Wwf Binary Item 5360

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    COMPOUNDED FISHCOMPOUNDED FISHMEAL BASED ONMEAL BASED ON

    TILAPIA PROCESSTILAPIA PROCESS

    WASTEWASTEAlfonsoAlfonso Delfini,EDelfini,E..Vice PresidentVice President

    AQUAMARAQUAMAR

    GuayaquilGuayaquil, Ecuador, Ecuador

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    FACTS ABOUT FISH MEALFACTS ABOUT FISH MEAL

    Approximately 75% of world fish production isApproximately 75% of world fish production isused for human consumption and the remainingused for human consumption and the remaining

    25% is used to produce fish meal and oil.25% is used to produce fish meal and oil.

    The end products from fish processing may beThe end products from fish processing may befresh, frozen fillets, canned fish, fish meal, fish oilfresh, frozen fillets, canned fish, fish meal, fish oilor fish protein products, such as surimi.or fish protein products, such as surimi.

    Fish meal and fish oil are commodities used asFish meal and fish oil are commodities used asfeed for livestock such as poultry, pigs and farmedfeed for livestock such as poultry, pigs and farmedfish.fish.

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    FACTS ABOUT FISH MEALFACTS ABOUT FISH MEAL

    Virtually all fishmeal is used as a high protein (60Virtually all fishmeal is used as a high protein (60to 72%) ingredient in feed for farmed landto 72%) ingredient in feed for farmed land

    animals and farmed fish. Fish oil is used mainly inanimals and farmed fish. Fish oil is used mainly in

    the feed of farmed fish and in very smallthe feed of farmed fish and in very small

    quantities in land animal feed. Fishmeal is not fedquantities in land animal feed. Fishmeal is not fed

    straight (undiluted).straight (undiluted).

    The typical inclusion rate for fishmeal in farmThe typical inclusion rate for fishmeal in farm

    animal diets is 5% of dry matter.animal diets is 5% of dry matter.

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    FACTS ABOUT FISH MEALFACTS ABOUT FISH MEAL Fish meal is derived from the dry components ofFish meal is derived from the dry components of

    the fish, and the oil from the oily component.the fish, and the oil from the oily component.

    Water, which makes up the rest of the fish matter,Water, which makes up the rest of the fish matter,

    is evaporated during the process.is evaporated during the process.

    Most fish meal and fish oil production processesMost fish meal and fish oil production processesare automated and continuous, and compriseare automated and continuous, and compriseseveral process lines, each with a certainseveral process lines, each with a certain

    processing capacity.processing capacity. Fish meal production rates and availability varyFish meal production rates and availability vary

    considerably, according to the season and types ofconsiderably, according to the season and types of

    fish being processed.fish being processed.

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    Fish meal provides the following basicFish meal provides the following basic

    nutrients:nutrients:

    1.1. PROTEIN:PROTEIN:A concentrated source of highA concentrated source of high

    quality protein with a high proportion ofquality protein with a high proportion ofessential highly digestible amino acids likeessential highly digestible amino acids like

    methionine and lysinemethionine and lysine

    2.2. FAT:FAT: Rich in omega 3, DHA and EPA fatty acidsRich in omega 3, DHA and EPA fatty acids

    CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH MEALSCHARACTERISTICS OF FISH MEALS

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    CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH MEALSCHARACTERISTICS OF FISH MEALS

    3.3. ENERGY:ENERGY: Fish meal provides a concentratedFish meal provides a concentratedsource of highly digestible energy.source of highly digestible energy.

    4.4. MINERALS AND VITAMINS:MINERALS AND VITAMINS: Relatively highRelatively highcontent of minerals like phosphorus incontent of minerals like phosphorus inavailable form. It also contains high levels ofavailable form. It also contains high levels of

    B complex including choline, B12 and vitaminsB complex including choline, B12 and vitaminsA and D.A and D.

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    THREE METHODS OF UTILIZATIONTHREE METHODS OF UTILIZATION

    OF AQUATIC WASTEOF AQUATIC WASTE

    Either from aquaculture or wild stockEither from aquaculture or wild stockare:are:

    1.1. Manufacture of fish meal/oilManufacture of fish meal/oil

    2.2. Production of silageProduction of silage3.3. Manufacture of organic fertilizerManufacture of organic fertilizer

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    TWO TYPES OF FISH MEALSTWO TYPES OF FISH MEALS

    1.1. Produced from fishery wasteProduced from fishery waste(salmon, tilapia, etc.)(salmon, tilapia, etc.)

    2.2. When specific fish (herring,When specific fish (herring,

    menhaden, etc.) are harvested tomenhaden, etc.) are harvested toproduce fish mealproduce fish meal

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    TWO CONCEPTS IN FISH MEALTWO CONCEPTS IN FISH MEAL

    PROCESSINGPROCESSING

    The fish or waste material can be:The fish or waste material can be:

    1.1. Cooked prior to drying and oilCooked prior to drying and oilextractingextracting

    2.2. Dried directlyDried directly

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    TYPICAL CONVENTIONAL FISH MEAL PLANTTYPICAL CONVENTIONAL FISH MEAL PLANTLAYOUTLAYOUT

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    ADVANTAGES:ADVANTAGES:

    Simple processSimple process No cooking of raw material involvedNo cooking of raw material involved No pressing involvedNo pressing involved

    Less odor because it is attached to the dryLess odor because it is attached to the drygraingrain Lower production costs and lower maintenanceLower production costs and lower maintenance

    costs involved since less pieces of machinerycosts involved since less pieces of machineryare required in the processare required in the process

    No need to extract soluble proteins or fish oil,No need to extract soluble proteins or fish oil,they will bind to the dry grain materialthey will bind to the dry grain material

    Compounded Feed ProductionCompounded Feed Production

    (fish meal + dry grain material)(fish meal + dry grain material)

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    DISADVANTAGES:DISADVANTAGES:

    Lower protein content in final product thanLower protein content in final product thanconventional fish meals (shown in massconventional fish meals (shown in massbalance)balance)

    Need to invest in high volumes of dry grainNeed to invest in high volumes of dry grainstocksstocks Nutrient profile of final product is dependantNutrient profile of final product is dependant

    on dry grain used (higher protein=soybeanon dry grain used (higher protein=soybeanmeal, lower protein=wheat middling)meal, lower protein=wheat middling)

    Supply of dry grain material has to be securedSupply of dry grain material has to be securedto insure the constant quality of final productto insure the constant quality of final product

    Compounded Feed ProductionCompounded Feed Production

    (fish meal + dry grain material)(fish meal + dry grain material)

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    TYPICAL COMPOUNDED FISH MEAL PLANTTYPICAL COMPOUNDED FISH MEAL PLANTLAYOUTLAYOUT

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    Compounded Feed ProductionCompounded Feed ProductionGENERAL OVERVIEWGENERAL OVERVIEW

    Fresh tilapia wastes are collected separately asFresh tilapia wastes are collected separately asthey are released from processing plantthey are released from processing plant

    Wastes are fed to the grinder in the sameWastes are fed to the grinder in the sameproportions as they are released from processproportions as they are released from processplantplant

    Wastes are ground and crushed to reduce itsWastes are ground and crushed to reduce its

    size and facilitate mixing and dehydrationsize and facilitate mixing and dehydration Dry grain is fed to a mixer together with tilapiaDry grain is fed to a mixer together with tilapiawasteswastes

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    GENERAL OVERVIEWGENERAL OVERVIEW

    The mixing process has to be thorough toThe mixing process has to be thorough toensure final product uniformityensure final product uniformity

    Raw mix is ground to fine particles as they enterRaw mix is ground to fine particles as they entera dehydratora dehydrator

    Dehydrator consists of a steel agitator withDehydrator consists of a steel agitator withblades that will pulverize the raw mix into fineblades that will pulverize the raw mix into fine

    particlesparticles Pulverization will facilitate the dehydrationPulverization will facilitate the dehydrationprocessprocess

    Compounded Feed ProductionCompounded Feed Production

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    GENERAL OVERVIEWGENERAL OVERVIEW

    Pulverized and dried product is picked up by aPulverized and dried product is picked up by ablowerblower

    Dried product in passed through a rotary sieveDried product in passed through a rotary sieve Fine particles will be collected and baggedFine particles will be collected and bagged Lager particles will be reLager particles will be re--processedprocessed

    Bagged product is set to cool overnightBagged product is set to cool overnight Bags are stored in warehouse before shippingBags are stored in warehouse before shipping

    Compounded Feed ProductionCompounded Feed Production