Wolf Conservation In brentpatterson/Index_files/Ontario_wolf update... · PDF fileabout...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    27-Apr-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    215
  • download

    2

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Wolf Conservation In brentpatterson/Index_files/Ontario_wolf update... · PDF fileabout...

  • Wolf ConservationIn Ontario

    Midwest Wolf Stewards ConferenceDorset, OntarioApril 21-22, 2010

  • Canadian Status 50,000 - 60,000 wolves occupy 85% of historical range Eastern Gray Wolf - Special

    Concern (2001) under Species at Risk Act found close to humans, difficult

    to identify, and vulnerable to threats such as hybridization

    Northern Gray Wolf Not at Risk

  • Ontario Status 7,710 wolves (preliminary) occupy 85% historical

    range (~ 800,000 km2) Eastern Wolf Special

    Concern (2004) under Endangered Species Act

    Gray Wolf Not at Risk generally healthy, some

    mange

  • Overview of Management 1950-60s wolf/coyote hunting closed in most provincial parks

    1957-65 several research studies (e.g. effect of wolves on

    wildlife and livestock, population control methods) 1972 provincial bounties rescinded Wolf Damage to Livestock Compensation Act

  • Overview of Management (contd) 1980 classified as game & furbearers

    1991 municipal bounties eliminated

    1992-97 review of wolf and coyote status and policy

    1998 mandatory wolf/coyote harvest reporting by

    trappers

  • Overview of Management (contd) 1993 closed hunting/trapping winter season in 3 townships

    outside Algonquin Provincial Park (Dec. 15 Mar. 31)

    1998-2000 increasing concern and debate about the long-term

    viability of park wolves due to human-caused mortality outside the park

    Algonquin Wolf Advisory Group established Population and Habitat Viability Assessment

    (PHVA)

  • Algonquin Provincial Park

  • Overview of Management (contd) 2001 conservation strategy for park wolves:

    hunting/trapping is closed in park & 40 surrounding townships for 30 months

    research to evaluate wolf status & effect of ban 2004 season closure permanent (coyotes included)

  • Overview of Management (contd) 2004 eastern wolves listed provincially as Special

    Concern

    2005 Strategy for Wolf Conservation

  • Strategy for Wolf Conservation delivers on 2003 government commitment to:

    implement a proper wildlife management implement a proper wildlife management program for Ontarioprogram for Ontarios wolves. We will ensure s wolves. We will ensure

    that Ontario gets the vital scientific that Ontario gets the vital scientific information it needs to protect information it needs to protect

    and manage wolvesand manage wolves..

    strategy developed in consultation with many stakeholders

  • Strategy for Wolf Conservation (contd) provides a framework for decision-making

    about wolf conservation in Ontario

    establishes goal, guiding principles, objectives and key strategies for wolf conservation

    guides longer term development and refinement of Ontarios wolf conservation program

  • Strategy for Wolf Conservation (contd)GOAL

    To ensure ecologically sustainable wolf populations and the ecosystems on which they

    rely for the continuous ecological, social, cultural and economic benefit of the

    people of OntarioOBJECTIVES1. Ensure ecologically sustainable wolf populations2. Provide for social, cultural and economic benefits based

    on ecologically sustainable wolf populations 3. Increase public awareness and understanding about the

    role of wolves in natural functioning ecosystems and their conservation in Ontario

  • Strategy Implementation - 2005 closed summer season across wolf range

    no wolf/coyote hunting& trapping from Apr 1 Sept 14 to protect wolves rearing young

    improved harvest assessment & management hunters must purchase wolf/coyote game seal (plus

    small game licence), limit of 2 seals per hunter hunters must report hunting activity & harvest landowners must report wolves/coyotes killed in

    protection of property (e.g., livestock) electronic application for hunting information

    Coyotes included because it is difficult to distinguish wolves from coyotes in the wild where their ranges overlap

  • Canis Hybridization genetic evidence suggestsgenetic evidence suggests western coyotes & eastern wolves hybridizewestern coyotes & eastern wolves hybridize gray wolves & eastern wolves hybridizegray wolves & eastern wolves hybridize gray wolves & western coyotes do not hybridizegray wolves & western coyotes do not hybridize

    eastern wolf putatively bridges geneeastern wolf putatively bridges gene--flow between gray flow between gray wolves and coyoteswolves and coyotes

    western coyote eastern wolf gray wolf

  • Hunter and Trapper HarvestWolf/Coyote Hunters

    0200400600800

    1,0001,2001,400

    2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Year

    Resident Non-resident

    Hunter Harvest

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    2005 2006 2007 2008Year

    Wol

    ves/

    Coy

    otes

    Resident Non-Resident

    Trapper Harvest

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800

    2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10

    Wol

    ves

  • Research Priorities1.1. Determine distribution of Determine distribution of canidcanid species & species &

    associated hybridsassociated hybrids2.2. Determine abundance of each by region/ Determine abundance of each by region/

    ecozoneecozone3.3. Determine magnitude & significance of major Determine magnitude & significance of major

    limiting factors limiting factors 4.4. Determine relations with major prey species, Determine relations with major prey species,

    including domestics & Species at Riskincluding domestics & Species at Risk

  • Current Research1.1. Provincial genetics/ morphology Provincial genetics/ morphology

    genetic and morphological population definitiongenetic and morphological population definition role of protected areas in limiting hybridizationrole of protected areas in limiting hybridization

    2.2. Kawartha Highlands Signature Site (KHSS) ParkKawartha Highlands Signature Site (KHSS) Park spatial & temporal dynamics of hybridization with spatial & temporal dynamics of hybridization with

    coyotescoyotes ecological niche of coyotes & wolfecological niche of coyotes & wolf--coyote hybridscoyote hybrids

    3.3. Algonquin Provincial ParkAlgonquin Provincial Park spatial & temporal dynamics of hybridization with spatial & temporal dynamics of hybridization with

    coyotescoyotes assess assess nonnon--numericalnumerical benefits of protectionbenefits of protection

  • Eastern wolf/coyote hybrid study investigate causes and consequences of

    hybridization understand mechanisms underlying hybridization what factors may promote or inhibit

    hybridization? investigate Influence of

    protected areas on hybridization Fragmentation Wolf/coyote harvest

  • Territory size and density are also related to body size

  • Current Research (contd)4.4. Refinement of population Refinement of population

    estimation techniquesestimation techniques determine relatively determine relatively

    precise initial estimates of precise initial estimates of density by region using density by region using winter track based survey winter track based survey (SUPE)(SUPE)

    determine provincedetermine province--wide wide estimate of abundanceestimate of abundance

    implement less intensive implement less intensive means of indexing means of indexing population changespopulation changes

    Wolf Ecological Zones

  • Density Estimates (/100 km2)

    a 0.72 (2007)b 0.19 (2007)c 0.19 (2007)d 0.92 (2007)e 2.44 (2008)f 0.86 (2006)g 0.21 (2006)h 0.68 (2006)I 0.8-0.9 (06-08)j 0.64 (2006) k 3.1 (2006)l results pendingm 2.3-2.9 (02-07)n 2.2 (2005)

    Survey areas for empirical estimates of wolf density in Ontario, 2005-08.

    Survey areas for empirical estimates of wolf density in Ontario, 2005-08.

    2009 surveyareas

  • Current Research (contd)5.5. WolfWolf--caribou relations in northern Ontariocaribou relations in northern Ontario

  • Wolf-Caribou Dynamics Caribou persistence tenuous in managed Caribou persistence tenuous in managed

    forestsforests Wolves generally major proximate cause of Wolves generally major proximate cause of

    mortalitymortality Collared caribou primarily useful for Collared caribou primarily useful for

    comparing relative survival in different comparing relative survival in different landscapes landscapes

    Fine scale location and movement data on Fine scale location and movement data on wolves required to get at specific mechanisms wolves required to get at specific mechanisms effecting wolfeffecting wolf--caribou relations in managed caribou relations in managed forestsforests

  • Current Research (contd)6.6. Determine relations with major prey species, Determine relations with major prey species,

    including domestics & Species at Risk by including domestics & Species at Risk by looking at looking at kill rates & prey selection: identify ungulate-kills using location data from

    GPS-collared wolves assess rate and location in relation to habitat, prey

    abundance & snow data, etc.

  • Current Research (contd)

    7.7. Baseline ecological Baseline ecological information from information from representative representative ecosystems ecosystems emerging by meeting emerging by meeting above objectives:above objectives: population demography population demography

    & dynamics& dyna