Wonders of the World PDF
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Wonders of the WorldArup R Pal
What is a Wonder ? A wonder is something that we find amazing. We find these things amazing as these are mostly
Unique i.e. without a second piece on Earth. These things are amazing because these things were built at a time when the technology was not
as developed as today. So we ask ourselves how could these things got built in the first place ?
How many types of wonders are there ? There can be two types of Wonders Man Made Wonders and Natural wonders Also there can be wonders from different periods in time e.g. Wonders of the ancient world Wonders from the Medieval world and
Wonders of the modern world
Types of Wonders Man-made wonders These wonders were build by human beings
Natural wonders These are wonders formed by Nature
Types of WondersWonders of the Ancient WorldGreat Pyramid of Giza Hanging Gardens of Babylon Statue of Zeus at Olympia Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus Colossus of Rhodes Lighthouse of Alexandria Except for the Pyramid of Giza none of the wonders of the ancient world exist now.
Types of WondersWonders of the Mediaval World Stonehenge Colosseum Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa Great Wall of China Porcelain Tower of Nanjing Hagia Sophia Leaning Tower of Pisa
Wonders of the Ancient World
Why did they build the Wonders ? Different wonders were built for different purpose. But all the wonders show the amazing capabilities in-terms of Knowledge of Science , engineering Architecture , astronomy Use of technology Mathematics, Geometry
Types of WondersWorld
Seven Wonders of The Great Wall of China Petra Christ the Redeemer Machu Picchu Chichen Itza Roman Colosseum Taj Mahal
Great Pyramid ( Honorary Candidate )
Wonders of the Modern World
What is the Great Wall of China ? The Great Wall of China is a Man-made wall built over many centuries along the earlier Chinese empire. The Chinese were familiar with the techniques of wallbuilding by the 8th century BC. Major part of the wall was built during the Ming Dynasty. These walls were made mostly by stamping earth and gravel between board frames. During later part bricks and stone got used.
Why did they build the Great Wall of China ? The Great wall of China wasbuilt to protect the Chinese empire from enemy attacks.
concluded that the entire Great
Wall, with all of its branches,stretches for 8,851.8 km.
What is Petra ? On the edge of the Arabian
Desert, Petra was the glitteringcapital of the Nabataean empire of King Aretas IV (9 B.C. to 40
A.D.). Masters of water technology, the Nabataeans provided their city
with great tunnel constructionsand water chambers.
What is Petra ? A theater, modelled on Greek-
Roman prototypes, had spacefor an audience of 4,000. Today, the Palace Tombs of
Petra, with the 42-meter-highHellenistic temple facade on the El-Deir Monastery, are
impressive examples of MiddleEastern culture.
What is Christ the Redeemer ? Christ the Redeemer is a statue of
Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro,Brazil. It is considered the largest art deco statue in the world
(130 ft) tall, including its 9.5 metre (31 ft) pedestal, and 30 metres
(98 ft) wide. It weighs 635 tons (700 short tons).
Why was Christ the Redeemer built ? The statue of Christ the
Redeemer is a very importantsymbol of Brazil's Catholicism. It is made of reinforced
concrete and soapstone. Construction took nine years, from 1922 to 1931. The
October 12, 1931
What is Machu Picchu ? Machu Picchu (pronounced Machu
2,430 metres (8,000 ft) above sea level. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru. Often referred to as "The Lost City of the Incas", Machu Picchu is one of the most familiar symbols of the Inca Empire.
What is Machu Picchu ? The Incas started building it
around AD 1430 but abandoned asan official site for the Inca rulers a hundred years later at the time of
the Spanish conquest of the IncaEmpire. It was brought to international
Bingham, an American historian.
What is Machu Picchu ? Since it was not plundered by the
Spanish, it is especially important as acultural site and is considered a sacred place.
Machu Picchu was built in the classicalInca style, with polished dry-stone walls. Its primary buildings are the
Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, andthe Room of the Three Windows.
What is Chichen Itza? Chichen Itza is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site built by the Maya civilization Mexico. Chichen Itza was a major regional focal point in the northern Maya lowlands. Dominating the center of Chichn is the Temple of Kukulkan (the Maya name located in present-day
for Quetzalcoatl), often referred to as "ElCastillo" (the castle).
What is Chichen Itza? The Mayans succeeded in an almost impossible mission with the completion of their structures at Chichn Itz. A poetic combination religion, of form, style,
mathematics and geometry. A true symbiosis of all of their
intelligence and art in one location, to be studied and admired by all that visit.
What is the Roman Colosseum ? The Colosseum is one of the greatest works of Roman Architecture and Engineering. It could seat 50000 people and used for Gladiatorial spectacles. It has been estimated that about sports and public
500,000 people and over a million wild
animals died in the Colosseum games
What is the Roman Colosseum ? The Colosseum was built in such a manner that people could come in and vacate it very quickly. In the Gladiatorial sports, captured enemies, soldiers and slaves were made to fight each other and animals.
What is Taj Mahal ? Taj Mahal was built by Mughal Emperor Shah
Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, MumtazMahal. The Taj Mahal is considered the finest example
of Mughal architecture, a style that combineselements from Persian, Indian, and Islamic architectural styles.
It took around 22 years to build Taj Mahal atan estimated cost of about Rs. 32 million at that time.
What is Taj Mahal ? The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all over India and Asia . Over 1,000 elephants materials. The translucent white marble was brought from Rajasthan, the jasper from Punjab, jade and crystal from China. The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan. In all, twenty eight types of precious and semiprecious stones were inlaid into the white marble. were used to transport building
What is Taj Mahal ? The Taj Mahal is decorated in line with the Islamic tradition. The decorative elements can be grouped into either calligraphy, abstract forms or vegetative motifs. Throughout the complex, passages from the Qur'an are used as decorative elements.
The calligraphy was created by the Persian calligrapherAbd ul-Haq, who came to India from Shiraz, Iran, in 1609. Higher panels are written in slightly larger script so that they dont appear smaller when looked from below.