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  • 1. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 1 Sudhakar Dhanapal

2. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 2 Contents This is my first eBook. I hope you will like it. Typewriting Machine --------------------------------- 3 Telephone --------------------------------- 5 Air Conditioner --------------------------------- 7 Bicycle --------------------------------- 9 Flute --------------------------------- 12 Photograph --------------------------------- 13 Temple --------------------------------- 15 Website --------------------------------- 18 Newspaper --------------------------------- 20 Clock --------------------------------- 22 Film --------------------------------- 24 Sport --------------------------------- 26 3. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 3 TYPEWRITING MACHINE The idea behind the typewriter was to apply the concept of movable type developed by Johann Gutenberg in the invention of the printing press century to a machine for individual use. Descriptions of such mechanical writing machines date to the early eighteenth century. In 1714, a patent something like a typewriter was granted to a man named Henry Mill in England, but no example of Mills invention survives. In 1829, William Burt from Detroit, Michigan patented his typographer which had characters arranged on a rotating frame. However, Burts machine, and many of those that followed it, were cumbersome, hard to use, unreliable and often took longer to produce a letter than writing it by hand. Finally, in 1867, a Milwaukee, Wisconsin printer-publisher-politician named Christopher Latham Sholes, with assistance from Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soule, patented what was to be the first useful typewriter. He licensed his patent to Remington & Sons of Ilion, New York, a noted American gun maker. In 1874, the Remington Model 1, the first commercial typewriter, was placed on the market. Based on Sholes mechanical typewriter, the first electric typewriter was built by Thomas Alva Edison in the United States in 1872, but the widespread use of electric typewriters was not common until the 1950s. The electronic typewriter, a typewriter with an electronic "memory" capable of storing text, first appeared in 1978. It was developed independently by the Olivetti Company in Italy and the Casio Company in Japan. 4. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 4 In 1714, the British engineer Henry Mill obtains a patent for a machine or method to put letters on paper that are equal to the quality of printing. Nothing suggests that he will ever build a machine. After that, there were many different attempts to produce a mechanical writing machine, but the first one to be commercially successful was invented by Christopher Latham Sholes. He was an American engineer who, together with Samuel W. Soule and Carlos Glidden, invented the first typewriter machine and QWERTY keyboard in 1868. 1872 Thomas Alva Edison builds first electric typewriter The invention was sold to the company E. Remington and Son, and their first typewriter was sold in 1874. Lilian Sholes, daughter of Christopher Latham Sholes (1815-1891) at one of the first models of her fathers typewriter 1978 Olivetti Company and the Casio Company develope electronic typewriter 5. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 5 TELEPHONE Alexander Graham Bell owns the patent for the electric telephone in 1876. He also has the patent for the phone master patent While many inventors had been working on the idea of sending human speech by wire, Alexander Graham Bell was the first to succeed in this endeavor while working on improving the telegraph. Another gentleman by the name of Elisha Gray also invented a device that could transmit voice through wire, but he was three hours too late registering his device with the patent office. For a little perspective on American history; at roughly the same time Mr. Bell invented the telephone America was still settling the West. The United States was preparing to celebrate the American Centennial - the 100th anniversary of the U.S. America had 38 states, 46 million people, and some 30,000 miles of railroad track providing regular travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Below highlights important milestones in the invention of the telephone. On March 10, 1876, at the age of 29, Alexander Graham Bell developed the telephone's fundamental operating principle when he and his associate, Thomas Watson, were working in their lab experimenting with 6. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 6 a new type of 'liquid transmitter'. Through the instrument Mr. Bell spoke to his assistant and said, 'Mr. Watson, come here, I want you.' And, Mr. Watson declared that he had heard and understood what Mr. Bell had said. This historic event was the first successful experiment with transmitting voice through wire. And shortly after that on July 9, 1877, the first telephone company, 'Bell Telephone Company', was founded in Boston, Massachusetts. 1877 One of the first private citizens to have a telephone was Mark Twain. He, and President Rutherford Hayes, the nineteenth President of the U.S. in 1877 but the first President of the Telephone age. There was a phone booth installed inside the White House just outside the Oval Office. A telephone would not sit on the President's desk until Herbert Hoover was President in 1929 - 53 years after the invention of the telephone. Atlanta's first telephone arrived and was installed in the new 'Atlanta Railroad Depot' connecting it to the dispatcher's office in the 'Western & Atlantic Railroad' building nearby. These telephones were 'point-to-point' Box telephones. The receiver and transmitter were the same device, much like an intercom system. There was no bell or ringing device to get the recipient's attention. One had to either yell into the Box phone or rap on the receiver/transmitter with a pencil or finger to get the attention of the person at the other end. 1878 The first phone books appeared and were printed in sheets at first since there weren't very many subscribers at the time. As more people subscribed to telephone service it became necessary to print directory listings in books. The first telephone switchboard Operators were teenage boys. Young women, who were believed to be more well-mannered than boys, were preferred to fill those positions. Emma M. Nutt was the first female employee for the Bell Telephone Company. She was hired at the Boston exchange September 1, 1878, and continued until her retirement in 1915. Her 37 years as an operator began a tradition of long service. The earliest telephones were all connected to each other. Everyone who shard the same line could listen or talk to each other. Privacy became an issue since it was so easy to listen in on another conversation. Also, any 7. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 7 two people speaking tied up that line for as long as they were talking, thus, denying service to other subscribers on that line. Identifying the intended recipient of a phone call was done by 'ring-pattern'. The Switchboard allowed people to have private conversations. The first commercial telephone switchboard opened in 1878 in New Haven, Connecticut with eight lines and twenty-one subscribers. The rural (country) switchboard was almost always installed in the home of the local operator. 1879 The first telephone numbers were issued in Lowell, Massachusetts. Before that the operator had to memorize or look up people by their proper names to connect them. AIR Conditioner In 1911 Willis Carrier presented to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers the 'Rational Psychometric Formula' which is still used today by the air conditioning industry and by 1914 Carrier had designed and installed air conditioning systems for manufacturing plants, department stores, soap, rubber and tobacco factories, breweries, bakeries, food processing plants and others. 8. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 8 1758 All liquid evaporation has a cooling effect. Benjamin "I invented everything" Franklin and Cambridge University professor John Hadley discover that evaporation of alcohol and other volatile liquids, which evaporate faster than water, can cool down an object enough to freeze water. 1820 Inventor Michael Faraday makes the same discovery in England when he compresses and liquifies ammonia. 1830s At the Florida hospital where he works, Dr. John Gorrie builds an ice-making machine that uses compression to make buckets of ice and then blows air over them. He patents the idea in 1851, imagining his invention cooling buildings all over the world. But without any financial backing, his dream melts away. 1881 After an assassin shoots President James Garfield on July 2, naval engineers build a boxy makeshift cooling unit to keep him cool and comfortable. The device is filled with water-soaked cloth and a fan blows hot air overhead and keeps cool air closer to the ground. The good news: This device can lower room temperature by up to 20 F. The bad news: It uses a half-million pounds of ice in two months and President Garfield still dies. 1902 Willis Carrier invents the Apparatus for Treating Air for the Sackett- Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Co. in Brooklyn, N.Y. The machine blows air over cold coils to control room temperature and humidity, keeping paper from wrinkling and ink aligned. Finding that other factories want to get in on the cooling action, Carrier establishes the Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America. 1906 Stuart Cramer, a textile mill engineer in North Carolina, creates a ventilating device that adds water vapor to the air of textile plants. The humidity makes yarn easier to spin and less likely to break. He's the first to call this process "air conditioning." 1914 Air conditioning comes home for the first time. The unit in the Minneapolis mansion of Charles Gates is approximately 7 feet high, 6 feet wide, 20 feet long and possibly never used because no one ever lived in the house. 9. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 9 Bicycle Karl Von Drais was a German inventor and invented the 1st Bicycle (pedal-less) in 1818 called 'Pedestrian Hobb