Whither Photovoltaics?

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    National Workshopon

    CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    IN SOLAR PHOTO VOLTAICS -AN EMERGING ENERGY RESEARCH

    R.M.K.Engineering CollegeKavraipettai 601 206

    Tamil Nadu

    19-20th

    December 2013

    Dr. A. JagadeeshHead R & D

    Centre for Energy and Sustainable Resources

    R.M.K. Engineering CollegeKAVARAIPETTAI 601 206Tamil Nadu

    E-mail: [email protected]

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    Energy from the Sun

    About half the incoming solar energy reaches the Earth's

    surface.

    The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) (1015watts) of

    incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere.

    Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest isabsorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses.

    Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar

    radiation, and this raises their temperature. Sunlight

    absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface

    at an average temperature of 14 C.

    By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy

    into chemical energy, which produces food, wood and

    the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.

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    Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption

    The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceansand land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) (1018

    joules) per year. (70% of incoming sunlight) (1 Joule = energy

    required to heat one gram of dry, cool air by 1C)

    Primary energy use (2005) 487 EJ (0.0126%)

    Electricity (2005) 56.7 EJ (0.0015%) Therefore a good target

    2002, more energy in one hour than the world used in the year.

    Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in

    biomass.

    The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planetis so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be

    obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal,

    oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined.

    As intermittent resources, solar and wind raise issues.

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    Solar Cells Background

    1839 - French physicist A. E. Becquerel first recognized the

    photovoltaic effect. Photo+voltaic = convert light to electricity

    1883 - first solar cell built, by Charles Fritts, coated

    semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to

    form the junctions.

    1954 - Bell Laboratories, experimenting with semiconductors,

    accidentally found that silicon doped with certain impurities was

    very sensitive to light. Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller and Gerald

    Pearson, invented the first practical device for converting sunlight

    into useful electrical power. Resulted in the production of the firstpractical solar cells with a sunlight energy conversion efficiency of

    around 6%.

    1958 - First spacecraft to use solar panels was US satellite

    Vanguard 1

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    PV Solar for Electricity

    Photovoltaic'sFor the 2 billion people without access to electricity, it would be

    cheaper to install solar panels than to extend the electrical grid.

    (The Fund for Renewable Energy Everywhere)

    Providing power for villages in developing countries is a fast-

    growing market for photovoltaics. The United Nations estimates

    that more than 2 million villages worldwide are without electric

    power for water supply, refrigeration, lighting, and other basic

    needs.

    A one kilowatt PV system* each month:Prevents 150 lbs. of coal from being mined

    Prevents 300 lbs. of CO2 from entering the atmosphere

    Keeps 105 gallons of water from being consumed

    Keeps NO and SO2 from being released into the environment

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    Morphology of solar cells

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    ... a house, but also with very large

    systems that then is connected via a ...

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    Solar Street Lights

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    Hybrid Solar and Wind

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    Solar Lights

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    Solar Reading Lamps

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    Solar Cap

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    Solar Safety Helmet

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    Solar Fan

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    Solar Key Chain Mobile Charger

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    Solar key ring

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    Amorphous Solar Panel Torch Lights

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    Solar Cars

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    Solar Boat

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    Concentrated Solar Power

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    Is it a Bird, Is it a Plane? No, it's the new Com-Bat Solar Powered Spy...

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    SOLAR TOWER POWER PLANT Solar Two in Barstow, California,

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    At Abengoa Solar's facility in Spain, mirrors heat a liquid in a tower,...

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    Tower of Power

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    Over 4,400 solar PV panels will span the bridge

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    Solar Pump

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    Put the SUN to WORK: To getinexhaustible,pollution-free energy

    which cannot be misused

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