World War II Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, criticized for controlling the gov’t, and...

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Transcript of World War II Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, criticized for controlling the gov’t, and...

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Slide 2 World War II Slide 3 Slide 4 Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, criticized for controlling the govt, and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a rebellious mouth or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy Slide 5 Contestant #3 Hitler Contestant #2 Churchill Contestant #1 Roosevelt Slide 6 A dictator has absolute rule of a nation. Dictators with evil plans took charge of some countries in Europe. Dictators often used harsh treatment for those who disagreed or were considered undesirable. Slide 7 Mussolini In Italy, the dictator who rose to power was Slide 8 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Fearing a Communist Revolution in Italy The King of Italy believed Mussolini and his Far Right was the best hope for his own troubled dynasty to survive. King Victor Emmanuel III puts Mussolini in charge of the government Mussolini abolished democracy; outlawed all political parties but his own Fascist party-based on loyalty to the state and obedience to the leader. imposed Censorship; had opponents jailed; outlawed strikes; made allies with the rich industrialists. In 1922, about 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome demanding Mussolini be put in charge of the government After Mussolini took power, a foreign diplomat returned to England and remarked, Hes an actor, a dangerous rascal, and possibly slightly off his head. King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy Il Duce the leader Slide 9 Hitler In Germany, the dictator who rose to power was Slide 10 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Inspired by Mussolinis march on Rome, Hitler & the Nazis decide to overthrow the government & seize power in Munich Germany Hitler is tried for treason and sentenced to prison. In jail, Hitler writes Mein Kampf (which means My Struggle) This book became the plan of action for the Nazis. The Munich Beer Hall Putsch November 9, 1923 Hitler, at 34, entered a Munich beer-hall calling for a revolution against the Weimar Republic by his Nazi followers. When faced with the opposing Army, Hitler and the Nazis made a quick retreat, in which 16 Nazis died. For this attempted overthrow of the government, Hitler received a 5 year prison sentence in a tightly controlled minimum-security prison; after 9 months, he was set free on good behavior. Hitler put his jail time to good use, finally sharing his ideas with the world by writing Mein Kampf. Slide 11 When the Great Depression hit, the German economy collapsed and people began to look to Hitler for security and leadership 1932 German leaders think they can use Hitler for their goals. They name him Chancellor, or president, giving him legal power in Germany. 1932 Hitler calls for new elections and turns Germany into totalitarian state. He arrests anyone who opposes him and develops the SS (Schutzstaffel protection squad.) 1936 Hitler put millions to work and decreased the unemployment rate from 6million to 1.5million Slide 12 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Hitler wanted to control every aspect of German life and shape public opinion through propaganda. Boys were forced to join Hitler Youth. Girls were forced to join the League of German Girls. Hitler has books burned in huge bonfires. Hitler gained totalitarian control he silenced his opposition & forced people to accept only Nazi beliefs. Books were burned, Churches could not say anything negative about the Nazi Party, anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews) increased. Under the order of Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's Minister of Propaganda, Nazi gangs (Brown Shirts) entered all libraries and gathered books that didnt support the family values of the Fatherland, including books by Thomas Mann, Jack London, H. G. Wells, Charles Dickens, Emile Zola and those of Jewish writers. Hitler Youth march through Nuremberg, Germany past Nazi officials. Slide 13 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Nazis used the Jews as the reason for Germanys troubles. Anti-Semitism was an important part of Nazi ideology. In 1933, the Nazi-controlled German government passes the Nuremburg Laws - laws depriving Jews of their rights. Violence against Jews increased. Kristallnacht signaled the real start of the process of eliminating Jews from German life. A synagogue is set fire the night of Kristallnacht. Above: Jewish citizens being relocated to the ghetto. Right: Germans pass by damaged Jewish shops the morning after Kristallnacht Night of the Broken Glass, Nov. 9, 1938. Nazi groups attacked Jews in their homes and their businesses. Slide 14 Militarists In Japan the group who rose to power were the Slide 15 20 th c. begins with Militarists Taking over Japan This Military-Industrial establishment pursues Imperialism in Asia. 1920 Japan becomes democratic 1929 The Great Depression leads Japanese to blame the government for their economic troubles and begin to support the military leaders. They want to solve their countrys problems by expanding and taking control of China. 1931 Japanese military fully invades Manchuria despite objections from Japans own Parliament. Why did the Japanese invade Manchuria? 1.To solve its economic problems (need for oil) 2. The army sets up a puppet govt. and begins to provide military protection to Japanese business interests who arrive to build mines / factories. This was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations. 1933 - Japan ignores the protests of the League of Nations & withdraws from the League 1937 Japan invades and conquers large parts of China. The Militarists keep 24 year old Emperor Hirohito, as head of state but he is a puppet of the military. Slide 16 1937 Japan invades China What were the immediate results of this invasion? The Chinese retreated and set up a new capital in the south; Chinese guerilla fighters continued to fight in the northern occupied area. Japanese military killed tens of thousands of captured soldiers and civilians in Nanjing. The gruesome rapes and killings of thousands in the city of Nanjing by the invading Japanese military were well-documented by invited photographers. Slide 17 Chinese civilians at Nanking are buried alive by Japanese troops. Japanese invaders Buried alive more than 1,000 elderly women and children in a huge pit. All their hands were tied behind their backs. Japanese commanders used killing competitions as a way to boost morale. They organized visiting and news reporters to appraise the "winner". One killing competition was reported by newspapers all over the world. Heads of female victims in Nanking. Slide 18 Europe Attacks Because the League of Nations did not stop the Japanese, other leaders began to plan attacks of their own. Slide 19 1935 Mussolini invades EthiopiaWhy? - PROFIT: Mussolini wants to develop an Italian Empire in Africa - REVENGE: Bitter memories of Ethiopians defeating the Italian army in the Battle of Adowa in 1896. - WHY NOT? League of Nations had done nothing to stop Japan Why did Britain and France take no action against Italy? Both hoped to keep the peace in Europe dreading another War. Ethiopian Emperor Hallie Selassie asked the League of Nations: "What answer shall I take back to my people?" He said, "It is us today, it will be you tomorrow." He ended by telling them, "God and History shall remember your judgment." It was a historic speech applauded around the world. The League of Nations wanted to keep the peace in Europe so they did nothing and allowed Mussolini to take control in Africa. Ethiopian ruler Halllie Selassie inspects his men. Slide 20 1936 German troops move into the Rhineland (land on either side of the Rhine River between Germany and France.) What were some of the effects of appeasing Hitler after his invasion of the Rhineland? 1935 - Hitler is cheered after telling the Nazi-controlled Parliament that Germany would no longer follow the Treaty of Versailles restrictions. He had already begun rebuilding Germanys military. The League of Nations issued only a mild warning. Banners throughout Germany read, Today Germany! Tomorrow the World! - Strengthened his power among the Germans; - Tilted the balance of power in Europe in Germanys favor; - Encouraged Hitler to speed up his military and territorial expansion. Slide 21 Spain had been a monarchy until 1931, when it then became a republic. Like all European nations, Spains economy suffered during the Depression. In 1936, army leaders supported a Fascist-styled leader in Spain named Francisco Franco. Civil War started. The liberal Republican government received little help from western democratic nations. In fact, only the Soviet Union sent equipment and advisers to try to negotiate the conflict in Spain. 1939 Franco becomes Spanish dictator. 1936 Hitler & Mussolini lend troops, tanks, planes to help Spains Fascist leader Francisco Franco and his Nationalists in Spains Civil War. Slide 22 1935 U.S. Congress passes first of Why did isolationists want these laws? three Neutrality Acts. They hoped to keep the U.S. out of another European War. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. Let it be resolved that upon the outbreak or during the progress of war between, or among, two or more foreign states, the President shall proclaim such fact, and it shall thereafter be unlawful to export arms, ammunition, or implements of war to any port of such beligerent states nor shall these United States feel compelled to intercede in such international tensions as they unaffect us. - U.S. Neutrality Act, 1935 Slide 23 Britain and France chose Appeasement choosing to give in to an aggressor in order to keep the peace 1935 U.S. Congress passes first of Why did isolationists want these laws? three Neutrality Acts They hoped to keep the U.S. out of another European War. Americans in the United States preferred Isolationism choosing to stay out of the tensions between other countries Hitlers growing military strength convinced Mussolini to seek an alliance with Germany 1936 The two dictators sign the Rome-Berlin Axis agreement