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Part 1: Fundamentals of Change – Individual, Team, and Organisation

A. Individual Change

Learning: Process of acquiring knowledge through experience which leads to a change in behavior

Gestalt psychology: Principle maintains that humans considers objects in their entirety before, or in parallel with, perception of individual parts; suggesting the whole is greater than the sum of its parts

Process of doing and thinking:

· Activist: Does something

· Reflector: Reflects upon specific experience

· Theorist: Draws conclusion from experience

· Pragmatist: Plans to do something

Personality and Change

8 different personality preferences (basically just the MBTI nonsense)

See Notes

Approaches to Change

1) Behavioral – Changing individual’s behavior to achieve intended results

Classical Conditioning:

· Unconditioned stimulus leads to unconditioned response

· If neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are associated, neutral stimulus leads to unconditioned response




+ve reinforcement

Desired behavior is deliberately associated with a reward

e.g. classic carrot

-ve addition

A punishment is deliberately associated with undesired behavior

e.g. classic stick


+ve subtraction

An unpleasant stimulus previously associated with the desired behavior is removed

e.g. Want people to take on more credit lower the interest rates

-ve subtraction

A pleasant stimulus previously associated with undesired behavior is removed

e.g. always sleeping in bunk, so I force remove all beds

Motivation and Behavior:

1. Hygiene (A desire to avoid pain or deprivation): motivate, but demotivate

2. Motivators (A desire to learn and develop)

Note: See Notes for Examples

2) Cognitive – Our emotions and our problems are a result of the way we think

Mind Emotions & Behavior, Look at how individuals are limiting themselves through adhering to old ways of thinking and replace them with new ways of being

Change their way of thinking by making use of clear goals:

a. Reframing: Reduce feelings and thoughts that impact negatively on performance

b. Affirmations: Positive statement describing the way that you want to be

Form of self-fulfilling prophecy

3) Psychodynamic – When facing change, an individual experiences a variety of internal psychological states

Kubler-Ross Model

Stage 1 – Denial

· Due to lack of information, fear of unknown, or fear of doing something wrong

· Focus tends to remain in the past

· Individuals feel:

· Uncomfortable with changing the status quo

· Threatened

· Sense of disbelief

Stage 2 – Anger

· A continuation of our not wanting to accept the change and of wanting to do something, anything, other than fully believe in it. Anger is yet another way of displacing our real feelings about the situation

· Individuals feel:

· Suspicion/Skepticism

· Frustration

Stage 3 – Bargaining

· A deflection of the true gravity of the situation. Individual is desperately looking around for something, anything, to remedy the situation. ‘If only I could get it fixed or sorted everything would be all right.’

· An attempt to wrest back some control of the situation

Stage 4 – Depression

· Stage where we are ready to give up on everything

· For some, depression can take the form of apathy or a sense of pointlessness. For others it can take the form of sadness, and for some a mixture of intense emotions and disassociated states.

Stage 5 – Acceptance

· Stage where people come to terms with the reality and the inevitability of what is happening. People are in touch with their feeling about the situation, their hopes and fears, their anxieties.

· Focus is on the future

Virginia Satir Model

Initial state as one of maintaining the status quo. This is a state in which if you carry on doing what you are doing, you will continue to get what you are getting. The situation is one of relative equilibrium where all parts of the system are in relative harmony.

This changes when something new enters the system. Satir calls it a ‘foreign element’ in the sense that a factor previously not present is introduced.

A period of chaos ensues. He or she may be in a state of disbelief – denial or emotional numbness – at first, not knowing what to think or feel or how to act. Individuals may resist the notion that things are going to be different. Indeed they may actually try to redouble their efforts to ensure that the status quo continues as long as possible, even to the extent of sabotaging the new ideas that are forthcoming.

But it is often when things have reached their very worst that from somewhere – usually from within the very depths of the person – the germ of an idea or an insight occurs. He or she has seen the light, or at least a glimmer of hope. An immense amount of work may still need to be done, but the individual has generated this transforming idea.

Once this transforming idea has taken root, the individual can begin the journey of integration. Thus this period of integration requires the new world order to be assimilated into the individual’s own world.

As time moves on the restructure is bedded into the organization, roles and responsibilities clarified, new objectives and ways of working specified and results achieved. A new status quo is born.

Note: See Notes for Weinberg Critical Points in the Change Process

4) Humanistic – Emphasis is on healthy development, healthy relationships and healthy organisations

People are inherently capable of reacting to change, but require enabling structures and strategies to do so

Maslow and the hierarchy of needs

Human beings have an inbuilt desire to grow and develop and move towards self-actualization

“the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming”

Rogers and the path to personal growth

For change agents to bring about growth and development, one must possess 3 crucial conditions:

· Genuineness and congruence: to be aware of your own feelings, to be real, to be authentic. Rogers’ research showed that the more genuine and congruent the change agent is in the relationship, the greater the probability of change in the personality of the client.

· Unconditional positive regard: a genuine willingness to allow the client’s process to continue, and an acceptance of whatever feelings are going on inside the client. Whatever feeling the client is experiencing, be it anger, fear, hatred, then that is all right. It is saying that underneath all this the person is all right.

· Empathic understanding: in Rogers’ words, ‘it is only as I understand the feelings and thoughts which seem so horrible to you, – it is only as I see them as you see them, and accept them and you, that you feel really free to explore all the hidden roots and frightening crannies of your inner and often buried experience.’

Key Concepts of Rogers:

· The creation of a facilitating environment, through authenticity, positive regard and empathic understanding, enabling growth and development to occur.

· Given this facilitating environment and the correct stance of the change agent, clients will be able to surface and work through any negative feelings they may have about the change.

· Given this facilitating environment and the correct stance of the change agent, there will be a movement from rigidity to more fluidity in the client’s approach to thinking and feeling.

· Given this facilitating environment and the correct stance of the change agent, clients will move towards accepting a greater degree of self-responsibility for their situation, enabling them to have more options from which to choose.

B. Team Change

See Notes for Workgroup VS Team (IS2104 stuff)

Types of Team:

Work Team

Project Team

Management Team

Change Team


Business as usual

Change or development

(short range)

Less “business as usual”, more change or development

Change or development



Time-limited for specific purpose

Translate goals into specific objectives

Formed when significant change is needed

Propensity to initiate change


Potentially High

Initiator of change

Reason for existence to change

Advantages during change

Good at implementation once goals are clear

Good focus for specific implementation goals

Powerful, impactful

Increased energy and sense of purpose

Disadvantages during change

Does not like change too often

Not good for tackling complex topics

Poor focus on events after launch

Less impactful if lacks influence

Team Effectiveness:

Note: See Notes for full description on Team Effectiveness (all the team roles, IS2104 Stuff)

Team Change:

Team Dynamics (See Notes for Benbin’s Team Types)

More Similar

Reach common understanding sooner

Decisions made quicker

Greater the possibility of errors through exclusion of possibilities

More Disparate

Reach common understanding later

Take longer to make decisions

More views and opinions taken into account