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# 6 Review Packet Due 5/29/18 The Cold War The Cold War, 1945 – 1991 The end of World War II left the United States and Soviet Union as two superpowers in command of the world The U.S. had tremendous economic power and control of the atomic bomb The Soviet Union had the world’s largest army, which occupied most of Eastern Europe Although allies during the war, these two superpowers soon became rivals in the “Cold War” The war was “cold” only in the sense that, because of nuclear weapons, the two superpowers never engaged one another in open warfare The roots of the Cold War lay in competing ideological systems The United States wanted to spread its democratic capitalist system The Soviet Union wanted to spread its Communist system It was inevitable that these superpowers would soon clash Two famous Winston Churchill Quotes regarding the Cold War: “From Stettin in the Baltic to Triesete in the 1. Shortly after World War II, the cold war developed mainly as a result of the A. United States refusal to send economic aid to European nations B. Soviet domination of Eastern Europe C. competition between the superpowers to explore outer space D. continuation of the pre- World War II balance of power 2. In the years immediately following World War II, United States foreign policy was primarily

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# 6 Review Packet Due 5/29/18The Cold War

The Cold War, 1945 – 1991

The end of World War II left the United States and Soviet Union as two superpowers in command of the world

The U.S. had tremendous economic power and control of the atomic bomb

The Soviet Union had the world’s largest army, which occupied most

of Eastern Europe Although allies during the war,

these two superpowers soon became rivals in the “Cold War”

The war was “cold” only in the sense that, because of nuclear weapons, the two superpowers never engaged one another in open warfare

The roots of the Cold War lay in competing ideological systems

The United States wanted to spread its democratic capitalist system

The Soviet Union wanted to spread its Communist system

It was inevitable that these superpowers would soon clash

The “Iron Curtain”:

Two famous Winston Churchill Quotes regarding the Cold War:

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Triesete in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”

“Socialism would gather all power to the supreme party and party leaders, rising like stately pinnacles above their vast bureaucracies of civil servants no longer servants, no longer civil.”

1. Shortly after World War II, the cold war developed mainly as a result of theA. United States refusal to send

economic aid to European nations B. Soviet domination of Eastern Europe C. competition between the

superpowers to explore outer space D. continuation of the pre-World War II

balance of power

2. In the years immediately following World War II, United States foreign policy was primarily focused onA. securing peace in the Middle EastB. containing the spread of

communismC. sending volunteers to developing

countriesD. maintaining neutrality in world

conflicts

When Stalin refused to allow free elections in Poland and Truman refused to share the secrets of the atomic bomb, the “Cold War” began in earnest

Instead of withdrawing, the Soviet army continued to occupy Eastern Europe

Stalin put Communist puppet governments in power in all of Eastern Europe, making these countries Soviet “satellites”

As if an “Iron Curtain” had fallen between Eastern and Western Europe, contact between Eastern Europe and Western Europe was limited over the next forty years.

The Truman Doctrine: One of the most significant events illustrating the

separation between the Soviet Union and its former allies occurred in Greece

In some analyses, it is noted as the first event of the Cold War

It was precipitated by the economic situation of Western Europe, which was deteriorating rapidly

In 1947, England announced she could no longer support the Greek government the English had been subsidizing

A civil war was raging in Greece between the government and Communist forces

President Truman decided Greece and Turkey should be helped Announcing the Truman Doctrine, he asked Congress for funds to aid

Greece and Turkey, replacing the aid from England The Truman Doctrine declared the United States would aid any free

peoples who resisted armed minorities attempting to overthrow an established government

With this support from the United States, the Greek government defeated the Communist guerrillas

Throughout the conflict, there was no evidence of direct Soviet support for the Greek Communists The acceptance of the Truman Doctrine illustrates the fear of communism, an important factor in

Cold War decisions

Containment: American leaders

responded to the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe by developing the policy of containment

Under this policy, American leaders would not attempt to overturn Communism where it already existed, but resolved to prevent Communism from spreading to new areas

Truman’s Fair Deal: A “Fair Deal” is what President Harry Truman called his plan for America He announced it in a speech on January 5, 1949

“By order Joe” refers to Joseph Stalin, the leader of the USSR. And the man trying to look under the Iron Curtain is Winston Churchill.

The Truman Doctrine declared the United States would aid any free peoples who resisted armed minorities attempting to overthrow an established government. The Truman Doctrine vowed to stop the spread of communism.

Why did the U.S. want to stop the spread of communism to new areas?

Communism is anti-democratic and anti-private property.

3.The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan represented attempts by the United States to deal with theA. national debt B. spread of

communism C. President’s political

opposition D. arms race

His Fair Deal recommended that all Americans have health insurance, that the minimum wage (the lowest amount of money per hour that someone can be paid) be increased, and that, by law, all Americans be guaranteed equal rights

Truman’s plans were not popular with the members of Congress They rejected his plans for national health insurance though they did raise the minimum wage

The Marshall Plan: U.S. aid to rebuilt war-torn Europe

Was designed to aid the recovery of the economies of Western European nations still suffering from the war

The Marshall Plan, named for President Truman’s Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, who had served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army during World War II, revitalized the European economy

In doing so it provided one example of a “counter force” to the Soviets since capitalist or socialist prosperity in Western Europe reduced the attractiveness of communism as an economic system

Under George Marshall’s original invitation, Eastern European nations could have joined the Marshall Plan, but none did so at the insistence of the Soviet Union

Berlin Airlift: In 1948, the French, British and

Americans decided to merge their occupation zones of Germany into a single West German state

As a result, two separate German nations emerged after World War II – Democratic West Germany and

Communist East Germany The Soviets reacted to this merging of the French, British, and

American sectors of Germany into West Germany by announcing a blockade of West Berlin, closing all highway and railroad links to the

West Again the Soviets reacted to this merging by closing all highway and

railroad links to West Berlin The city of Berlin was divided because it was too significant of a city

for the West or the Soviets to completely control Thus, there was a West Berlin and an East Berlin but the city of

Berlin was located in Communist East Germany By blockading the roads into West Berlin, the Soviets hoped to starve

the city and ultimately take control of West Berlin However, the Western Allies refused to abandon Berlin, and began a massive

airlift to feed and supply the city Within a year, Stalin lifted the Soviet blockade The Berlin Airlift of 1948 was a success for the Western Allies

NATO: A military alliance established

during the Cold War between the United States and its Western European allies

If you blockade the roads, we will fly over the roads!

4. Which statement about the Marshall Plan is most accurate?A. It was used to finance rearmament

after World War II.B. It was denied to all former World

War II enemies.C. It was used to rebuild European

nations after World War II.D. It was given to all African and

Asian allies during the Cold War.

6. “An attack on one shall be considered an attack on all.” This statement summarizes the foreign policy known aA. colonialism B. nonalignment C. appeasement

5. The Berlin airlift was used during the Cold War toA. rescue people fleeing West

GermanyB. prevent a communist

takeover of Greece and Turkey

C. overcome a blockade created by the Soviet Union

D. support peacekeeping efforts by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Following the policy of containment, NATO – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – was established in 1949 after the ending of the Berlin Blockade

Breaking with the precedent set by George Washington of not signing peacetime alliances, the United States joined NATO

United States troops were to be stationed in Europe, guaranteeing that the United States was prepared to counter a military thrust by the Soviet Union into Western Europe

Warsaw Pact: The Soviet Union organized her allies into a military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, to counter the

strength of NATO The Warsaw Pact was an alliance between the Soviet Union and its Eastern European Satellite

Nations (Eastern European Communist Nations) Of course, the governments of Eastern Europe were created by the Soviet Union

McCarthyism: In 1950, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy from Wisconsin used the

national mood of fear of communism to project himself onto the political stage In a speech he claimed he had the names of Communists in the State

Department He never produced the names and kept changing the numbers, but he captured

national attention McCarthy then expanded his accusations to include scholars and the U.S. Army His accusations against the Army led to a Senate hearing It was televised nationally – the first Senate hearing to get such publicity McCarthy’s tactics at the hearing disgusted many viewers, who responded favorably to the Army’s Chief

legal counsel, Joseph Welch The hearings backfired No clear proof of misdeeds by the army was produced, so McCarthy’s case was destroyed In 1954, the Senate censored McCarthy for discrediting the Senate Yet the Senate never condemned McCarthy for the methods he used, which violated the Bill of Rights The term McCarthyism has come to mean making wild accusations without proof McCarthyism showed the extent of anxiety caused by the Cold War

The Rosenbergs:

In 1950, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were indicted for selling secret information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union

The Rosenbergs were executed for treason, even though many Americans had doubts about their guilt

The Rosenbergs were the first American civilians to be executed for espionage and the first to suffer that penalty during peacetime

“I do not agree with what you have to say, but I'll defend to the death your right to say it.”~ Voltaire

“At the present moment, with little or no detail to hand, it is difficult for me to make any comment, beyond the expression of horror at the shameless haste with which the government appears to be pressing for our liquidation.” ~ Ethel Rosenberg

6. “An attack on one shall be considered an attack on all.” This statement summarizes the foreign policy known aA. colonialism B. nonalignment C. appeasement

9. Which development led to the other three?A. The United States government increased funding for

science and math education. B. The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite. C. A joint Soviet-American space mission was announced. D. President John F. Kennedy set the goal of landing a man on

the Moon.

8. The perceived threat of communist influence in the United States during the 1950s prompted Congress toA. ban foreign studentsB. repeal loyalty oathsC. deport citizens who

were communistsD. investigate

suspected communist sympathizers

10. During the early 1950s, the tactics of Senator Joseph McCarthy were criticized because heA. violated important constitutional libertiesB. displayed racial prejudice in his questionsC. opposed the use of loyalty oathsD. ignored evidence of Soviet spying

11. After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union – called the __________________ because of their superior military might – faced each other with distrust and hostility. Totalitarian

12. The Soviet Union was a _________________________ state in which a single political body, the Communist party, controlled the economy and the political process; communism was dedicated to the elimination of private property.

Eastern Europe

13. The United States was a democracy with a capitalistic system of ______________________ owned businesses. Due to ideological differences, the United States and the Soviet Union feared each other. Two

14. A postwar clash between the opposing ideologies (belief systems) of the United States and the Soviet Union resulted in a ____________________________. It was “cold” in that the Soviet and the U.S. armies never fought each other.

Satellites

15. Instead of free elections in the countries of _________________________, as promised by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, Communist parties supported by occupying Soviet armies took control of the police, the newspapers, and the radio stations. Communist candidates were elected in rigged (“fixed”) elections.

Domination

16. The Communist Party that now controlled each Eastern European country took orders from the Communist party of the Soviet Union. In effect, the Eastern European states were Soviet ________________________________; that is their policies were dictated by the Soviet Union.

Superpowers

17. As part of the Allies’ postwar plan, each member was to occupy a zone of Germany briefly, after which the country would be united under one democratically elected government. Instead, Germany remained divided in _________________________ - a democratic West Germany and a Soviet Satellite East Germany.

Containment

18. President Truman believed that a Europe weakened by World War II was open to Soviet ____________________________________.

Privately

19. Truman initiated a policy called ________________________________, which called for U.S. efforts to prevent the spreads of Soviet influence and communism. Cold War

20 The superpowers engaged in an ________________________ race to build more powerful nuclear weapons.

Arms

21. British wartime leader Winston Churchill said that an ___________________________ had descended across the continent of Europe – that there was a division between the Soviet satellites of Eastern Europe and the democracies of Western Europe.

Berlin Airlift

22. In 1947, the Greek government was in danger of being overthrown by Greek Communists. If Greece became a Soviet satellite, so might Turkey. President Truman asked Congress for $400 million in U.S. military aid for Greece and Turkey as part of his ___________________________ Doctrine.

Contain

23. With U.S. financial assistance, Greece and Turkey turned back the ___________________ threat. West Berlin

24. In 1947, Western Europe was still in desperate economic shape as a result of war. Communist parties in France and Italy won large numbers of supporters. Truman’s secretary of state George Marshall proposed an ambitious program of foreign aid to _________________________ the rising tide of communism.

Truman Doctrine

25. The Marshall Plan helped bring about European _____________________. By 1951, Communists had little hope of controlling France or Italy, although they remained strong in both countries.

(NATO)

26. In 1948, the Soviets announced that they were closing the land routes to West Berlin, the part of the city under British, French, and American control. Truman announced that the U.S. would not abandon West Berlin. He ordered the ________________________________.

Warsaw Pact

27. In 1949, the Soviets ended their ineffectual blockade of _____________________________ thanks Berlin Wall

to the Berlin airlift. 28. For the first time in its history, the United States joined a military alliance in peacetime. The ___________________________ was created to discourage Soviet aggression and thus avoid war.

Recovery

29. In response to NATO, the Soviet Union formed the _________________________ with its Eastern European satellites.

Iron Curtain

30. By 1961, the prosperity and political freedom of West Germany was embarrassing the Soviet Union. Large numbers of East Germans were leaving East Germany and East Berlin to enjoy a better life in West Germany. In August 1961, the Soviets and East Germans erected a wall of concrete and barbed wire between East Berlin and West Berlin. It was known as the _________________________.

Communist

Sputnik: The Soviet launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite, in 1957 The spacecraft was named Sputnik after the Russian word for satellite Many Americans were worried about the Soviets’ new rocket and satellite technology Sputnik was some 10 times the size of the first planned U.S. satellite, which was not scheduled to be

launched until the next year The U.S. government, military, and scientific community were caught off guard by the Soviet

technological achievement, and their united efforts to catch up with the Soviets heralded the beginning of the “space race”

The first U.S. satellite, Explorer, was launched on January 31, 1958 By then, the Soviets had already achieved another victory when they launched a dog into orbit

aboard Sputnik 2 The Soviet space program went on to achieve a series of other space firsts in the late 1950s and

early 1960s: first man in space, first woman, first three men, first spacewalk, first spacecraft to impact the moon, first to orbit the moon, first to impact Venus, and first craft to soft-land on the moon

However, the United States took a giant leap ahead in the space race in the late ‘60s with the Apollo lunar-landing program, which successfully landed two Apollo 11 astronauts on the surface of the moon in July 1969

Francis Gary Powers: An American pilot  Captured during the Cold War (in

1960) while on a reconnaissance flight deep inside the Soviet Union

The capture, known as the U-2 Affair, resulted in the cancellation by the Soviet Union of a conference with the United States, Great Britain, and France

After serving two years in prison, the Soviets exchanged Powers for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel

Brinkmanship: A foreign policy practice in which one or both parties force their interaction to the threshold of

confrontation in order to gain an advantageous negotiation position over the other The technique is characterized by aggressive risk-taking policy choices that court potential disaster

“…We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too. . . .” ~President John F. Kennedy, speech at Rice University, September 12, 1962

31. The main purpose of this speech was to win public support forA. Establishing a missile defense system on the MoonB. Cooperating with communist countries in exploring spaceC. Surpassing the Soviet Union in the space raceD. Controlling the spread of nuclear weapons

The origin of the word comes from a 1956 Life magazine interview with former U.S. secretary of state John Foster Dulles, in which he claimed that, in diplomacy, “if you are scared to go to the brink [of war], you are lost.”

The Hydrogen Bomb: On November 1, 1952, the United States conducted its first nuclear test of a

fusion device, or “hydrogen bomb,” at Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands After the Soviets successfully detonated an atomic bomb in 1949, President

Harry S. Truman ordered the creation of a hydrogen bomb project In this type of bomb, deuterium and tritium (hydrogen isotopes) are fused into

helium, thereby releasing energy There is no limit on the yield of this weapon Men like J. Robert Oppenheimer, Enrico Fermi, and I.I. Rabi opposed its

development Fermi and Rabi wrote, “Since no limit exists to the destructiveness of this

weapon, its existence and knowledge of its construction is a danger to humanity as a whole.”

The Domino Theory: U.S. foreign policy theory during the Cold War Stated that if one country in a region fell to communism, then

the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect The domino effect states that change in one nation will cause a

similar change in neighboring nations like a row of falling dominoes 

The domino theory was used to explain the need for American intervention in other nations during the Cold War

The Eisenhower Doctrine: U.S. foreign-policy doctrine promulgated by

President Dwight D. Eisenhower Promised military or economic aid to any Middle

Eastern country in need of help resisting communist aggression

The doctrine was intended to check increased Soviet influence in the Middle East

Eisenhower proclaimed, with the approval of Congress, that he would use the armed forces to protect the independence of any Middle Eastern country seeking American help

The Eisenhower Doctrine represented no radical change in U.S. policy; the Truman Doctrine had pledged similar support to Greece and Turkey 10 years earlier

It was a continuation of the U.S. policy of containment of or resistance to any extension of the Soviet sphere of influence

The Suez Crisis: In 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser announced the

nationalization of the Suez Canal Company, the joint British-French enterprise which had owned and operated the Suez Canal since its construction in 1869

“The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art. If you cannot master it, you inevitably get into war. If you try to run away from it, if you are scared to go to the brink, you are lost.” ~ John Foster Dulles

32. Which development is most closely associated with the belief in the domino theory?A. military involvement in

Vietnam B. construction of the Berlin Wall C. signing of the nuclear test ban

treaty D. end of the Korean War

33. The Eisenhower-promoted public works project that was far larger and more expensive than anything in Roosevelt's New Deal wasa. the interstate highway systemb. the Grand Coulee dam project.c. the St. Lawrence seaway.d. the airport construction program.

34. The Suez crisis marked the last time in history that the United States coulda. use the threat of nuclear war to win concessions.b. criticize Israel's foreign policy.c. condemn its allies for their actions in the Middle East.

To nationalize is the process of a government taking control of a company  The British and French were outraged by the nationalization but the Egyptian leader resented what

he saw as European efforts to perpetuate colonial domination The U.S., concerned about dissociating the United States from European colonialism – especially in

light of its condemnation of Soviet intervention in Hungary the same year – as well as the possibility that the Soviets would intervene to assist Nasser, pressured Britain and France to accept the nationalization process

The Military Industrial Complex: In 1961, President Dwight Eisenhower gave the

nation a warning about what he believed was a threat to democracy – the military-industrial complex

The military-industrial complex was a uniting of defense contractors and the armed forces

Eisenhower was worried about the costs of an arms race with the Soviet Union, and the resources it would take from other areas – such as building hospitals and schools

World War II and the ensuing Cold War had resulted in the development of a large and powerful defense establishment

Necessary though it might be, Eisenhower warned that this new military-industrial complex could weaken or destroy the very institutions and

principles it was designed to protect

The Korean War: After World War II, Korea had been

divided into two zones: a communist North Korea and a non-Communist South Korea

In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea in an attempt to unify the Communists

President Truman ordered U.S. forces to South Korea to resist the invasion

When the Soviet Union boycotted the United Nations, the United States was able to pass a resolution authorizing the operation of U.N. troops in South Korea

Truman sent General Douglas MacArthur to Korea to command U.N. forces

MacArthur landed his forces at Inchon and then attacked North Korea, bringing the Chinese army into the war

MacArthur wanted to recapture China from the Communists When Truman refused, MacArthur publicly criticized the President Truman fired MacArthur, successfully asserting civilian control over

the military In 1952, Dwight Eisenhower was elected President after pledging to end the war An armistice was signed that left Korea, with minor border adjustments, divided as it had been

before the war

“These things stress the immense importance of the Middle East. If the nations of that area should lose their independence, if they were dominated by alien forces hostile to freedom, that would be both a tragedy for the area and for many other free nations whose economic life would be subject to near strangulation. Western Europe would be endangered just as though there had been no Marshall Plan, no North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The free nations of Asia and Africa, too, would be placed in serious jeopardy. And the countries of the Middle East would lose the markets upon which their economies depend. All this would have the most adverse, if not disastrous, effect upon our own nation’s economic life and political prospects.” ~ President Dwight D. Eisenhower

“I fired him because he wouldn’t respect the authority of the President. That’s the answer to that. I didn’t fire him because he was a dumb…although he was, but that’s not against the laws for generals.” ~ President Truman

36. The major reason the United States became involved in the Korean War was theA. threat of communism spreading throughout AsiaB. need to prevent war between China and the Soviet UnionC. demand by the United States for Korean natural resourcesD. desire to limit Japanese expansion

35. What was a major outcome of the Korean War (1950–1953)?A. Korea continued to be a divided nation.B. North Korea became an ally of the United States.C. South Korea became a communist nation.D. Control of Korea was turned over to the United Nations

34. The Suez crisis marked the last time in history that the United States coulda. use the threat of nuclear war to win concessions.b. criticize Israel's foreign policy.c. condemn its allies for their actions in the Middle East.

The Election of 1960: The 1960 election campaign

was dominated by rising Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union

It was one of the closest elections in American history.

The Republican candidate was Richard Nixon of California, experienced as the nation’s Vice-President for eight years under Dwight Eisenhower

The Democratic newcomer was John F. Kennedy, a senator from Massachusetts, who at the age of 43 could become the youngest person ever to be elected President

It was the first election where television played a significant role

Coming into the first televised Presidential debate, John F. Kennedy had spent time relaxing in Florida while Richard Nixon maintained a hectic campaign schedule As a result, Kennedy appeared tan and relaxed during the debate while Nixon seemed a bit worn down

Radio listeners proclaimed Nixon the better debater, while those who watched on television made Kennedy their choice

The New Frontier: In 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected President During his campaign, Kennedy had stated that America was “on

the edge of a New Frontier” In his inaugural speech, Kennedy spoke of “a new generation of

Americans” and during his presidency he seemed to be taking government in a new direction

As part of his New Frontier, Kennedy proposed a tax cut to stimulate the economy, the creation of Medicare, civil rights legislation, and increased aid to education

However, only the tax cut was passed by Congress

The Peace Corps: Kennedy’s idealism and goals for America were illustrated in his

inaugural address and in his establishment of the Peace Corps The Peace Corps enrolled young Americans to work as volunteers

on projects in undeveloped countries to aid the people, not the government, of those countries

In 1961, Kennedy issued an executive order establishing the Peace Corps

The Peace Corps proved to be one of the most innovative and highly publicized Cold War programs set up by the United States

During the 1960s and 1970s, thousands of Americans served in dozens of nations in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East

37. A valid generalization about presidential elections since 1960 is thatA. campaign finance laws have reduced spending by candidatesB. most of the winning candidates have come from New EnglandC. more than 90 percent of eligible voters have participated in each electionD. candidates have used new forms of mass media to reach voters

. . . . My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. . . .”~ John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961

39. To implement the idea expressed in this statement, President Kennedy supported the A. creation of the Marshall Plan B. formation of the Peace Corps C. removal of United States

troops from Korea D. establishment of the South East

Asia Treaty Organization

40. One way in which President John F. Kennedy’s Peace Corps and President Lyndon Johnson’s Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) are similar is that both programs attempted toA. increase domestic securityB. support United States troops

fighting overseasC. improve the quality of people’s

lives

“. . . Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”

38. Which conclusion is best supported by this quotation from the Inaugural Address of President John F. Kennedy in 1961?A. The Cold War was over, and the Soviet Union was beginning to unravel. B. President Kennedy was encouraging a very strong presence in foreign policy in the post-World War II period. C. Compromise and appeasement were the best avenues to world peace. D. There was an immediate need for a Peace Corps

Working side by side with the people of these nations, Peace Corps volunteers helped build sewer and water systems; constructed and taught in schools; assisted in developing new crops and agricultural methods to increase productivity; and participated in numerous other projects

The program was judged a success in terms of helping to "win the hearts and minds" of people in the underdeveloped world

The Alliance for Progress: 1961 President John F. Kennedy proposed a 10-year, multibillion-dollar aid program for Latin America The president stressed the need for improved literacy, land use, industrial productivity, health, and

education in Latin America Objectives stated in the charter centered on the maintenance of democratic government and the

achievement of economic and social development Its success was marginal American congressmen were reluctant to provide funds for land redistribution programs and Latin

American elites directed most of the funds into projects that enriched themselves but did little to help the vast majority of their people

41. During the 1920s and 1930s, a Communist army led by ____________________________ fought against China’s government army led by Chiang Kai-shek, head of the Nationalist party. The fighting ceased when Japan attacked China during WWII but continued after the war ended.

United Nations

42. The United States gave economic and military aid to the Nationalists, and the _____________ did likewise for Mao’s Communist forces. Mao attracted peasant recruits by the millions. Chiang Kai-shek and his Nationalists were defeated in 1949 and fled to the coastal island of Taiwan.

Dividing

43. Through the 1960s, the United States recognized only Chiang’s Nationalist government. In the same period, the Nationalists continued to represent China in the __________________________, despite attempts by the Soviet Union to unseat them in favor of Mao’s Communists.

Containment

44. At the end of World War II, the Japanese fled from Korea as Soviets arrived from the north and Americans from the south. These two forces agreed on the 38th parallel of latitude as a temporary __________________________________ line between their zones of occupation.

Veto

45. After the ___________________ began, the 38th parallel became a permanent border between North Korea with its Soviet-backed government and South Korea with its U.S. backed government.

Soviet Union

46. In 1950, a __________________________________ army marched into South Korea. Cold War

47. President Truman followed the U.S. policy of ___________________________ by ordering U.S. troops into South Korea and calling on the U.N. to defend its government.

Mao Zedong

48. The Soviet Union had temporarily withdrawn its representative from the UN and thus lost its ____________________________ power in the Security Council.

North Korean

49. Truman used his power as commander in chief to conduct an undeclared war in Korea; he called it a ____________________________________.

Truce

50. There was a stalemate near the 38th parallel and a ____________________________ was established. The 38th parallel was established as the line between North and South Korea. While Eisenhower ended the war, Truman’s goal was to save South Korea from Communist control – his goal was containment.

Police Action

The Bay of Pigs Invasion:

“And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country.” ~ President John F. Kennedy

51. Both the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba (1961) and the invasion of Panama (1989) are examples of United States attempts toA. eliminate unfriendly governments

. . . . My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. . . .”~ John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961

39. To implement the idea expressed in this statement, President Kennedy supported the A. creation of the Marshall Plan B. formation of the Peace Corps C. removal of United States

troops from Korea D. establishment of the South East

Asia Treaty Organization

40. One way in which President John F. Kennedy’s Peace Corps and President Lyndon Johnson’s Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) are similar is that both programs attempted toA. increase domestic securityB. support United States troops

fighting overseasC. improve the quality of people’s

lives

In 1959, a communist revolution occurred in Cuba which brought Fidel Castro to power

As Castro began to nationalize land and industry (government ownership of property), many Cubans left the island nation and immigrated to the United States Cuban exiles in the United States

longed to return to Cuba and overthrow the Castro regime Some Cuban exiles were trained in the United States for an invasion of the island In 1961, these trained Cuban exiles invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs While the United States tacitly (without stating it) supported the invasion, President Kennedy feared

Soviet involvement and thus, refused to give the exiles air support The Cuban exiles were defeated by Castro’s army This was a major foreign policy failure for the Kennedy AdministrationThe Cuban Missile Crisis:

In

1962, the United States discovered that Cuba was secretly trying to build bases for Soviet nuclear missiles

Kennedy imposed a naval blockade on Cuba and threatened to invade if the missiles were not withdrawn

For several days the world stood on the brink of nuclear war Soviet leader Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles for a pledge that the

United States would not invade Cuba

The Cuban Missile Crisis was a major foreign policy success for the Kennedy Administration

The Assassination of John F. Kennedy: Tragically, on a political campaign trip to Dallas, Texas, Kennedy was assassinated on November 22,

1963 Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested as the suspect but was shot and killed by Jack Ruby while being

transferred from jail

One product Cuba is known for is the Cuban cigar. Notice how in this political cartoon the Cuban cigar explodes on Kennedy! The Bay of Pigs invasion was a foreign policy failure for the Kennedy Administration.

The “dentist” in the political cartoon is Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The “patient” is Fidel Castro, the leader of communist Cuba. The “dentist” is removing the “patient’s” teeth but the teeth are actually missiles. The “dentist” says, “This hurts me more than it hurts you!”

51. Both the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba (1961) and the invasion of Panama (1989) are examples of United States attempts toA. eliminate unfriendly governments

“Batista Driven from Power” “Bay of Pigs Invasion Fails” “U-2 Planes Reveal Soviet Missiles” 53. These headlines refer to the relationship between the United States and A. Canada B. Cuba C. Mexico D. Panama

54. The Cuban missile crisis was effectively ended when theA. Soviet Union agreed to withdraw weapons from CubaB. Bay of Pigs invasion removed Fidel Castro from powerC. Cuban authorities signed new trade agreements with the

United StatesD. United States announced the formation of the Alliance for

Progress

55. The Cuban missile crisis (1962) influenced President John F. Kennedy’s decision toA. Negotiate the limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the

Soviet UnionB. Reduce the nation’s commitment to the North Atlantic

Treaty Organization (NATO)C. Forbid Americans to trade with and travel to Latin AmericaD. Send Peace Corps volunteers to aid developing countries

The events of the assassination traumatized the nation and plunged it into a period of grief and mourning

The Great Society: President Lyndon Baines Johnson’s vision for America An America in which there was an end to poverty, equality,

improved education, rejuvenated cities, and protection for the environment

This became the blueprint for the most far-reaching agenda of domestic legislation since the New Deal – legislation that has had a profound effect on American society 

The War on Poverty: President Johnson also signed the Economic

Opportunity Act of 1964- The law created the Office of Economic Opportunity

aimed at attacking the roots of American poverty- A Job Corps was established to provide valuable

vocational training- Head Start, a preschool program designed to help

disadvantaged students arrive at kindergarten ready to learn, was put into place

- The Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) was set up as a domestic Peace Corps- Federal funds were sent to struggling communities to attack unemployment and illiteracy

Medicare: In 1965, the passage of the Social Security Act Amendments, popularly known as Medicare, resulted

in a basic program of hospital insurance for persons aged 65 and older, and a supplementary medical insurance program to aid the elderly in paying doctor bills and other health care bills

It was funded by a tax on the earnings of employees, matched by contributions by employers, and was well received

It was signed into law by President Lyndon Baines Johnson

58. In 1960, _______, at the age of 43, became the youngest U.S. president elected to office. He was also the first Roman Catholic to hold office. His most memorable phrase was “Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.”

Great Society

59. John F. Kennedy called his reform program the ______. It included proposals for federal aid to education, greater Social Security benefits, assistance to Appalachia, protection of African American civil rights, and public health insurance for the elderly.

Assassinated

60. On March 1, 1961, President Kennedy signed an executive order establishing the ________. The goals of this organization included sending U.S. volunteers to nations around the world to help with public projects and to promote a better understanding of Americans in the world.

Lyndon Johnson

61. In late November, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy traveled to Dallas, Texas. While riding through the city in an open car, the president was _______.

Medicare

62. Kennedy’s vice president and successor was ______. He pushed through Congress more important legislation than any president since Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1964, he announced an “unconditional” War on Poverty.

New Frontier

57. In 1965, Congress established Medicare toA. provide health care to the elderly B. assist foreign nations with their health

problems C. grant scholarships to medical students D. establish universal health care

56. The Great Society of Lyndon Johnson is most similar to which other Presidential program?A. Warren Harding’s Return to

Normalcy B. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New

Deal C. Ronald Reagan’s New

Federalism D. George Bush’s Thousand

Points of Light “This administration today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America. I urge this Congress and all Americans to join with me in that effort.” ~ President Lyndon Baines Johnson

63. Lyndon Johnson proposed a far-reaching reform program, which he called the ______. It aimed to succeed where the states had failed – in fighting poverty, hunger, and racial justice.

Peace Corps

64. To help senior citizens pay for hospital care, doctor care, and other medical needs, the _____ Act was created. It established a public health insurance program as part of the Social Security system. Persons over 65 now were insured for a large part of health care costs.

John F. Kennedy

65. States also received federal grants, known as _____, to pay medical bills of the needy. Thurgood Marshall

66. In 1967, Johnson appointed _______ to the Supreme Court, the first African American to serve there.

Medicaid

The Vietnam War: Vietnam was once a French colony in Indochina In 1954, the Vietnamese defeated the French At the Geneva Conference that followed, Vietnam was divided

into two nations: A communist North Vietnam and a non-communist South Vietnam

The country was to be reunited after elections were held in 1956 However, South Vietnamese leaders later refused to hold the

elections because they feared elections in the North would not be free.

South Vietnamese Communists (Vietcong), with North Vietnamese support, began a guerrilla war against the government of South Vietnam to reunify the nation under the communist leadership in North Vietnam

Kennedy, responding to requests from the South Vietnamese government for help, sent aid and 16,000 military advisers to train the Vietnamese army to fight the Vietcong

U.S. leaders believed in the domino theory: they thought if South Vietnam fell to Communism, other Southeast Asian countries might also fall, like a row of dominos

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: In 1964, President Johnson announced that the

North Vietnamese had attacked U.S. ships in the Gulf of Tonkin

Congress gave the President power to stop this aggression not declare war

Johnson used the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to escalate the war, ordering massive bombing raids of North Vietnam

(1) War Powers Act of 1973 limit the president’s ability to send troops into combat abroad

Lyndon Baines Johnson also sent more combat troops to South Vietnam

67. A constitutional issue that was frequently raised about United States involvement in the Korean conflict and the Vietnam conflict was theA. right to regulate commerce with

foreign nations B. use of deficit spending to finance

wars C. lack of a formal declaration of

war by Congress D. Supreme Court’s role in foreign

policy decision-making

68. The United States experience in the Vietnam War supports the idea that the outcome of a warA. is determined mainly by technological superiority B. is dependent on using the greatest number of soldiers C. is assured to countries dedicated to democratic ideals D. can be strongly affected by public opinion

“…With America’s sons in the fields far away, with America’s future under challenge right here at home, with our hopes and the world’s hopes for peace in the balance every day, I do not believe that I should devote an hour or a day of my time to any personal partisan causes or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office—the Presidency of your country.

Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President…” ~ President Lyndon B. Johnson, March 31, 1968

69. The decision announced in this speech was based primarily on the

A. Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.B. Growing violence in urban AmericaC. Outbreak of terrorist attacks around the worldD. Involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War

Yet despite the large American force, the Vietcong launched the Tet Offensive in South Vietnam in 1968, seizing many cities

This convinced Americans that victory was far off

The war grew increasingly unpopular, and opponents held anti-war rallies

The Vietcong: Vietnamese Communists The military branch of the

National Liberation Front (NLF) Commanded by the Central Office for South

Vietnam which was located near the Cambodian border

For arms, ammunition and special equipment, the Vietcong depended on the Ho Chi Minh trail

Other needs were met inside South Vietnam 

Presidency of Richard Nixon: Nixon was President from 1969 to 1974 Believed that federal social programs were often inefficient, and that most social problems were best

dealt with at the local level Under his policy of New Federalism, Nixon reversed the trend of increasing federal control by turning

over some federal tax revenues to state governments Nixon believed the President’s major role was to direct the country’s foreign policy Ever since the Communist Revolution in China in 1949, U.S. leaders had refused to establish diplomatic

relations with the Chinese Instead, they treated the Nationalist Chinese government on Taiwan as the official government of China Nixon finally visited mainland China and

restored diplomatic relations with the Chinese Nixon also introduced Détente – a relaxing of

tensions – with the Soviet Union In 1972, Nixon visited Moscow and singed the

SALT I Accord, which limited the development of certain types of missile systems

Nixon also used a policy of “Vietnamization” in the Vietnam War, turning over the responsibility of fighting the war to the South Vietnamese

War Powers Act: Law passed by the U.S. Congress on November 7, 1973, over the veto of President Richard Nixon

72. A constitutional issue that was frequently raised about United States involvement in the Korean conflict and the Vietnam conflict was theA. right to regulate commerce with foreign nations B. use of deficit spending to finance wars C. lack of a formal declaration of war by Congress D. Supreme Court’s role in foreign policy decision-

making

70. The main purpose of the War Powers Act of 1973 was toA. expand the power of Congress to declare war B. limit the president’s ability to send troops into combat abroad C. allow people to vote on the issue of United States commitments overseas D. end the Vietnam War on favorable terms

71. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) provided congressional support forA. withdrawing from the United NationsB. expanding the Alliance for ProgressC. escalating military action in VietnamD. reestablishing trade with Cuba

73. President Richard Nixon’s visit to the People’s Republic of China in 1972 was significant because itA. convinced the Chinese to abandon communism B. brought about the unification of Taiwan and

Communist China C. reduced tensions between the United States and

Communist China D. decreased United States dependence on Chinese

exports

“Television brought the brutality of war into the comfort of the living room. Vietnam was lost in the living rooms of America -- not on the battlefields of Vietnam.” ~ Marshall McLuhan

The act sought to restrain the president’s ability to commit U.S. forces overseas by requiring the executive branch to consult with and report to Congress before involving U.S. forces in foreign hostilities

Widely considered a measure for preventing “future Vietnams,” it was nonetheless generally resisted or ignored by subsequent presidents, many of whom regarded it as an unconstitutional usurpation of their executive authority

Watergate: On June 17, 1972, during

the presidential campaign, five men were caught after breaking into the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex in Washington

On June 22, Nixon said his administration was in no way involved in the Watergate break-in

Thus began the Watergate scandal and cover-up

It would unwind slowly over the next two years and culminated in the resignation of President Nixon

In spite of his brilliant moves in foreign policy, Nixon did not trust either the American people or his own abilities to appeal to them

He resorted to underhanded and illegal measures (like the Watergate break-in), apparently convinced they were the only way to protect the nation from those he perceived as radicals and un-American – the student protesters, the civil rights leaders, the hippies, and those not part of the “silent majority”

Nixon even had an “enemies” list – a classic example of dividing the world into us and them

The Counterculture: In the 1960s, the baby boom (a marked rise in birthrate in the United States immediately following

the end of World War II) entered its teen years and represented a larger force of young people than any prior generation in the history of the United States

As more and more children of middle-class Americans entered college, many rejected the suburban conformity designed by their parents

“The Founding Fathers understood the impossibility of foreseeing every contingency that might arise in this complex area. They acknowledged the need for flexibility in responding to changing circumstances.” ~ President Nixon’s explanation of his veto of the War Powers Act

“Early on June 17, 1972, police apprehended five burglars at the office of the DNC in the Watergate complex. Four of them formerly had been active in Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities against Fidel Castro in Cuba…The arrest was reported in the next morning’s Washington Post in an article written by Alfred E. Lewis, Carl Bernstein, and Bob Woodward…Presidential Press Secretary Ron Ziegler responded that the president would have no comment on a “third-rate burglary attempt”…In July 16,  Alexander P. Butterfield, formerly of the White House staff, disclosed that all conversations in the president’s offices had secretly been recorded on tape.” ~ Britannica

74. What was a lasting effect of the Watergate scandal under President Richard Nixon?A. The system of checks and

balances was weakened. B. The scope of executive

privilege was broadened. C. Trust in elected officials was

undermined. D. Presidential responsiveness to

public opinion was lessened.

75. The principle most weakened as a result of Watergate was

A. due processB. executive privilegeC. judicial reviewD. states’ rights

Long‐held values and norms of behavior seemed to break down, particularly among the young Many college‐age men and women became political activists and active in the civil rights and antiwar

movements Other young people simply “dropped out” and separated themselves from mainstream culture

through their appearance and lifestyle Attitudes toward sexuality appeared to loosen, and women began to openly protest the traditional

roles of housewife and mother that society had assigned to them

The Hippies: During the 1960s, some individuals rejected mainstream

American life The name derived from “hip,” a term applied to the Beats of

the 1950s, such as Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac – the precursors of hippies

Hippies felt alienated from middle-class society and its materialism and repression

They favored long hair and casual dress; men grew beards; hippies wore beads

Took up communal or cooperative living and adopted vegetarian diets

Tended to be dropouts from society, forgoing regular jobs and careers, although some developed small businesses that catered to other hippies

Hippies advocated nonviolence and love, a popular phrase being “Make love, not war,” for which they were sometimes called “flower children”

The Anti-War Movement: Many youths focused on American involvement in Vietnam By 1968, millions of young people were actively protesting the

war Protests continued until the United States withdrew from the

war in 1973The Vietnam War also brought about an amendment (the twenty-sixth amendment) lowering the voting age, since eighteen-year olds were being drafted to fight but could not even vote

Kent State: In 1970, President Nixon appeared on television to announce the

U.S. invasion of Cambodia and the need to draft 150,000 more soldiers for the war in Vietnam

This provoked massive anti-war protests on college campuses throughout the U.S.

At Kent State University in Ohio, protesters launched a demonstration that included setting fire to the ROTC building, prompting the governor of Ohio to dispatch 900 National Guardsmen to the campus

During the protests, twenty-eight guardsmen opened fire on a crowd, killing four students and wounding nine

Vietnamization: During Nixon’s term Under his “Vietnamization”

policy, the South Vietnamese army gradually took over the brunt of fighting, allowing U.S. forces to gradually withdraw

“If everyone demanded peace instead of another television set, then there would be peace.”~ John Lennon

77. “I think it will be a safer world and a better world if we have a strong, healthy United States, Europe, Soviet Union, China, Japan, each balancing the other, not playing one against the other, an even balance.”~ Richard Nixon, 1972 President Nixon put this idea into practice by

A. expanding economic relations with communist nations

76. The ratification of the 26th amendment, which lowered the voting age to 18, was a result of theA. participation of the

United States in the Vietnam War

B. fear of McCarthyism C. reaction to the launching

of Sputnik by the Soviet Union

D. reporting of the Watergate scandal

“Vietnamization” was the process of transferring war responsibilities from the Americans to the South Vietnamese during the Vietnam War

In 1973, Nixon’s negotiators in Paris worked out a cease-fire agreement with the North Vietnamese After the U.S. withdrew, fighting continued South Vietnam fell to Communist forces in 1975, and Vietnam was reunited under Communist rule

78. Vietnam had been ____________________________ into a Communist north and a non-Communist south during the early years of the Cold War. When a civil war broke out, Eisenhower sent U.S. military advisers to help train South Vietnamese soldiers.

Kent State University

79. When Kennedy became president in 1961, he continued to support _________________________ Vietnam. Hoping to prevent a Communist takeover, he increased the number of U.S. military advisers from 2,000 in 1961 to 16,000 in 1963.

Drafted

80. In 1964, President Johnson concluded that South Vietnam’s government was in danger of losing control of the country to the _______________________ - South Vietnamese Communist guerrillas who had strong support from the North Vietnamese government. Johnson believed that the use of U.S. troops would stop the spread of communism in South Vietnam and the rest of Southeast Asia.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

81. In August 1964, two U.S. ships reported that they had been attacked by North Vietnamese gunboats in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam. Johnson asked Congress for a resolution increasing military aid to South Vietnam. Congress approved the ___________________.

Hawks

82. As more young Americans were ____________________________ and sent to fight in Vietnam, many college students questioned Johnson’s war policy.

Divided

83. By 1966, the nation was sharply divided between “doves” (those who opposed the war) and _______________________________ (those favoring greater use of military power in Vietnam).

Vietcong

84. President Nixon announced that U.S. troops would gradually be withdrawn from Vietnam while South Vietnamese troops were trained to carry on the war by themselves. Nixon called this strategy ______________________________________.

South

85. In 1970, news of the bombing of Cambodia led to protests on many college campuses. At _____________________________ in Ohio, four students were killed and several wounded when the National Guard opened fire to break up a peaceful demonstration.

Cease-Fire

86. In 1973, the United States and North Vietnam agreed to a ______________________________. Communism

87. In 1975, South Vietnam fell to _______________________________ and Vietnam was reunited. Vietnamization

88. President Nixon pursued a foreign policy known as __________________________ (a French word meaning “relax”) with the Soviet Union. It aimed at reducing U.S.-Soviet tensions.

War Powers Act

89. Many members of Congress regretted the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. To limit the president’s power, Congress, in 1973, passed the _________________________________________.

Approval

90. The War Powers Act had the following provisions: within 48 hours of sending troops into combat, the president must inform Congress of the reasons for the action and if troops fight for more than 90 days, the president must obtain Congress’ ______________________________ for continued fighting.

Détente

91. A major goal of détente was to limit the production of ____________________________. The term, détente, means a relaxation of tensions.

Nuclear Weapons

77. “I think it will be a safer world and a better world if we have a strong, healthy United States, Europe, Soviet Union, China, Japan, each balancing the other, not playing one against the other, an even balance.”~ Richard Nixon, 1972 President Nixon put this idea into practice by

A. expanding economic relations with communist nations

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to support a Communist

government that did not have the full support of the Afghani people With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the period of Détente ended The United States secretly provided economic and military assistance to

the mujahidin, the anti-Communist, pro-Islamic forces in Afghanistan

The Nixon Doctrine: The Nixon Doctrine clearly indicated Nixon’s determination to Vietnamization The Nixon Doctrine marked the formal announcement of the president’s “Vietnamization” plan,

whereby American troops slowly withdraw from Vietnam and be replaced by South Vietnamese troopsThe policy declared by President Nixon in 1969 that the U.S. would supply arms but not military forces to its allies in Asia and elsewhere

Détente: Détente was a relaxation of

tensions during the Cold War After the Vietnam War and with

the proliferation of nuclear weapons, the United States and the Communist powers of the Soviet Union and China sought to reduce tensions during the Cold War

However, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 ended the period of Détente

Mikhail Gorbachev and the Collapse of the Soviet Union: The Cold War ended with the collapse of the Soviet

Union in 1991 The last Communist leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail

Gorbachev, had introduced reforms that ultimately led to the collapse of communism and democratic elections

Gorbachev’s policies of Glasnost (“Openness”) or allowing freedom of speech and press as well as Perestroika (“Restructuring”) or allowing some elements of free market capitalism encouraged Soviets to demand more freedoms

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, Americans entered a new period in history

“The defense of freedom is everybody’s business not just America’s business.

And it is particularly the responsibility of the people whose freedom is threatened.

In the previous administration, we Americanized the war in Vietnam. In this administration, we are Vietnamizing the search for peace.” ~ President Richard M. Nixon

92. From the end of World War II until the 1980’s, the United States carried out its foreign policy mainly byA. giving in to foreign

demands B. avoiding any situation that

might involve the nation in a conflict

C. acting forcefully to obtain and control colonies

D. taking a variety of actions to prevent the spread of communism

93. President Richard Nixon supported the policy of détente as a way to(1) reduce tensions between the United

States and the Soviet Union (2) introduce democratic elections to

communist nations (3) encourage satellite nations to break

their ties with the Soviet Union (4) undermine Soviet influence among

nonaligned countries in Africa and Asia

94. Before WWII, the British controlled Palestine. As Nazi persecution increased, Jewish emigration to Palestine increased. In 1948, the UN General Assembly voted to divide Palestine into a Jewish state of _______________________ and a Palestinian state for Arabs.

Communism

95. The United States and the Soviet Union recognized these new nations, but _____________________________ nations of the Middle East denied Israel’s right to exist.

Influence

96. President Eisenhower stated in 1957 that the United States would send troops to any Middle Eastern nation that requested help against ___________________________________ in his Eisenhower Doctrine.

Bay of Pigs

97. Before the Cold War in 1933, Franklin Roosevelt announced his ________________________. He pledged that in the future the USA would avoid intervening in the internal affairs of Latin America.

Invasion

98. In 1959, the policy of containment suffered a setback when a Cuban revolutionary named ______________________ overthrew the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista.

Israel

99. The new Communist dictator of Cuba seized American-owned properties in Cuba and established a Communist regime like that of the Soviet Union. Cuba – a nation only 90 miles from U.S. shores – had fallen under Soviet ______________________________________

Good Neighbor Policy

100. When John Kennedy became president in 1961, he supported a plan, drawn up by the Eisenhower administration, for the _____________________________ of Cuba by Cuban exiles but rejected the use of U.S. air power.

Nuclear

101. The invasion of Cuba was launched in April, 1961, in an area known as the _______________________ but was a complete failure. The poorly planned invasion was a great embarrassment for Kennedy.

Cuban Missile Crisis

102. On October 1962, U.S. spy planes photographed Soviet missiles with ________________________ warheads in Cuba; they posed a direct threat to the neighboring U.S. mainland.

Arab

103. Kennedy considered an air strike against Cuba but decided to send U.S. Navy ships to intercept Soviet ships that might be carrying missiles. Fortunately, Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, agreed to turn around the missile-carrying ships and to dismantle the missiles installed in Cuba. The _____________________________ was considered a great success for President Kennedy.

Fidel Castro

104. The ______________________________ (the accumulation of all budget deficits stemming from debts owed to purchases of government bonds) jumped to a record figure, and inflation increased during and after the Vietnam War.

Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT)

105. During Nixon’s first term, U.S. and Soviet diplomats held the __________________________. The result was an important breakthrough in the arms race – fixed limits on intercontinental, or long-range, ballistic missiles (ICBMS) and antiballistic, or defensive, missiles (ABMs).

Grain Deal

106. To ease a severe Soviet food shortage, Nixon offered (and Congress later approved) the sale to the Soviets of $750 million worth of U.S. wheat. This _________________________ pleased the Soviet Union and American farmers alike.

National Debt

107. During the 1960s, Mao’s Communist Chinese government began denouncing the Soviet Union. As China grew more and more suspicious of the Soviet Union, Nixon thought it was time to establish normal relations with the _______________________________ (the official name of Communist China).

China

108. President Nixon visited ___________________ in 1972. This trip brought about a major shift in U.S. policy – a lessening of support for anti-Communist Nationalist China on the island of Taiwan.

Formally

109. Although China and the United States soon exchanged performing troupes and athletic teams, they did not exchange ambassadors until 1979, when the United States ______________________________ recognized the People’s Republic of China.

People’s Republic of

China

- 20 Topics you need to Review - Make 20 Index Cards from the topics on this review that you need to

study.

- These will count for a separate Quiz Grade.