X-rays from the First Massive Black Holes

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Brandt, Vignali, Schneider, Alexander, Anderson, Bassett, Bauer, Fan, Garmire, Gunn, Lehmer, Lopez, Kaspi, Richards, Strateva, Strauss. X-rays from the First Massive Black Holes. Are early black holes feeding and growing in the same way as local ones?. Chandra 4-10 ks snapshots (>100) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • X-rays from the First Massive Black HolesBrandt, Vignali, Schneider, Alexander, Anderson, Bassett, Bauer, Fan,Garmire, Gunn, Lehmer, Lopez, Kaspi, Richards, Strateva, Strausswww.astro.psu.edu / users / niel / papers / highz-xray-detected.datChandra 4-10 ks snapshots (>100)

    z > 4.8 SDSS, Opt. bright, RLQs, Exotic

    High detection fraction

    ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton archives

    Additional z > 4 detections

    Supporting samples at z = 0-4

    Deep X-ray surveysAre early black holes feeding and growing in the same way as local ones?

  • X-ray Versus Optical FluxesX-ray and optical fluxes correlated.

    Fluxes generally low;X-ray spectroscopy challenging even forXMM-Newton.

  • X-ray Spectroscopy at z > 4Also see Ferrero et al. (03), Grupe et al. (04)Vignali et al. (2004)PSS 1326+0743z = 4.17XMM-NewtonPSS 0121+0347z = 4.13XMM-NewtonXMM-Newton spectroscopy possiblefor a few of the X-ray brightest quasars.

    Joint fitting can place respectableaverage X-ray spectral constraints.

  • X-ray Spectral Comparisons at Low and High RedshiftsVignali et al. (03)Significant intrinsic scatterat all redshifts, but nosystematic trend.

    Inner-disk coronae stable.

    No X-ray reflection humpsdetected.

    No X-ray absorption detected.

  • X-ray Contribution to Spectral Energy DistributionAlso see Vignali, Brandt, & Schneider (2003)Combine high-redshift sample with well-defined, lower-redshift samples to constrain X-ray evolution.

    Want broad lum. and z coverage to break degeneracies

    High-detection fraction (pattern censoring issues)

    Reliable separation of RQQ and RLQ

    Good BAL removal / control

    New sample of ~ 152 SDSS and PSS quasars spanning z = 0.02-6.28Partial correlation analyses indicate luminosity effectis primary.

    No highly significant trendwith redshift.

  • New X-ray Constraints on z > 4 Radio-Loud QuasarsBassett et al. (04)Radio quietNew RLQ targetsBlazarsLopez et al. (04)12 high-redshift RLQs with flat radiospectra and moderate-to-high R.

    Fill X-ray observation gapbetween RQQs and blazars.

    Representative of majority of RLQs.100% detection rate with some bright objects great for XMM-Newton.Small-scale, jet-linked X-raycomponent (SSC) consistentat z > 4 and z ~ 0. Degree of X-ray enhancement vs. RQQs

    X-ray spectral shape

    Suggestive evidence for X-ray absorption.

  • Rarity of X-ray Luminous Jets at z > 4One favored model for X-ray jet emissionis IC/CMB. Need bulk relativistic velocitieson kpc scales.

    If true, X-ray jets can outshine cores at z > 4.Use Chandras imaging to search for suchX-ray luminous jets.

    We do not detect X-ray jets in any of our12 RLQs (including objects similar to 3C 273 and PKS 0637-752).

    Physical sizes < 10-15 kpc.

    Such X-ray luminous jets are rare.

    Perhaps synchrotron with multiple electronpopulations? Following Rees & Setti (1968) etc.

  • X-ray Survey Constraints on z > 4 AGN Probe moderate-luminosity, typical AGN at z > 4

    Minimize absorption bias (rest-frame 2-40 keV)Find or constrain sky density exploiting Lyman break. Alexander et al. (01), Barger et al. (03), Cristiani et al. (04), Koekemoer et al. (04)

    Constraints on reionization.High-redshift sourcesand candidates in centralChandra Deep Field-NVignali et al. (02)

  • Ongoing Chandra and XMM-Newton Surveys21 Ongoing Deep Surveys18 Ongoing Wide Surveys~ 3.5 sq. degrees in totalLists above available from astro-ph/0403646

  • Constraining Lower Luminosity AGN at High Redshiftz ~ 3.0z ~ 3.8 Lehmer et al. (04)X-ray Stacking of Large Lyman Break Galaxy Samples from GOODS468 U-dropouts from GOODS-N

    Effective exposure = 0.8 Gs ~ 25 yr338 B-dropouts from GOODS-N, S

    Effective exposure = 0.4 Gs ~ 13 yrAlso tight constraints on V, i dropouts at z ~ 5, 6Observed X-ray emission plausibly from X-ray binaries and supernovaremnants no need to invoke numerous lower luminosity AGN.Also see Moustakas & Immler (04), Wang et al. (04)

  • General ConclusionsAGN at z ~ 4-6 and z ~ 0-2 havereasonably similar X-ray andbroad-band spectra. No hints ofdifferent accretion/growth mechanisms.

    (After controlling for luminosity effects)

    Small-scale X-ray emission regionsinsensitive to strong large-scaleenvironmental differences from z ~ 0-6. X-ray emission universal.

    X-ray surveys giving significant demographic constraints on mod.-lum.AGN at highest redshifts.

  • Some Future ProspectsImprove coverage at z = 5 - 6.5 +

    Other selection methods minimize bias IR, submm, mm

    Minority populations Weak-line quasars, BALQSOs, RLQs

    Better X-ray spectral and variability studiesChandra can go significantly deeper withbest positions for ~ 20 years.

    Both Chandra and XMM-Newton can gowider.

  • Long-Term Prospects Proto-Quasars and Black Holes from the First Stars1 Chandra count per 35 yr