Wolf Conservation and Management Plan A Draft EIS/Wolf Conservation and Management Plan for...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    09-Jun-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    2
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Wolf Conservation and Management Plan A Draft EIS/Wolf Conservation and Management Plan for...

  • STATE OF WASHINGTON December 2011

    Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wildlife Program

    Wolf Conservation and Management Plan

    by Gary J. Wiles, Harriet L. Allen, and Gerald E. Hayes

  • In 1990, the Washington Wildlife Commission adopted procedures for listing and delisting species as endangered, threatened, or sensitive and for writing recovery and management plans for listed species (WAC 232-12-297, Appendix A). The procedures, developed by a group of citizens, interest groups, and state and federal agencies, require preparation of recovery plans for species listed as threatened or endangered. This Wolf Conservation and Management Plan summarizes the historical and current distribution and abundance of wolves in Washington and describes factors that affect wolf recovery. It provides recovery goals for downlisting and delisting the species and prescribes strategies to achieve these goals, including management of conflicts with livestock and ungulates. As such, it serves as the recovery plan for wolves in Washington, per WAC 232-12-297.

    A Draft EIS/Wolf Conservation and Management Plan for Washington was developed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) during 2007-2009 and the Final EIS/Recommended Plan was completed in 2011 following public review. WDFW received extensive input from the advisory Wolf Working Group, which was comprised of 17 citizens from a broad range of perspectives and values. The group met eight times over a 15-month period in 2007 and 2008 to develop recommendations to the Department on a plan that would achieve wolf conservation and management. Following peer review by 43 reviewers, WDFW addressed their comments and met again with the Wolf Working Group in 2009 to review the changes. The Working Group provided additional comments on the revised draft, which were then incorporated in the Public Review Draft EIS/Plan. This document underwent a 95-day public review and blind peer review by 3 anonymous reviewers in 2009-2010. Nearly 65,000 people provided comments on the Draft EIS/Plan. WDFW addressed the public input and met with the Working Group in June 2011 for review and comment on the proposed changes. The Final EIS/WDFW Recommended Plan was presented to the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission for consideration on August 4, 2011. The Commission held three workshops on the plan from August through November 2011, where additional public comment was taken. On December 3, 2011, the Fish and Wildlife Commission unanimously adopted the Recommended Plan, with revisions. Information on the full process to develop the plan is posted at: http://wdfw.wa.gov/conservation/gray_wolf/mgmt_plan_process.html. For additional information about wolf recovery or other state listed species, see: http://wdfw.wa.gov/conservation/endangered/, or contact: Endangered Species Section Manager Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife 600 Capitol Way North Olympia, WA 98501-1091 This plan should be cited as: Wiles, G. J., H. L. Allen, and G. E. Hayes. 2011. Wolf conservation and management plan for

    Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, Washington. 297 pp.

    Cover photos by Gary J. Wiles.

    http://wdfw.wa.gov/conservation/gray_wolf/mgmt_plan_process.html http://wdfw.wa.gov/conservation/endangered/

  • WOLF CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR WASHINGTON

    Prepared by

    Gary J. Wiles Harriet L. Allen Gerald E. Hayes

    Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wildlife Program

    600 Capitol Way N Olympia, Washington

    December 2011

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............................................................................................................................. 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................. 8 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 12 2. BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................................. 16

    A. History of Wolves in Washington and Surrounding Areas .......................................................... 16 B. Current Status of Wolves .................................................................................................................. 20 C. Biology ................................................................................................................................................. 25 D. Legal Status ......................................................................................................................................... 36 E. Social, Cultural, and Economic Values ........................................................................................... 40

    3. WOLF CONSERVATION ................................................................................................................. 46 A. Scientific Basis for Conservation Planning ..................................................................................... 46 B. Recovery Objectives for Washington .............................................................................................. 58 C. Management after Delisting .............................................................................................................. 70

    4. WOLF-LIVESTOCK CONFLICTS ................................................................................................. 72 A. Wolf Depredation on Livestock ...................................................................................................... 72 B. Management Tools for Reducing Wolf Depredation ................................................................... 76 C. Compensation Programs for Wolf-Related Losses and Deterrence in Other States ............... 81 D. Predicting Losses of Ranch Animals in Washington Due to Wolves ........................................ 84 E. Management of Wolf-Livestock Conflicts in Washington ........................................................... 85 F. Proactive Measures to Reduce Wolf-Livestock Conflicts in Washington ................................. 89 G. Compensation for Wolf-Caused Livestock Depredation in Washington .................................. 90

    5. WOLF-UNGULATE INTERACTIONS ........................................................................................ 95 A. Wolf Predation of Ungulates ............................................................................................................ 95 B. Recent Impacts of Wolves on Ungulates in Other States ............................................................ 99 C. Ungulate Status in Washington ...................................................................................................... 101 D. Wolf-Ungulate Interactions on Wintering Grounds ................................................................... 113 E. Predicted Levels of Wolf Predation on Ungulates in Washington ........................................... 114 F. Management of Wolf-Ungulate Interactions in Washington ..................................................... 115

    6. WOLF INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER SPECIES................................................................. 118 A. Wolves and Other Carnivores ........................................................................................................ 118 B. Wolves and Scavengers ................................................................................................................... 121 C. Wolves and Listed/Candidate Species .......................................................................................... 121

    7. WOLF-HUMAN INTERACTIONS .............................................................................................. 123 A. Human Safety.................................................................................................................................... 123 B. Interactions with the Public ............................................................................................................ 125 C. Interactions with Domestic Dogs .................................................................................................. 126 D. Wolf Hybrids and Pet Wolves ........................................................................................................ 127 E. Tapeworm Disease and Wolves ..................................................................................................... 128

    8. LAND MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................. 130 A. Federal Land ..................................................................................................................................... 130 B. State Land .......................................................................................................................................... 131 C. Private Land ...................................................................................................................................... 131

    9. INFORMATION AND EDUCATION ........................................................................................ 133 10. RESEARCH ......................................................................................................................................... 134

    Table of Contents 1