e n y e l lo w 2 e a rl y Ju l y m i d Se p t e m b e r

    Z a g r e b g o l d e n y e l lo w 1 e a rl y Ju l y l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    Grand iflo ra i n ten se go ld 2 ea r l y Ju ly la te Sep tem ber


    B au d i r e k t o r L in n e r e d & g o l d 4 m i d A u g u st e a r ly Se p t e m b e r

    B l t e n t i s ch y e l lo w fl u s h e d r e d 3 e a rl y A u g u st m i d Se p t e m b e r

    B u t t e r p a t b r i g h t y e l lo w 2 m i d Ju l y e n d A u g u s t

    Fe u e r si e g e l y e l lo w & r e d 3 l a t e Ju l y m i d Se p t e m b e r

    G a r t e n so n n e b r i g h t y e l lo w 4 l a t e Ju l y m i d Se p t e m b e r

    K a rn e o l r e d & o l d g o l d 3 e a rl y A u g u st e a rl y Se p t e m b e r

    M oe rhe im Beau ty rus t y red 3 ea r l y Ju ly la te Aug us t

    Ri n g o f Fi r e r e d & g o l d 3 m i d A u g u st l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    Ru b i n z w e r g d a r k r e d 2 e a rl y A u g u st l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    Sah in s Ea r l y F low e re r ye l low & o rang e 3 la te Jun e la te Aug us t

    Su m m e r C i r c le y e l lo w 4 e a rl y A u g u st l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    W a l t r a u t r u st y r e d & y e l lo w 2 m i d Ju l y l a t e A u g u s t

    W e se r g o l d b r i g h t y e l lo w 2 l a t e Ju n e e a r ly Se p t e m b e r


    Gu l l i ck s Var ie t y b r ig h t ye l low 5 la te Ju ly la te Sep tem ber

    Le m o n Q u e e n l em o n y e ll o w 4 l at e A u g u st m i d O c t o b e r

    L o d d o n G o l d d a r k g o l d e n y e l lo w 4 l a t e Ju l y l at e Se p t e m b e r

    M i ss M e l li sh g o l d e n y e l lo w 5 m i d A u g u st l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    M o n a r ch b r i g h t y e ll o w 5 m i d A u g u st l at e Se p t e m b e r

    Heliopsis helianthoidesvar. scabra

    B en z i n g g o l d o r a n g e y e l lo w 4 m i d Ju n e e a rl y Se p t e m b e r

    L ig h t o f L o d d o n g o l d e n y e l lo w 3 m i d Ju n e l at e Se p t e m b e r

    So n n e n g l u t o r a n g e y e l lo w 3 m i d Ju n e l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    Sp i t zen tnze r in go lden ye l low 3 la te Jun e ea r l y Sep t em ber

    W a t e r p e r r y G o l d o r a n g e y e l lo w 3 m i d Ju l y e a rl y O c t o b e r

    Inula ma gnifica Sonnenstrahl b r i g h t y e l lo w 4 m i d Ju l y l a t e A u g u s t

    Rudbeckia fulgida

    var. deamii o r a n g e y e l lo w 3 e a rl y A u g u st e a rl y O c t o b e r

    var. speciosa o r a n g e y e l lo w 3 e a rl y A u g u st e a rl y O c t o b e r

    var. sullivantii G o l d s t u r m o r a n g e y e l lo w 2 l a t e Ju l y l at e Se p t e m b e r

    Rudbeckia la ciniat a

    G o l d k u g e l g o l d e n y e ll o w 3 m i d A u g u st m i d Se p t e m b e r

    G o l d q u e l le b r i g h t y e l lo w 2 e a rl y A u g u st l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    H e r b s t so n n e b r i g h t y e l lo w 5 e a rl y A u g u st l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    Silphium perfoliat um b r i g h t y e l lo w 5 m i d Ju l y l a t e Se p t e m b e r

    Solidago Gardone b r i g h t y e l lo w 2 l a t e Ju l y m i d A u g u s t

    H e i g h t 1 = < 6 0 c m 2 = 6 0 c m 1 . 2 m 3 = 1 . 2 1 . 6 m 4 = 1 . 6 2 . 1 m 5 = > 2 . 1 m

  • 7/30/2019 Yellow Daisies 04


    (N144A) at first, then dark brown

    changing to yellow (7A) when open;

    ligules 5.5 2cm, but width variable,

    neatly spaced single row, drooping habit,

    sunn y yellow (14B) with lower surface

    slightly paler (9B) and with green tinged

    veins, tips slightly notched.

    Rudbeckia laciniata Starcadia

    Razzle Dazzle STA

    S e nt b y A B rook s .

    Clump formin g, with sturdy stems

    and a long flowering period. Good

    foliage. Altho ugh th is species can be

    invasive, this cultivar does not seem

    to be. Requires staking.

    Flowering early July to late August. Plant

    to 1.6m high, 1.1 m w ide when staked;

    erect habit. Leaves dark green (147A),paler green beneath (14 7B), very sh ortly

    hispid with forward facing hairs.

    Flowering stem striate dark green (137A)

    on lighter green (137D), sparsely hairy,

    stem feels rough especially below fl ower

    head. Flower heads to 11 .5cm , single,

    borne in top third of plant; disc 2.1cm

    diameter, 2.4cm high, yellow green

    (N144A) at first, then black just before

    opening to pale yellow green (151A);

    ligules 4.7 1.4 cm, single row irregularly

    spaced, sometim es overlapping, drooping,

    yellow (9A), slightly paler on the

    underside, tips m ostly with a slight notch

    but some entire.

    Rudbeckia subt oment osa Loofahsa

    W heaten Gold STA

    S e nt b y A B rook s .

    Less stiff in h abit th an is typical for

    this species, with well-spaced,

    chocolate brown-centred, flowers.

    Very clean foliage. Requ ires staking.

    Flowering early August to lat e Septem ber.

    Plant to 1.7m high, 1.3m wide; erect

    habit. Leaves m id green (137A), paler

    (138B) below, slightly scabrous upper,

    pubescent lower. Flowering stems dull ,light m id green (143C), shortly

    tom entose, darkly striated in places.

    Flower heads

  • 7/30/2019 Yellow Daisies 04


    C E & D M N u r se r ie s, N o l o n g e r t r a d in g

    C la i re A u s t in H a r d y P lan t s , Bo w l i n g G r e e n L a n e , Al b r i g h t o n ,W o l v er h am p t o n W V 7 3 H B

    C o t s w o ld Ga r d e n F lo w e r s, 1 Wa t e r s id e , Ev e sh a m WR 1 1 6 B S

    D a n z i g e r D a n F lo w e r Fa r m , M o sh a v M i sh m a r H a sh i v a 5 0 2 9 7 , P O B o x 2 4Bei t Dagan , ISRAEL M r J Dav ies (NC CPG N at ion a l Plant Co l lec t ionH o ld e r , Coreopsis, Helianthus& Heliopsis) , 3 3 B a lm o r a l D r i v e , Br a m c o t e ,B ee st o n , N o t t i n g h a m N G 9 3 F U

    D u d l e y M e t r o p o l i t an B o r o u g h Pl an n i n g & L ei su r e ( N C C P G N a t io n a l P la n tC o l l e c t i o n H o ld e r , Rudbeckia) , C l au g h t o n H o u se , Bl o w e r s Gr e e n R o a d ,D u d l ey D Y 2 8 U Z

    Farmy ard N urser ies, Lland ysu l , Dy fed SA44 4RL

    Far p l a n t s ( Wh o le sa le ), Ya p t o n L a n e , Wa lb e r t o n , A r u n d e l BN 1 8 0 A S

    Fee b e r s H a r d y P lan t s , 1 Fe e b e r C o t t a g e , We s t w o o d , B r o a d c l y s t , N e a rExeter PL20 7 LJ

    Feld w e b e r St a u d e n g r t n e r e i , A -4 9 7 4 O r t im I n n k r e i s 1 3 9 , Ob e r s t e r r e ic h ,Aus t r ia

    F la x t o n H o u se N u r s er y , Fl a x t o n , Y o r k Y O6 0 7 R J

    Fo u r S ea so n s, Fo r n c e t t St M a r y, N o r w i c h N R1 6 1 JT

    F u t u r e Fo o d s , PO B o x 1 5 6 4 , W e d m o r e B S2 8 4 D PGard iner s Ha l l P lants , B ra isewor th , Eye IP23 7DZ

    G Go d d a r d , c / o T r i al s O f fi c e , RH S Ga r d e n W is l ey , Wo k in g GU 2 3 6 QB

    Gr e a t D i x t e r N u r s er i e s, N o r t h i a m , Ry e TN 3 1 6 P H

    Gr e e n Fa rm P la n t s , N o l o n g e r t r a d i n g

    H e in r i c h H a g e m a n n S t a u d e n k u l t u r e n , Wa l sr o d e r S t r asse 3 2 4 , D - 3 0 8 5 5L an g e n h a g e n - Kr h e n w i n k e l, G e r m a n y

    D e H e ss en h o f , H e sse n w e g 4 1 , 6 7 1 8 TC ED E , H o l l a n d

    H i l lv i ew H a r d y P la n t s, W o r fi e l d , N e a r Br i d g n o r t h W V 1 5 5 N T

    H o e c r o f t P l a n t s, Se v e r e ls G r an g e , H o l t R o a d , Wo o d N o r t o n , D e r e h a mN R2 0 5 B L

    H e in z K lo s e St a u d e n g r t n e r e i , Ro s e n st r a sse 1 0 , D - 3 4 2 5 3 L o h f e l d e n ,G e r m a n y

    L W P lan t s , 2 3 Wr o x h a m Wa y , H a r p e n d e n A L 5 4 P P

    Li t t le Rhyn das ton N urser ies, Hayscas t le , Haver fo rdw es t SA62 5PTL o d g e L an e N u r s er y & Ga r d e n s ( N C C P G N a t i o n a l P la n t C o l l e c t i o n

    H o ld e r , Inula) , Lo d g e L an e , D u t t o n , N e a r W a rr i n g t o n W A 4 4 H P

    L o n g in Z i e g l e r S t a u d e n g r t n e r e i , Ob e r z e l g , C H - 8 6 2 7 Gr n in g e n ,Swi t zer land

    M a d r o n a N u r se r y, Pl u c k l e y Ro a d , B e t h e r sd e n K e n t TN 2 6 3 D D

    M o n k s i l ve r N u r s e r y, O a k in g t o n R o a d , C o t t e n h a m C B 4 4 TW

    N o r s ec o I n c . 2 9 1 4 B o u le v a r d C u r - L ab e l l e , C h o m e d e y , L a v al , Qu e b e c ,C a n a d a H 7 P 5 R 9

    Perh i l l Nu rser ies, Wo rces ter Road , Great W i t ley W R6 6JT

    Per ryh i l l Nu rser ies , Har t fi e ld TN 7 4JP

    Pow is Cas t le , Welshp oo l SY21 8RF

    R o y a l B o t a n i c Ga r d e n s K ew , K e w , Ri c h m o n d TW9 3 A B

    R H S Ga r d e n Ro s e m o o r , G r e at To r r i n g t o n E X 3 8 8 P H

    R H S Ga r d e n W isl e y, Wo k in g G U 2 3 6 Q BR o u g h a m H a l l N u r se r i es, I p sw i c h R o a d , Ro u g h a m , B u r y St E d m u n d s IP 3 0

    9 LZ

    Scalers H i l l N ursery , Scalers H i l l , Cob ham , Near Gravesend D A12 3 BH

    Sue St r ick land P lants , The Pop lars, I sle Brewers , Taun ton TA3 6Q N

    V iv M a r sh P o st a l P la n t s , Wa l f o r d H e a t h , S h r e w s b u r y S Y4 2 H T

    Wa lb e r t o n N u r s er y , Ya p t o n L a n e , Wa lb e r t o n , A r u n d e l , BN 1 8 0 A S

    M r s R Wa l l i n g e r , c / o T r i al s O f fi c e , RH S Ga r d e n W isl e y, Wo k in g GU 2 3 6 QB

    Wa t e r p e r r y Ga r d e n s Lt d , W a t e r p e r r y, N e a r W h e a t l e y OX 3 3 1 JZ

    W e b b s o f W y c h b o l d , D r o i t w i c h , W o r c est e r W R 9 0 D G

    P et e r u n d B rb e l z u r L i n d e n , S t a u d e n g r t n e r e i , L i n n e r K i rc h w e g 2 , D -4 9 1 4 3 B i sse n d o r f , Ge r m a n y

    RHS Herbarium

    The RHS Herbarium (WSY) is one o f only a small n um ber

    in the world dedicated to preserving garden plants and is

    therefore an important reference poin t for th e h orticultural

    indu stry. At present th e collection contain s m ore th an

    80,000 herbarium specimens and over 30,000 images of

    plants and 4,000 paintin gs of plants together with

    addition al mat erial such as seeds and con es. Material is

    actively collected from a wide spectrum of sources

    including RHS trials. Trial cultivars are stored with detailed

    description s and ph otograph ic im ages. New cultivars are

    highlighted and stored as Nomenclatural Standards. A

    Standard Specimen demonstrates the diagnostic characters

    of a cultivar an d wou ld act as a key reference poin t if the

    application of that nam e became con fused at some point

    in th e future. Further information about the Herbarium

    and Stan dard Specim ens is available on t he RHS Website



    Phot ography RHS Herbarium (unless otherwise stated),

    Mike Sleigh, Tim Sandall and Clive Morris

    NCCPG National Plant Co llection ho lders for these gen era,

    particularly Martin H ughes-Jon es (Heleniu m ) and Anth ony

    Brooks (Rudbeckia)

    Chrissie Ferriroli, RHS Trials Recorder

    RHS Herbarium, Trials Office and Trials Department Staff

    Further reading

    Clayt on , P. (2002 ) Tears of Troy. The Garden 127(8): 622-625

    Grant , M. (2003) Golden performers. The Garden 128(8):


    Hop, M.E.C.M. (2002)Heleniu m Sortimen tsond erzoek en

    Keuringsrapport.Dendroflora 39: 62-93

    Hughes-Jones, M. (2004)

    Offent h al, R., Kaiser, K. & Ward, R. (tran s.) (1999) Som e

    perennial sunflowers.Hardy Plant 21(2): 38-47

    Sutton, J. (2001) The Plantfinders Guide to Daisies. David &

    Ch arles, Newton Abbot

    Senders of plants to the trialsRHS Plant Trials rely on nurseries, plant breeders and

    am ateur gardeners to send plant stock for trial. Notices are

    posted on th e RHS website and in t he RHS journ al, Th e

    Garden, when a new trial is planned. RHS Trials Office staff

    supplem ent th is by actively sourcing m aterial. All stock is

    given free of charge.

    A r n e H e r b s , L im e b u r n N u r s er i e s, Lim e b u r n H i l l, C h e w M a g n a B S4 0 8 Q W

    M r s F A rn o ld , H o l l a n d , c / o T ri a ls O f fi c e , RH S Ga r d e n , W is l ey GU 2 3 6 Q B

    B e e ch e s N u r se r y, V i ll a g e C e n t r e , A s h d o n , S af f r o n W a ld e n C B 1 0 2 H B

    B e ll h o u se N u r se r y, B el l h o u s e La n e , M o o r e , N r Wa r r i n g t o n WA 4 6 TR

    B e t h C h a t t o G a r d e n s Lt d , Elm st e a d M a r k e t , C o l c h e s t e r C O 7 7 D B

    B lo o m s o f B r e ssi n g h a m , B r e ssi n g h a m , D i s s IP 2 2 2 A B

    B r id g e m e r e N u r s er i es, B r id g e m e r e, N e a r N a n t w i c h C W 5 7 Q B

    M r A Br o o k s (N C C P G N a t i o n a l Pl a n t C o l l e c t i o n H o ld e r , Rudbeckia) c / oEl t o n H a l l, El t o n , L u d lo w SY 8 2 H Q

    Backgroun d n otes

    Perennial Yellow Daisies 15

  • 7/30/2019 Yellow Daisies 04


    Trials O ffice

    RHS Garden



    Surrey GU23 6QB

    e-m ail: tr ials@rh k

    Reg charity no . 222879

    All text an d im ages Copyright RHS 2004-02-1

    ISSN: 1477-9153 (print)

    ISSN: 1447-9161 (online)

    The Royal Horticultural Society

    The RHS is the UKs leading gardening charity dedicated to

    advancing horticulture and prom oting good gardening. Its

    charitable work includes providing expert advice and

    information, advancing h orticulture, training th e n ext

    generation o f gardeners, helping school ch ildren learn

    about p lants, and con ducting research in to plant s, pests

    and environ m ent al issues affecting gardeners. Th e RHS

    Award of Garden Merit plant trial scheme is an important

    part of th is work.

    The RHS receives no governm ent grants an d for every

    pound received from members subscriptions we need to

    raise more than twice as much again to fund ou r charitable

    work. We also rely on donations and sponsorship to

    supplement in come from our garden operations, flower

    shows, shops an d plant centres.

    RHS Plant Trials

    With so m any different types of gardener and so man y

    different cultivars available to th em in each group of

    plants, it is imp ortant th at a system of recomm endation is

    in place to h elp with selection at poin t of sale. These

    recomm endations m ust be clear and reliable to en sure that

    of the th ousan ds of plants available in t h e UK, a

    proportion are known to be excellent garden plants. The

    RHS provides this information th rough its exten sive

    programm e of plant t rials h eld at RHS gardens in th e UK.

    The RHS Award of Garden Merit signifies th e selection

    of th e best cultivar for general garden u se.

    RHS plant trials serve the p rofessional gardener wh o wan ts

    to know the range of plants available, including the latest

    breeding and selection programmes, with their distinctive

    characteristics and provenan ce. They also serve th e

    amateur wh o wants to kn ow which plant s will grow and

    perform well in a p articular garden situation .

    The RHS has an un rivalled resource of knowledge an d

    expertise and is th erefore best placed to con duct p lant

    trials for th e UK gardenin g market.

    RHS BulletinsCanna: Septem ber 2003

    Delphinium : Jun e 2003

    Lavender (hardy): July 2003

    Miscanthus: October 2004

    Potentilla (shrubby): July 2002

    Salad Potatoes: November 2004

    Spiraea japonica (with colou red leaves): November 2003

    These bulletins can b e viewed at a larger

    size on th e RHS Website