World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut

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World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut Hannah Youngwirth

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World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut. Hannah Youngwirth. Who are the Aka Pygmies?. Southwestern Central African Republic and the Northern Congo Smaller tribe of Mbenga tribe The Aka are nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes that reside mainly in the rain forests. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs. Guillaume de Machaut

Page 1: World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs.  Guillaume de Machaut

World Music Presentation

The Aka Pygmies vs.

Guillaume de Machaut

Hannah Youngwirth

Page 2: World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs.  Guillaume de Machaut

Who are the Aka Pygmies?

Southwestern Central African Republic and the Northern Congo

Smaller tribe of Mbenga tribe The Aka are nomadic hunter-

gatherer tribes that reside mainly in the rain forests.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZtxZ5IWsJk

Page 3: World Music Presentation The Aka Pygmies vs.  Guillaume de Machaut

Data of the Region 15 different tribes,

app. 30,000 members total

Tight-knit families, “world’s best dad”

The Aka speak their own language (Akais Diaka , along with the Bantu of the surrounding tribes.

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Influences

Main instruments are the enzeko (drum), a harp-like geedale-bagongo, a flute-like instrument known as the Hindewhu, and a single string bow known as the melba. Rhythm: hand-clapping and stomping.

Isolation=more singing! Akais Diaka is characterized by three tones

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Influences Cont. Animistic religion, they worship Jengi and Luma Religious Ceremonies for various occasions

Ceremonies include feasting, dancing, and singing. They model the hunt.

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Polyphony The complex polyphonic music, combined

with the contrapuntal communal improvisation, plays a significant role in the lives of the tribe members.

Polyphony: two or more independent melodic voices

Contrapuntal: the relationship between two or more voices independent in contour, rhythm, and harmony

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The Polyphonic Improvisations of the Aka

The Aka tribes sing to entertain and worship Yodeling + polyphonic contrapuntal phrases

based on four original voices, all sung at different intervals.

Accompanied by most commonly a “2 by 3” rhythm pattern.

Each singer includes their own improvisation and different variations.

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Aka Music Theory Melody: The polyphonic melodies begin to emerge as

the song continues, each new member of the song making their own unique addition.

Medium: The medium begins with simply flute, then the drums and vocals are introduced. As the song moves on, the vocals take lead in the song.

Harmony: The harmonies are not planned, but rather created as the musical improvisations continue.

Meter: 2 by 3 rhythm pattern Form: The form is improvised, following the traditional

ritualistic pattern Style: The style is tribal gathering instrumental

improvisations Context: Tribal chanting in which the vocal variations

make use of different techniques, rhythms, and tones.

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Guilluame de Machaut

Leading composer of the Middle Ages

Composed sacred and secular music

He was born in Rheims, Champagne He was Secretary/Canon to the king Also a talented poet.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DALBMRwsfxo

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His Music Secular work pertains to

courtly love Sacred music is cyclic

with no tonal center or extended melodic theme

Fueled the Ars Nova Movement

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Prominent Works His motets showcase his

expansion of harmonies to contain more intervals of the 3rd and 6th.

Best known for the Messe de Nostre Dame, the earliest known setting of Mass belonging to one composer.

This is composed of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, and Ite missa est.

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Messe de Nostre Dame “Mass of Our Lady”-a polyphonic and

isorythmic mass The five movements are the Kyrie, Gloria,

Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, followed by the dismissal Ite, missa est.

Translates: Cry, Glory Be to God, I Believe, Holy, Lamb of God, and Go, Be Dismissed

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“Messe” Music Theory Melody: The melody is shared between a four-

voiced mass, and Machaut’s use of polyphony leads to each voice singing different tunes, contrasting harmonically.

Medium: Voice (4 male voices) Harmony: The polyphony leads to each voice

acting as a contrasting harmony to the other Meter: isorythmic pulse Form: Follows the “standard” mass format Style: Mass/Sacred Context: Used to open the Mass Text: Kyrie Eleison (Lord Have Mercy)

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In Comparison, Akas composes for recreation, Machaut composes for

profit Akas have limited resources, Machaut has many

different instruments and singers available Machaut has to consider the appeal to the audience Both are polyphonic Aka improvise thorughout the work, the messe

singers enter as one body Machaut uses isorythm, Akas have a 2 by 3

rhythm pattern Both write for entertainment as well as religion Music is a way of life

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Just For Funsies… Learn to Chant like a Pygmy

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References: "Aka Forest People." Youtube. Youtube, 06 Jul 2009. Web. 6 Nov 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRVPieyKv8M&feature=related>.   "The Polyphonic Singing of the Aka Pygmies of Central Africa." Youtube. Youtube, 26 Sep 2009. Web. 6 Nov 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=yKLxFmnYO_I>.   "Aka people." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 01 Nov 2011. Web. 6 Nov 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aka_people>.   "Mbuti people." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 13 Oct 2011. Web. 6 Nov 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mbuti>.   "Pygmy Music." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 12 Oct 2011. Web. 6 Nov 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmy_music>.   "Baka people (Cameroon and Gabon)."Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 01 Nov 2011. Web. 6 Nov 2011.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baka_(Cameroon_and_Gabon)>.   "Messe de Nostre Dame." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 06 May 2011. Web. 6 Nov 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messe_de_Nostre_Dame>.   Luis, Mauro. "Aka Pymgies."Pygmies.Org. Pymgies.Org, 07 Nov 2011. Web. 07 Nov 2011. <http://www.pygmies.org/aka/>.   "Polyphonic singing of the Aka Pygmies." ETHNIKKA. ETHNIKKA, 17 Apr 2011. Web. 6 Nov 2011. <http://www.ethnikka.org/2011/04/polyphonic-

singing-of-aka-pygmies.html>.   "The Polyphonic Singing of the Aka Pygmies of Central Africa."UNESCO. UNESCO, 2008. Web. 6 Nov 2011.

<http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?lg=en&pg=00011&RL=00082>.   "Aka ." Countries and Their Culture. Advameg, Inc., n.d. Web. 6 Nov 2011.

<http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Brazil-to-Congo-Republic-of/Aka.html>.   Schmidt-Jones, Catherine. "Music Texture." Music Theory. CNX.Org, n.d. Web. 6 Nov 2011. <http://www.aboutmusictheory.com/music-

texture.html>.   McComb, Todd. "Guillaume de Machaut (c.1300-1377)." Medieval. N.p., 06 Nov 2011. Web. 6 Nov 2011.

<http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/composers/machaut.html>.   Kaplan, Mitchell. "The Fourteenth Century Composer." Classical Forums. Classical Forums, 24 jul 2006. Web. 6 Nov 2011.

<http://www.classicalforums.com/articles/Fourteenth_Century_Composer.html>.   "Guillaume de Machaut." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 6 Nov 2011.

<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/354543/Guillaume-de-Machaut>.