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Contents Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 1..................2 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 2..................7 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 3.................13 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 4.................15 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 5.................22 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 6.................27 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 7.................29 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 8.................31 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 9.................35 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 11................41 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 12................44 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 13................46 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 14................48 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 15................52 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 16................53 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 17................57 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 18................58 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 19................59 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 20................60 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 21................61 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 22................63 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 23................65 Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 24................67

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ContentsBlack Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 1.....................................................................................2

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 2.....................................................................................7

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 3...................................................................................13

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 4...................................................................................15

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 5...................................................................................22

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 6...................................................................................27

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 7...................................................................................29

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 8...................................................................................31

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 9...................................................................................35

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 11.................................................................................41

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 12.................................................................................44

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 13.................................................................................46

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 14.................................................................................48

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 15.................................................................................52

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 16.................................................................................53

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 17.................................................................................57

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 18.................................................................................58

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 19.................................................................................59

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 20.................................................................................60

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 21.................................................................................61

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 22.................................................................................63

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 23.................................................................................65

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya Part No. 24.................................................................................67

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 1

Paragraph: 1  Verse: 1    atha varṇasamāmnāyaḥ //    Now the list of sounds. 

Verse: 2    atha navāditaḥ samānākṣarāṇi //    Now the nine at the beginning are simple vowels. 

Verse: 3    dvedve savarṇe hrasvadīrghe //    Two and two, short and long, are similar. 

Verse: 4    na plutapūrvam //    Not so, when a protracted vowel precedes. 

Verse: 5    ṣoḍaśāditaḥ svarāḥ //    The sixteen at the beginning are vowels. 

Verse: 6    śeṣo vyañjanāni //    The rest are consonants. 

Verse: 7    ādyāḥ pañcavimśati sparśāḥ //    The first twenty-five are mutes. 

Verse: 8    parāścatasro 'ntasthāḥ //    The next four are semivowels. 

Verse: 9    pare ṣaḍūṣmāṇaḥ //    The next six are spirants. 

Verse: 10    sparśānāmānupūrvyeṇa pañcapañca vargāḥ //    Of the mutes, the successive fives are the series. 

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Verse: 11    prathamadvitīyatrtīyacaturthottamāḥ //    And are called first, second, third, fourth, and last. 

Verse: 12    ūṣmavisarjanīyaprathamadvitīyā aghoṣāḥ //    The spirants, visarjanīya, and the first and second mutes, are surd. 

Verse: 13    na hakāraḥ //    But not h. 

Verse: 14    vyañjanaśeṣo ghoṣavān //    The rest of the consonants are sonant. 

Verse: 15    āprāvopābhyadhipratiparivinītyupasargāḥ //    ā, pra, ava, upa, abhi, adhi, prati, pari, vi, ni --- these are prepositions. 

Verse: 16    varṇaḥ kārottaro varṇākhyā //    A sound followed by kāra is the name of that sound. 

Verse: 17    akāravyaveto vyañjanānām //    But with an a interposed, in the case of the consonants. 

Verse: 18    na visarjanīyajihvāmūlīyopadhyāmīnānusvāranāsikyānām //    Not of visarjanīya, jihvāmūlīya, upadhmānīya, anusvāra, and the nāsikyas. 

Verse: 19    ephastu rasya //    Of r, however, repha forms the name. 

Verse: 20    hrasvo varṇottirastrayāṇām //    The short vowel, with varṇa after it, is the name of the three vowels. 

Verse: 21    akāro vyañjanānām //    An a forms the names of consonants. 

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Verse: 22    grahaṇasya //    As also, of a cited word. 

Verse: 23    aḥkāra āgamavikārilopinām //    aḥ makes the names of an increment, or of an element suffering alteration or elision. 

Verse: 24    grahaṇaṃ vā //    Or the simple citation. 

Verse: 25    āsannam saṃdehe //    In case of doubt, citation is made of the next. 

Verse: 26    anekasyāpi //    Even of more than one. 

Verse: 27    prathamo vargottaro vargākhyā //    A first mute, followed by the word "series," is the name of the series. 

Verse: 28    aṃ vikārasya //    am makes the name of a product of alteration. 

Verse: 29    pūrva iti pūrvaḥ //    By preceding is meant preceding. 

Verse: 30    para ityuttaraḥ //    By following is meant succeeding. 

Verse: 31    rkāralkārau hrasvau //    r and ḷ are short. 

Verse: 32    akāraśca //    Also a. 

Verse: 33    tena ca samānakālasvaraḥ // 

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   Also any vowel having the same quantity with the latter. 

Verse: 34    anusvāraśca //    Also anusvāra. 

Verse: 35    dvistāvāndīrghaḥ //    An element of twice that quantity is long. 

Verse: 36    triḥ plutaḥ //    An element of three times that quantity is protracted. 

Verse: 37    hrasvārdhakālaṃ vyañjanam //    A consonant has half the quantity of a short vowel. 

Verse: 38    uccairudāttaḥ //    A syllable uttered in a high tone is acute. 

Verse: 39    nīcairanudāttaḥ //    In a low tone, grave. 

Verse: 40    samāhāraḥ svaritaḥ //    Their combination is circumflex. 

Verse: 41    tasyādiruccaistarāmudāttādantare yāvadardham hrasvasya //    Of this circumflex, in case it immediately follows an acute, the first part, to the extent of half a short vowel, is uttered in a yet higher tone. 

Verse: 42    udāttasamaḥ śeṣaḥ //    The remainder has the same tone with acute. 

Verse: 43    savyañjano 'pi //    Along with the consonant, too. 

Verse: 44    anantaro vā nīcaistarām // 

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   Or the part following is uttered in a lower tone. 

Verse: 45    anudāttasamo vā //    Or in the same tone with grave. 

Verse: 46    ādirasyodāttasamaḥ śeṣo 'nudāttasama ityācāryāḥ //    Its beginning is the same with acute; its remainder is the same with grave: so say the teachers. 

Verse: 47    sarvaḥ pravaṇa ityeke //    It is all a slide, say some. 

Verse: 48    nānāpadavadiṃgyamasaṃkhyāne //    A separable word is treated like separate words, except in an enumeration. 

Verse: 49    tasya pūrvapadamavagrahaḥ //    Of such a word, the former member is called avagraha. 

Verse: 50    padagrahaṇeṣu padaṃ gamyeta //    In citations of a word, that word is to be understood. 

Verse: 51    api vikrtam //    But that word, even when phonetically altered. 

Verse: 52    apyakārādi //    And even when preceded by a. 

Verse: 53    ankārādi ca //    And when preceded by an. 

Verse: 54    ekavarṇaḥ padamaprktaḥ //    A single sound composing a word is called aprkta. 

Verse: 55    ādyantavacca // 

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   And is treated both as initial and as final. 

Verse: 56    varṇasya vikāralopau //    Alteration and omission are of a single sound. 

Verse: 57    vināśo lopaḥ //    Omission is complete loss. 

Verse: 58    anvādeśo 'ntyasya //    Continued implication is of that which was last. 

Verse: 59    upabandhastu deśāya nityam //    An upabandha, however, is for that particular passage, and of constant effect. 

Verse: 60    nānāpadīyaṃ ca nimittaṃ pragrahasrādiṣu //    Also a cause belonging to another word, in the case of a pragraha or of a word containing anusvāra. 

Verse: 61    yathoktaṃ punaruktaṃ tripadaprabhrti tripadaprabhrti //    A repeated passage, of three or more words, is as already established. 

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 2

aragraph: 2

Verse: 1 atha śabdotpattiḥ // Now for the origin of sound.

Verse: 2 vāyuśarīrasamīraṇātkaṇṭhorasoḥ saṃdhāne // By the setting in motion of air by the body, at the junction of throat an

d breast.

Verse: 3 tasya prātiśrutkāni bhavantyuraḥ kaṇṭhaḥ śiro mukhaṃ nāsike iti // The parts which give it audible quality are breast, throat, head, mout

h, and nostrils.

Verse: 4 saṃvrte kaṇṭhe nādaḥ kriyate // When the throat is closed, tone is produced.

Verse: 5 vivrte śvāsaḥ // When it is opened, breath is produced.

Verse: 6 madhye hakāraḥ // When in an intermediate condition, the h-sound is produced.

Verse: 7 tā varṇaprakrtayaḥ // Those are the materials of alphabetic sounds.

Verse: 8 nādo 'nupradanam svaraghoṣavatsu // In vowels and sonant consonants, the emission is sound.

Verse: 9 hakāro hacaturtheṣu // In h and in sonant aspirate mutes, it is h-sound.

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Verse: 10 aghoṣeṣu śvāsaḥ // In surd consonants, it is breath.

Verse: 11 bhūyānprathamebhyo 'nyeṣu // And more of it in the other surd letters than in the simple surd mutes.

Verse: 12 avarṇe nātyupasamhrtamoṣṭhahanu nātivyastam // In forming the a-vowels, the lips and jaws must not be too nealy appr

oximated, nor too widely separated.

Verse: 13 okāre ca // Also in uttering o.

Verse: 14 oṣṭhau tūpasamhrtatarau // But the lips are more nearly approximated.

Verse: 15 īṣatprakrṣṭāvekāre // In utterin e, they are slightly protracted.

Verse: 16 upasamhrtatare hanū // The jaws more nealy approached.

Verse: 17 jihvāmadhyāntābhyāṃ cottarāñjambhyāntsparśayati // And one touches the borders of the upper back jaws with the edges of

the middle of the tongue.

Verse: 18 upasamhrtatare ca jihvāgramrkārarkāralkāreṣu barsveṣūpasamhar

ati // The jaws, also, are more closely approximated, and the tip of the tongue is brought into close proximity to the upper back gums , in r, r �, and ḷ.

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Verse: 19 ekeṣāmanusvārasvarabhaktyośca // As also, according to some, in anusvāra and svarabhakti.

Verse: 20 anādeśe praṇyastā jihvā // In the absence of special direction, the tongue is thrust down forward.

Verse: 21 akāravadoṣṭhau // The lips are as in the utterance of a.

Verse: 22 tālau jihvāmadhyamivarṇe // In the i-vowels, the middle of the tongue is to be approximated to the

palate.

Verse: 23 ekāre ca // Also in e.

Verse: 24 oṣṭhopasamhāra uvarṇe // In the u-vowels, there is approximation of the lips.

Verse: 25 ekāntarastu sarvatra prakrtāt // But, in all cases, with an interval of one from the preceding.

Verse: 26 akārārdhamaikāraukārayorādiḥ // The beginning of ai and au is half an a.

Verse: 27 saṃvrtakaraṇataramekeṣām // Which, in the opinion of some, is uttered with the organs more close

d.

Verse: 28 ikāro 'dhyardhaḥ pūrvasya śeṣaḥ // Of the former, the rest is one and a half times i.

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Verse: 29 ukārastūttarasya // But, of the latter, u.

Verse: 30 anusvārottamā anunāsikāḥ // anusvāra and the last mutes are nasal.

Verse: 31 svarāṇā yatropasamhārastatsthānam // In the case of the vowels, that is their place of production, to which

approximation is made.

Verse: 32 yadupasamharati tatkaraṇam // That is producing organ, which makes the approximation.

Verse: 33 anyeṣāṃ tu yatra sparśanaṃ tatsthānam // But in the case of the other letters, that is place of production, where

contact is made.

Verse: 34 yena sparśayati tatkaraṇam // That is producing organ, whereby one makes the contact.

Verse: 35 hanūmūle jihvāmūlena kavarge sparśayati // In the k-series, one makes contact with the root of the tongue at the r

oot of the jaws.

Verse: 36 tālau jihvāmadhyena cavarge // In the c-series, with the middle of the tongue, upon the palate.

Verse: 37 jihvāgreṇa prativeṣṭya mūrdhani ṭavarge // In the ṭ-series, with the tip to the tongue, rolled back, in the head.

Verse: 38 jihvāgreṇa tavarge dantamūleṣu // In the t-series, with te tip of the tongue, at the roots of the teeth.

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Verse: 39 oṣṭhābhyāṃ pavarge // In the p-series, with the two lips.

Verse: 40 tālau jihvāmadhyāntābhyāṃ yakāre // In y, with the two edges of the middle of the tongue, upon the palate.

Verse: 41 rephe jihvāgramadhyena pratyagdantamūlebhyaḥ // In r, with the middle of the tip of the tongue, back of the roots

of the teeth.

Verse: 42 dantamūleṣu ca lakāre // Also in l, at the roots of the teeth.

Verse: 43 oṣṭhāntābhyāṃ dantairvakāre // In v, with the edges of the lips, along with the teeth.

Verse: 44 sparśasthāneṣūṣmāṇa ānupūrvyeṇa // The spirants, in their order, are produced in the places of the mutes.

Verse: 45 karaṇamadhyaṃ tu vivrtam // But the middle of the producing organ is unclosed.

Verse: 46 kaṇṭhasthānau hakāravisarjanīyau // The throat is place of production of h and visarjanīya.

Verse: 47 udayasvarādisasthāno hakāraṃ ekeṣām // In the opinion of some authorities, h has the same position as the begi

ining of the following vowel.

Verse: 48 pūrvāntasasthāno visarjanīyaḥ // visarjanīya has the same position as the end of the preceding vowel.

Verse: 49 nāsikyā nāsikāsthānāḥ //

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The nose-sounds have the nose as their place of production.

Verse: 50 mukhanāsikyā vā // Or they are produced by the mouth and nose.

Verse: 51 vargavaccaiṣu // And, in them, the organ of production is as in the series of mutes.

Verse: 52 nāsikāvivaraṇādānunāsikyaṃnāsikāvivaraṇādānunāsikyam //

Nasal quality is given by the unclosing of the nose. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 3

Verse: 1 athādāvuttare vibhāge hrasvaṃ vyañjanaparaḥ // Now then --- at the beginning or end of a word, a vowel, in case of sep

aration, if followed by a consonant, becomes short as hereinafter set forth.

Verse: 2 devāśīkāsumnāśvartāvayunāhrdayāghokthāśuddhā // devā, śīkā, sumnā, śvā, rtā, vayunā, hrdayā, aghā, ukthā, and śudhā, as

first members of a compound, shorten their final when separated.

Verse: 3 indrā vadvanvānparaḥ // Also indrā, when followed by vat, van, and vān.

Verse: 4 citrā vaparaḥ // Also citrā, when followed by v.

Verse: 5 prasthendriyādraviṇāviśvadevyādīrghāvīryāviśvāvātātvābhaṅgurāka

rṇakāvrṣṇiyāsugoparkasāmāghāsatrāvarṣāpuṣpāmeghāprāsvā // Also prasthā, indriyā, draviṇā, viśvadevyā, dīrghā, vīryā, viśvā, vātā, tvā, bhaṅgurā, karṇakā, vrṣṇiyā, sugopā, rksāmā, aghā, satrā, varṣā,

puṣpā, meghā, prā, svā.

Verse: 6 lokaeveṣṭā // Also iṣṭā, after loke and eva.

Verse: 7 śaktīrathītviṣīvāśīrātryoṣadhyāhutīvyāhrtīsvāhākrtīhrādunīśacīcitīśroṇīprṣṭīpūtyabhīcarṣaṇīparyadhīpārīśatrūviṣūvasūanūhanūsūvibhū   ityava   

grahaḥ // Also śaktī, rathī, tviṣī, vāśī, rātrī, oṣadhī, āhutī, vyāhrtī, svāhākrtī, hrād

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unī, śacī, citī, śroṇī, prṣṭī, pūtī, abhī, carṣaṇī, parī, adhī, pārī, śatrū, viṣū, vasū, anū, hanū, sū, vibhū --- all these, as first members of a compound.

Verse: 8 avāsacasvānudāmrḍāvardhāśikṣārakṣādyābhavābhajāyatrācarāpibānādhāmādhārayādharṣāghāvardhayābodhātrātatrāmuñcāśvasyāprṇas

vāhiṣṭhātvaṃtarājaniṣvāyakṣvāchā // Also ava, sacasvā, nudā, mrḍā, vardhā, śikṣā, rakṣā, adyā, bhavā,

bhajā, yatrā, carā, pibā, nā, dhāmā, dhārayā, dharṣā, ghā, vardhayā, bodhā, atrā, tatrā, muñcā, aśvasyā, prṇasvā, hi ṣṭhā, tvaṃ tarā, janiṣvā,

yukṣvā, achā.

Verse: 9 adhāgniyājye // Also adhā, in agni and yājyā passages.

Verse: 10 kutrādakṣiṇenāsvenāhantanājagāmāruhemāvidmardhyāmācakrmākṣāmāstarīmābharemāvarṣayatherayathārithāpāthāthāsiñcathājanaya

thājayatokṣatāvatāyātāśrṇutākrṇutābibhrtā // Also kutrā, dakṣiṇenā, svenā, hantanā, jagāmā, ruhemā, vidmā, rdhyāmā, cakrmā, kṣāmā, starīmā, bharemā, varṣayathā, īrayathā, ārithā, pāthā, athā, siñcathā, janayathā, jayatā, ukṣatā, avatā, yātā, śrṇutā, krṇutā,

bibhrtā.

Verse: 11 bharatā yājyāsu // Also bhartarā, in yājyā passages.

Verse: 12 attābhavatānadatātaratātapatājuhutāvocatāmuñcatācrtāghuṣyājanayāvartayāsādayāpārayādīyāharābharāpāsasādāsrjātiṣṭhāyenā //

Also attā, bhavatā, anadatā, taratā, tapatā, juhutā, vocatā, amuñcatā, crtā, ghuṣyā, janayā, vartayā, sādayā, pārayā, dīyā, harā, bharā, apā,

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sasādā, srjā, tiṣṭhā, and yenā.

Verse: 13 uśmasīkrayīkrdhīśrudhīyadī // Also uśmasī, krayī, krdhī, śrudhī, and yadī.

Verse: 14 sūtūnūmithūmakṣūū // Also sū, tū, nū, mithū, makṣū, and ū.

Verse: 15 vyutpūrva ānanudātto 'nūṣmavatyanūṣmavati // Also ān, when unaccented, and preceded by vi or ut, in a word contai

ning no spirant.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya

Part No. 4Paragraph: 4

Verse: 1 atha pragrahāḥ // Now the pragrahas.

Verse: 2 nāvagrahaḥ // No former member of a compound is pragraha.

Verse: 3 antāḥ // Only a final is pragraha.

Verse: 4 itiparo 'pi // It is followed by iti.

Verse: 5 ūkāraḥ // A long ū is pragraha.

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Verse: 6 okāro 'sāmhito 'kāravyañjanaparaḥ // Also an which is not the product of euphonic combination, if followed by a or a consonant.

Verse: 7 samahadathapitpūrvaśca // As also, when preceded by s, m, h, d, th, and pit.

Verse: 8 athaikārekārau // Now follow cases of e and ī.

Verse: 9 asme // asme is pragraha.

Verse: 10 tve ityaniṃgyāntaḥ // Also tve, when not the final member of a separable compound.

Verse: 11 devate- ubhe- bhāgadhe- ūrdhve- viśākhe- śrṅge- ene- medhye- trṇṇe- trdye- kanīnike- pārśve- śive- cottame- evottare- śipre- rathaṃtare- vatsarasyarūpe- virūpe- viṣurūpe- sadohavirdhāne- adhiṣavaṇe- ahorātre- dhrtavrate- stutaśastre- rksāme- aktearpite- raivate- pūrte- pratte- vidhrte- anrte- achidre- bahule- pūrvaje- krṇudhvamsadane // Also devate, ubhe, bhāgadhe, ūrdhve, viśākhe, śrṅge, ene, medhye, trṇṇe, trdye, kanīnike, pārśve, śive, cottame, evottare, śipre, rathaṃtare, vatsarasya rūpe, virūpe, viṣurūpe, sadohavirdhāne, adhiṣavaṇe, ahorātre, dhrtavrate, stutaśastre, rksāme, akte arpite, raivate, pūrte, pratte, vidhrte, anrte, achidre, bahule, pūrvaje, krṇudhvam sadane.

Verse: 12 amī- cakṣuṣī- kārṣṇī- devatāphalgunī- muṣṭī- dhī- nābhī- vapāśrapaṇī- ahanī- janmanī- sumninī- sāmanī- vaiṣṇavī- aikṣavī- darvī- dyāvāprthi

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vī // Also amī, cakṣuṣī, kārṣṇī, devatā phalgunī, muṣṭī, dhī, nābhī, vapaāśrapaṇī, ahanī, janmanī, sumninī, sāmanī, vaiṣṇavī, aikṣavī, darvī, dyāvāprthivī.

Verse: 13 pūrvaśca // As also, the preceding word.

Verse: 14 na rundhe nityam // But not rundhe, in any case.

Verse: 15 harīsahurīsahūtīkalpayantīāprṣatīāhutī // Also harī, sahurī, sahūtī, kalpayantī, ā prṣatī, and āhutī are pragraha.

Verse: 16 pūrvaśca // As also, the preceding word.

Verse: 17 vāsasītapasīrodasī // Also vāsasī, tapasī, and rodasī.

Verse: 18 paraśca // As also, the following word.

Verse: 19 vyacasvatī,bhiriṣyantī, naḥ prthivī // Also vyacasvatī, bhariṣyantī, and naḥ prthivī.

Verse: 20 yeaprathetāmurvīteasyayaṃkrandasīchandasvatīteācarantīantaraitāsu // Also in the verses beginning ye aprathetām, urvī, te asya,

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yaṃ krandasī, chandasvatī, te ācarantī, and antarā.

Verse: 21 nopasthe // But not upasthe.

Verse: 22 irāvatīprabhrtyā dādhāra // Also in the passage beginning with irāvatī, and ending with dādhāra.

Verse: 23 pūrvajeprabhrtyāyam // And in the passage beginning with pūrvaje and ending with ayam.

Verse: 24 ime garbhamupaivarasenaparaḥ // Also ime, when followed by garbham, upa, and eva rasena.

Verse: 25 krūramāpaḥsajūrbrahmajaiteṣu ca // As also, in the sections beginning with krūram, āpaḥ, sajūḥ, and brahmaja.

Verse: 26 pūrṇe // As also pūrṇe.

Verse: 27 drḍhe // Also drdhe is pragraha.

Verse: 28 ghnīcakre papare // Also ghnī and cakre, when followed by p.

Verse: 29 nvatī // Also nvatī.

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Verse: 30 paparo na // But not when followed by p.

Verse: 31 samīcī // samīcī is pragraha.

Verse: 32 naparo na // But not when followed by n.

Verse: 33 cī yatpraparaḥ // cī is pragraha, when followed by yat or pra.

Verse: 34 ānmahī // Also ān mahī.

Verse: 35 patī śrutiḥ // Also the combination of sounds patī.

Verse: 36 gnī // Also gnī.

Verse: 37 na hiparaḥ // But not when followed by hi.

Verse: 38 vīḍdvāraukrṣṇaścarāvoyadāparaḥ // Also an ī or e followed by vīḍ, dvārau, krṣṇaḥ, carāvaḥ, and yadā.

Verse: 39 na jñe 'hne nityam // But not jñe and ahne, under any circumstances.

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Verse: 40 ākāraikārapūrvastu bahusvarasya te the // te and the, however, are pragraha in a word of more than two syllables, if preceded by ā or e.

Verse: 41 na śāryāte // But not śāryāte.

Verse: 42 te māpātaṃnamaenamabhivāyurgarbhamupāhastuparaḥ // te is pragraha when followed by mā pātam, namaḥ, enam abhi, vāyuḥ, garbham, upa, ahas, and tu.

Verse: 43 anudātto na nityam // But not when unaccented, under any circumstances.

Verse: 44 ete tanuvauvaisamevahiyajñapadiṣṭakparaḥ // ete is pragraha when followed by tanuvau, vai sam, eva, hi, yajña, pad, and iṣṭak.

Verse: 45 paraśca dvayoḥ // As also, the letter following the two last mentioned.

Verse: 46 sthaḥparaḥ // Also one followed by sthaḥ.

Verse: 47 paraścobhayoḥ // As also, one following them both.

Verse: 48 somāyasvaitasmin // Also in the section beginning somāya sva.

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Verse: 49 dve // Also dve.

Verse: 50 paraśca // As also, the following word.

Verse: 51 ekavyaveto 'pi // Likewise the next but one.

Verse: 52 gamayatobhavato'nūkārātparaṃtanūyadakarotkuryādiṣṭiṣvabrūtāṃpravartāstāmstabhnītāṃvācayatibibhrtastāgniṃgāyatraṃtābhyāmevobhābhyāmavāntaraṃpara   ā   ṣaṣṭhāt // Before, and within six words of, gamayataḥ, bhavataḥ(except when it follows ū), tanū yāt, akarot, kuryāt(in iṣṭi passages) , abrūtām, pra varta, āstām, stabhnītām, vācayati, bibhrtas ta, agniṃ gāyatram, tābhyām eva, ubhābhyām, and avāntaram .

Verse: 53 na grāmīvarcasīmithunīmāselokedhatte // But not grāmī, varcasī, mithunī, māse, loke, dhatte.

Verse: 54 ate samānapade nityamave cāve ca // Nor ate, in a single word, nor ave, under any circumstances.

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 5

Paragraph: 5

Verse: 1 atha samhitāyāmekaprāṇabhāve // The following rules apply in combined text(saṃhitā), within the compass of a single breath.

Verse: 2 yathāyuktādvidhiḥ sā prakrtiḥ // Separation from the text as combined --- that is the fundamental text.

Verse: 3 tatra pūrvaṃpūrvaṃ prathamam // And here, that which comes first is first taken.

Verse: 4 trapumithupūrvaḥ śakaraścaparaḥ // After trapu and mithu is inserted a ś before c.

Verse: 5 supūrvaśca candraparaḥ // As also after su, before candra.

Verse: 6 saṃpūrvaḥ sakāraḥ kuruparaḥ // After sam is inserted s before kuru.

Verse: 7 akurva ca pratyayātparaḥ // And before akurva, after the augment.

Verse: 8 nīcāpūrvo dakāra uccāparaḥ // After nīcā is inserted d before uccā.

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Verse: 9 asaṃpūrvo 'ramrkāraḥ // After asam, r becomes ar.

Verse: 10

avagraha āśīrdhūḥsuvariti rephaṃ paraḥ sakāraḥ ṣakāram // Of āśīḥ, dhūḥ, and suvaḥ, when first members of a compuond, the visarjanīya becomes r, and a follwing s becomes ṣ.

Verse: 11 atha lopaḥ // Now for cases of omission.

Verse: 12 īṃpūrvo makāraḥ // A m is dropped, when preceded by īm.

Verse: 13 tunupūrva udāttayorvakāraḥ // A v is dropped when preceded by tu or nu, in case these are accented.

Verse: 14 utpūrvaḥ sakāro vyañjanaparaḥ // A s is dropped after ut, when a consonant follows.

Verse: 15 eṣasasya iti ca // Also eṣaḥ, saḥ, and syaḥ.

Verse: 16 nāsaḥ // But not asaḥ.

Verse: 17 idvidagnaimāṃnaenauṣadhīḥparaḥ saḥ // And saḥ, when followed by id u, id agne, imāṃ naḥ, enā, oṣadhīḥ.

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Verse: 18 avagraha ityekam // Also ity ekam, when ekam is the former member of a compound.

Verse: 19 tiṣṭhantyekayā sapūrvaḥ // Also tiṣṭhanty ekayā, along with the preceding letter.

Verse: 20 na kāraḥ śakāraṃ caparaḥ // A n, when followed by c, becomes ś.

Verse: 21 nāyannairayannārdhnuvannanaḍvānghrṇīvānvāruṇānevāsmin // But not the n of āyan, airayan, ārdhnuvan, anaḍvān, ghrṇīvān, vāruṇān, and evāsmin.

Verse: 22 takāraścakāram śacachaparaḥ // A t, when followed by ś, c, or ch, becmes c.

Verse: 23 japaro jakāram // When followed by j, it becomes j.

Verse: 24 nakāra eteṣu ñakāram // A n, before the same letters, becomes ñ

Verse: 25 laparau lakāram // Both t and n, when followed by l, become l.

Verse: 26 nakāro 'nunāsikam // The n becomes nasalized l.

Verse: 27 makāra sparśaparastasya sasthānamanunāsikam //

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A m, when followed by a mute, becomes the nasal of like position with it.

Verse: 28 antasthāparaśca savarṇamanunāsikam // Followed by a semivowel, it becomes a nasal of like quality with it.

Verse: 29 na rephaparaḥ // But not when followed by r.

Verse: 30 yavakāraparaścaikeṣāmācāryāṇām // Nor, according to some teachers, when followed by y or v.

Verse: 31 uttamalabhāvātpūrvo 'nunāsika ityātreyaḥ // ātreya holds that, when a nasal mute becomes l, the previous vowel is nasalized.

Verse: 32 ṅapūrvaḥ kakāraḥ saṣakāraparaḥ // After ṅ is inserted a k before s and ṣ.

Verse: 33 ṭanakārapūrvaśca takāraḥ // After ṭ or n is inserted a t.

Verse: 34 sparśapūrvaḥ śakāraśchakāram // A ś preceded by a mute becomes ch.

Verse: 35 na makārapūrvaḥ // But not when preceded by m.

Verse: 36 pakārapūrvaśca vālmīkeḥ // Nor, according to vālmīki, when preceded by p.

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Verse: 37 vyañjanaparaḥ pauṣkarasāderna pūrvaśca ñakāram // Nor, according to pauṣkarasādi, when followed by a consonant; and a preceding n, in that case, does not become ñ.

Verse: 38

prathamapūrvo hakāraścaturthaṃ tasya sasthānaṃ plākṣikauṇḍinyagautamapauṣkarasādīnām // According to plākṣi, kauṇḍinya, gautama, and pauṣkarasādi, a h preceded by a first mute becomes a fourth mute corresponding with the latter.

Verse: 39 avikrta ekeṣām // According to some authorities, it remains unchanged.

Verse: 40 caturtho 'ntare śaityāyanādīnām // According to śaityāyana and others, a fourth mute is interposed.

Verse: 41 mīmāmsakānāṃ ca mīmāmsakānāṃ ca // As also, according to the mīmāmsakas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 6

Paragraph: 6  

Verse: 1    atha ṣakāram sakāravisarjanīyau //    Now for conversions of s and visarjanīya into ṣ. 

Verse: 2    svānāsodivyāpohyayamukamūmoprotrīmahidyavipadyavayahapūrvaḥ //    A s is converted into ṣ when preceded by svānāso divi, āpo hi, ayam u, kam u, ū, mo, pro, trī, mahi, dyavi, padi, or a former member of a compound. 

Verse: 3    asadāmāsiñcamśca //    Also asadāma and asiñcan. 

Verse: 4    upasarganiṣpūrvo 'nudātte pade //    Also in an unaccecnted pada, when a preposition or nis precededs. 

Verse: 5    rāsaḥsapte'gnirnirvidurmīḍhuḥpāyubhirveḥsumatirmākirīyurāyurābhiḥsadhirnakistakāraparo nityam //    Also the visarjanīya, when followed by t, of agniḥ preceded by rāsaḥ or sapte, and of niḥ, viduḥ, mīḍhuḥ, pāyubhiḥ, veḥ, sumatiḥ, sgnihmākiḥ, īyuḥ, āyuḥ, ābhiḥ, sadhiḥ, and nakiḥ, under all circumstances. Verse: 6    atha na //    Now for exceptions. 

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Verse: 7    

avarṇavyañjanaśakunipatnyrtumrtyumalimlubrhaspatipūrvaḥ //    Excepted is a s preceded by an a- vowel, a consonant, caknu, patnī, rtu, mrtyu, malimlu, or brhaspati. 

Verse: 8    rkārarephavati //    Also in a word containing r or r. 

Verse: 9    avagrahaḥ //    Also in the former member of a compound. 

Verse: 10    savasthānam //    Also in sava and sthānam. 

Verse: 11    na dhipūrve //    But not when dhi precedes. 

Verse: 12    saṃtānebhyaḥsaptābhiḥsaṃmitāmstanāmsītamspaśaḥsaksanisaniḥsanīḥsabheyaḥsattvāsasyāyai //    Also in saṃtānebhyaḥ, saptābhiḥ, saṃmitām, stanām, sītam, spaśaḥ, sak, sani, saniḥ, sanīḥ, sabheyaḥ, sattvā, and sasyāyai. 

Verse: 13    na svaraspardhāstarīmasāhasrasārathisphurantīstubjyotirāyuścatuḥpūrvasto //    But not in svara, spardhāḥ, starīma, sāhasra, sārathiḥ, sphurantī, stubh, and in sto when preceded by jyotiḥ, āyuḥ, orcatuḥ. 

Verse: 14     tarhāmstasmiṃlokānvidvāmstāmstrīnyuṣmānūrdhvānambakānrtūnaśmankrṇvanpitr% nanānkapālāmstiṣṭhannādyudāttenemirdevāntsavanepaśūms

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takāraparaḥsakāraṃ prākrto nitye prākrto nitye //    In tarhān, tasmin, lokān, vidvān, tān, trīn, yuṣmān, ūrdhvān, ambakān, rtūn, aśman, krṇvan, pitrB n, anān, kapālān, tiṣṭhan when accented on the first syllable, nemir devān, and savane paśūn, an original n, followed by a t, becomes s, when the t is a constant one. 

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 7

Paragraph: 7  

Verse: 1    atha nakāro ṇakāram //    Now for conversion of n into ṇ. 

Verse: 2    

ṣuṣūkrdhisuvaḥsamindrāsthūryuruvāḥṣaṭtrigrāmaniṣupūrvaḥ //    n becomes ṇ when preceded by ṣu, ṣū, krdhi suvaḥ, sam indra, asthūri, uru, vāḥ, ṣaṭ, tri, grāma, or niḥ. 

Verse: 3    hanyādupyamānaṃ ca //    Also in hanyāt and upyamānam. 

Verse: 4    parīpariparīprapūrvaḥ //    Also after pārī, pari, parī, and pra. 

Verse: 5    avarṇavyaveto 'pi //    And that, even when an a-vowel intervenes. 

Verse: 6    vāhanauhyamānoyānamayanyavenavañca //    Also in vāhanaḥ, uhyamānaḥ, yānam, ayan, yavena, and van. 

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Verse: 7    prāpūrvaśca //    As also, when preceded by prā. 

Verse: 8    indro'yajuḥpūrva enaṃkena //    Also enam and kena, when preceded respectively by indraḥ and ayajuḥ. Verse: 9    nrśrīpūrvo manāḥ //    also manāḥ, when preceded by nr or śrī. 

Verse: 10    aṅgānāmonegānigānāṃgyāniyāmena //    Also aṅgānām, one, gāni, gānām, gyāni, and yāmena. 

Verse: 11    raṣaḥpūrvo havanyahnehan //    Also havani, ahne, han, when preceded by r or ṣaḥ. 

Verse: 12    rupūrvo mayānyanī //    Also mayāni and anī, when preceded by ru. 

Verse: 13    vāghāṣapūrvastaṣṭam //    After vāghā and ṣ, t is changed to ṭ. 

Verse: 14    thaśca ṭham //    Also th to ṭh. 

Verse: 15    na takāraparaḥ //    But not when t follows. Verse: 16    nahyatinūnaṃnrtyantyanyo'nyābhiranyānyantaścāntaśca //    Nor in nahyati, nūnam, nrtyanti, anyaḥ, anyābhiḥ, anyāni; nor when final. 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 8

Paragraph: 8  

Verse: 1    atha prathamaḥ //    Now for changes of first mutes. 

Verse: 2    uttamapara uttamam savargīyam //    A first mute, followed by a last mute, becomes a last mute of its own series. 

Verse: 3    trtīyam svaraghoṣavatparaḥ //    Followed by a vowel or a sonant consonat, it becomes a third mute. 

Verse: 4    kakucca makāraparaḥ //    Also in kakut, when m follows. 

Verse: 5    atha visarjanīyaḥ //    Now for chages of visarjanīya. 

Verse: 6    rephameteṣu //    visarjanīya becomes r before the classes of sounds last mentioned. 

Verse: 7    na repha paraḥ //    But not before r. 

Verse: 8   hvārabhārvārhārabibharajīgarakaranantarvivaḥsuvaḥpunaraharahaḥprātarvastaḥśamitaḥsamitaḥsanutastanutastotarhotaḥpitarmātaryaṣṭareṣṭarneṣṭastvaṣṭaḥ //    visarjanīya becomes r in hvāḥ, abhāḥ, vāḥ, hāḥ, abibhaḥ, ajīgaḥ, akaḥ, 

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anantaḥ, vivaḥ, suvaḥ, punaḥ, aharahaḥ, prātaḥ, vastaḥ, śamitaḥ, savitaḥ, sanutaḥ, stanutaḥ, stotaḥ, hotaḥ, pitaḥ, mātaḥ, yaṣṭaḥ, eṣṭaḥ, neṣṭaḥ,and tvaṣṭaḥ. 

Verse: 9    karāvaranudātte pade //    Also in kaḥ and āvaḥ, in an unaccented word. 

Verse: 10    antaranādyudātte //    Also in antaḥ, except when accented on the first syllable. 

Verse: 11    āvrtparaḥ //    Also a visarjianīya followed by āvrt. 

Verse: 12    itiparo 'pi //    And likewise when iti follows. 

Verse: 13    ahārahaḥsuvaraniṃgyāntaḥ //    Also in ahāḥ, ahaḥ, and suvaḥ, except at the end of a separable word. 

Verse: 14    na bhirbhyāṃparaḥ //    Not, however, when followed by bhiḥ or bhyām. 

Verse: 15    amhaśca sarveṣām //    Also not in amhaḥ, as all agree. 

Verse: 16    anavarṇapūrvastu rephaparo lupyate //    But, when not preceded by an a-vowel, visarjanīya followed by r is omitted. 

Verse: 17    dīrghaṃ ca pūrvaḥ //    And the preceding vowel is made long. 

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Verse: 18    eṣṭaśca //    As also, in eṣṭaḥ. 

Verse: 19    naikeṣām //    Not so, according to some authorities. 

Verse: 20    dvāvuttamottarīyasya repham //    According to uttamottarīya, two becomes r. 

Verse: 21    sāṃkrtyasyokāram //    According to sāṃkrtya, the visarjanīya becomes u. 

Verse: 22    ukhyasya sapūrvaḥ //    And, according to ukhya, along with the preceding letter. 

Verse: 23    kakhapakāraparaḥ ṣamakārapūrvaḥ samavagrahaḥ //    At the end of the former member of a compound, before k, kh, or p, 

visarjanīya becomes ṣ --- or s, if preceded by a. 

Verse: 24     āvirniriḍaḥśaśvato'pasodevariṣo'mhaso'tidivoviśvato'śmanastamasaḥ //    Also in āviḥ, niḥ, iḍaḥ, śaśvataḥ, apasaḥ, devariṣaḥ, amhasaḥ, ati divaḥ, viśvataḥ, aśmanaḥ, and tamasaḥ. 

Verse: 25    krdhipinvapatheparaḥ //    Also before krdhi, pinva, and pathe. 

Verse: 26    na sakraghakārapare //    Also before patnī ve, patī, pate, pataye, patiḥ, and patim. 

Verse: 27    patnīvepatīpatepatayepatiṣpatiṃparaḥ //    Also in divaḥ and sahasaḥ, before pari and put. 

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Verse: 28    divaḥsahasaspariputparaḥ //    Also in rāyaḥ, before po. 

Verse: 29    rāyaspoparaḥ //    Also in namaḥ, before karo. 

Verse: 30    namaskaroparaḥ //    Also in vasuḥ, before k. 

Verse: 31    vasuṣkakāraparaḥ //    Also in vasuḥ, before k. 

Verse: 32    nādhvaraṃviśvato'ntarjātoviviśuḥparuḥpunaḥ //    Not in adhvaraṃ viśvataḥ, antaḥ, jātaḥ, viviśuḥ paruḥ, and punaḥ. 

Verse: 33    dhaṣavati //    Nor before a word containing dh or ṣ. 

Verse: 34    parivāpraparaḥ //    Not before pari vā or pra. 

Verse: 35    na nirṇa niḥ //    Not so with niḥ. 

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 9

Paragraph: 9  

Verse: 1    ūṣmaparo 'ghoṣapare lupyate kāṇḍamāyanasya //    visarjanīya, when followed by a spirant which has a surd letter after it, is dropped, according to kāṇḍamāyana. 

Verse: 2    aghoṣaparastasya sasthānamūṣmāṇam //    Followed by a surd letter, it becomes the spirant of like position with that letter. 

Verse: 3    na kṣaparaḥ //    But not when followed by kṣ. 

Verse: 4    kapavargaparaścāgniveśyavālmīkyoḥ //    Nor, according to āgniveśya and vālmīki, when followed by a guttural or a labial mute. 

Verse: 5    ūṣmapara evaikeṣāmācāryāṇām //    According to some authorities, not when followed by a spirant, and only then. 

Verse: 6    na plākṣiplākṣāyaṇayoḥ //    Not according to plākṣi and plākṣāyaṇa. 

Verse: 7    okāramaḥ sarvo 'kāraparaḥ //    aḥ, the whole of it, when followed by a, becomes o. 

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Verse: 8    ghoṣavatparaśca //    Also when followed by a sonant consonant. 

Verse: 9    avarṇapūrvastu lupyate //    But visarjanīya, when preceded by an a-vowel, is omitted. 

Verse: 10    atha svaraparo yakāram //    When followed by a vowel, it becomes y. 

Verse: 11    ekāro 'yam //    e, before a vowel, becomes ay. 

Verse: 12    okāro 'vam //    o becomes av. 

Verse: 13    nākāraparau //    But not, in either case, when followed by a. 

Verse: 14    aikāra āyam //    ai becomes āy. 

Verse: 15    aukāra āvam //    au becomes āv. 

Verse: 16    ukāro 'prktaḥ prakrtyā vakāro 'ntare //    An u, uncombined with a consonant, remains unchanged, and v is inserted between it and the following vowel. 

Verse: 17    na tattasmātsāmhitaḥ //    But not in samhitā-text, after tat and tasmāt. 

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Verse: 18    hrasvapūrvo ṅakāro dvivarṇam //    A ṅ, when preceded by a short vowel, is doubled. 

Verse: 19    nakāraśca //    As does also a N. 

Verse: 20    anitiparo grahokhyayājyāprṣṭhyahiraṇyavarṇīyeṣvīkārokārapūrvo rephamākārapūrvaśca yakāram //    In graha, ukhya, yājyā, prṣṭhya, and hiraṇyavarṇīya passages, a n preceded by ī or ū becomes r, preceded by ā becomes y, except before iti. 

Verse: 21   

 martyānudayānamrtānduryānasomapūrvaḥsoasmānavimāngomānmadhumānhaviṣmānhūtamānārṣecikitvāniḍāvānkakṣīvānbāṇavānhipayasvānvaśānvidatrānamitrānarānpoṣānmahāmśca //    Also in the words martyān, ud ayān, amrtān, duryān not preceded by soma, so asmān, avimān, gomān, madhumān, haviṣmān, hūtamān before any vowel belonging to the text, cikitvān, iḍāvān, kakṣīvān, bāṇavān, hi payasvān, vaśān, vidatrān, amitrān, arān, poṣān, and mahān. 

Verse: 22    indrome'karūḍhvamihāpyetvaganmeḍenyānāyajiṣṭhaācartvakurvatāduhadaditiragre'dharāntsapatnānalaṃparaśca //    Also a n followed by indro me, akaḥ, ūḍhvam, ihā, apy etu, aganma, īḍenyān, āyajiṣṭhaḥ, ā ca, rtu, akurvata, aduhat, aditiḥ, agre, adharānt sapatnān, and alam. 

Verse: 23    na raśmīñchrapayānyamānpataṅgāntsamānānarcānyajīyān //    The n of raśmīn, śrapayān, yamān, pataṅgān, samānān, arcān, yajīyān 

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remains unchanged. 

Verse: 24    udathāparaścodathāparaśca //    Nor a n followed by ut or atha. 

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya

Part No. 10

Paragraph: 10  

Verse: 1    athaikamubhe //    Now for the coalescence of two vowels into one. 

Verse: 2    dīrgham samānākṣare savarṇapare //    In the case of a simple vowel, followed by a similar vowel, the product is long. 

Verse: 3    athāvarṇapūrve //    Now for cases in which an a-vowel stands first. 

Verse: 4    ivarṇapara ekāram //    When an i-vowel follows, the product is e. 

Verse: 5    uvarṇapara okāram //    When an u-vowel follows, the product is o. 

Verse: 6    ekāraikārapara aikāram //    When e or ai follows, the product is ai. 

Verse: 7    okāraukārapara aukāram //    When o or au follows, the product is au. 

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Verse: 8    aramrkārapare //    When r follows, the product is ar. 

Verse: 9    upasargapūrva āram //    If a preposition precedes, the product is ār. 

Verse: 10    udāttamudāttavati //    When an acute enters into the combination, the result is acute. 

Verse: 11    anunāsike 'nunāsikam //    When a nasal, the result is nasal. 

Verse: 12    svaritānudāttasaṃnipāte svaritam //    When circumflex and grave are combined, the result is circumflex. 

Verse: 13    na dhāmāpāsiparībudhniyājyāpūṣāminantārṣe //    Exceptions are dhā, mā, and pā, when followed by asi; also budhniyā, jyā, ā pūṣā, and aminanta --- before a vowel belonging to the text. 

Verse: 14    eṣṭaretanemannodmannoṣṭhevaḥparo lupyate //    When followed by eṣṭaḥ, etana, eman, odman, oṣṭha, or evaḥ, an a-vowel is elided. 

Verse: 15    ivarṇokārau yavakārau //    An i-vowel and u become respectively y and v. 

Verse: 16    udāttayośca paro 'nudāttaḥ svaritam //    And, when they are acute, a following grave becomes circumflex. 

Verse: 17    ūbhāve ca //    Also when ū is the product of the combination. 

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Verse: 18    na śyetī mithunī //    Exceptions are śyetī and mithunī. 

Verse: 19    lupyete tvavarṇapūrvau yavakārau //    But y and v are elided, when preceded by an a-vowel. 

Verse: 20    nokhyasya //    Not so, according to ukhya. 

Verse: 21    vakārastu sāṃkrtyasya //    Not v, according to sāṃkrtya. 

Verse: 22    ukāraukāraparau lupyete mācākīyasya //    According to mācākīya, both are omitted when followed by u or o. 

Verse: 23    leśo vātsaprasyaitayoḥ //    According to vātsapra, they are imperceptibly uttered. 

Verse: 24    na plutapragrahau //    Exceptions are protracted and pragraha vowels. 

Verse: 25    paraśca paraśca //    Also the remaining vowel. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 11

Paragraph: 11  

Verse: 1    lupyate tvakāra ekāraukārapūrvaḥ //    But a is elided when preceded by e or o. 

Verse: 2    athālopaḥ //    Now follow cases of non-elision. 

Verse: 3    dhātārātirupavājapeyajuṣṭaśyenāyokhyadhruvakṣitiriyamevasāyāgnirmūrdhārudraprathamopottamavikarṣavihavyahiraṇyavarṇīyayājyāmahāprṣṭhye //    The a is not elided in the following sections: those beginning with dhātā rātiḥ and upa; those styled vājapeya; those beginning with juṣṭa and śyenāya; those styled ukhya; those beginning with dhruvakṣitiḥ, iyam eva sā yā, and agnirmūrdhā; the first and the next to the last of the rudra chapter; and those styled vikarṣa, vihavya, hiraṇyavarṇīya, yājyā, and mahāprṣṭhya. 

Verse: 4    amhasomhatiraniṣṭrto'vantvasmānavadyādahani ca //    Also in amhasaḥ, amhatiḥ, aniṣṭrtaḥ, avantv asmān, avadyāt, and ahani. 

Verse: 5    anu gharmāsaāpomartorathastvodattevātaḥpūrvaḥ //    Also in anu, when preceded by gharmāsaḥ, āpaḥ, martaḥ, rathaḥ, tvaḥ, datte, and vātaḥ. 

Verse: 6    abhivātvapaśca //    Also (after vātaḥ) in abhi vātu and apaḥ. 

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Verse: 7    anvagamacca //    Also (after apaḥ) in anu and agamat. 

Verse: 8    āpaḥpūrvo 'dbhirapāṃnapādasmān //    Also in adbhiḥ, apāṃ napāt, and asmān, when preceded by āpaḥ. 

Verse: 9    rāyesaindraḥpūrvaścākārapare //    In asmān, also, if followed by a, when rāye, saḥ, and indraḥ precede. 

Verse: 10    tepūrvo 'dyāndho'mśuragne //    Also in adya, andhaḥ, amśuḥ, and agne, when te precedes. 

Verse: 11    mepūrvaśca //    In agne, also, when preceded by me. 

Verse: 12    asyāśvināparā ca //    As also, in asya, aśvinā, and aparā. 

Verse: 13    naḥpūrvo 'sadagniraghāntamo'bhyasminnadyapathi //    Also in asat, agniḥ, agha, antamaḥ, abhi, asmin, and adya pathi, when preceded by naḥ. 

Verse: 14    namaḥpūrvo 'gre'śvebhyo'griyāya //    Also in agre, aśvebhyaḥ, and agriyāya, when preceded by namaḥ. 

Verse: 15    āvinnaḥsomaḥpūrvo 'gniparaḥ //    Also when āvinnaḥ or somaḥ precedes and agni follows. 

Verse:

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16    dhīrāso'dabdhāsaekādaśāsarṣīṇāṃputraḥśāryāte'ṣāḍhaḥpitāraḥprthivīyajñaāsateyegrhṇāmyagrevāmeṣajajñesamsphānoyuvayoryaḥprṣṭhepatirvogośuṣmaḥpuvaḥsamiddharṣabhaḥpāthovacovarṣiṣṭhejuṣāṇoyorudrovrṣṇaḥpūrvaḥ //    Also a is retained when preceded by dhīrāsaḥ, adabdhāsaḥ, ekādaśāsaḥ, rṣīṇāṃ putraḥ, śāryāte 'ṣāḍhaḥ, pitāraḥ, prthivīyajñe, āsate ye, grhṇāmy agre, vām eṣaḥ, jajñe, samsphānaḥ, yuvayor yaḥ, prṣṭhe, patir vaḥ, go, śuṣmaḥ, puvaḥ, samiddhaḥ, rṣabhaḥ, pāthaḥ, vacaḥ, varṣiṣṭhe, juṣāṇo, yo rudraḥ, or vrṣṇaḥ. 

Verse: 17    aratimasyayajñasyātidruto'tiyantyanrṇo'viṣyannanamīvo'nneṣvarcirajītānajyānimahniyāambālyarvantamastvakrṇodaṅgiro'psuyoaskabhāyadacyuto'śvasanirasthabhiraśiśredaṅge'ghniya //    Also in aratim, asya yajñasya, atidrutaḥ, atiyanti, anrṇaḥ, aviṣyan, anamīvaḥ, anneṣu, arciḥ, ajītān, ajyānim, ahniyāḥ, ambāli, arvantam, astu, akrṇot, aṅgiraḥ, apsu yaḥ, askabhāyat, acyutaḥ, aśvasaniḥ, asthabhiḥ, aśiśret, aṅge, and aghniya. 

Verse: 18    adhvara svarapare //    Also in adhvara, when a vowel follows [the r]. 

Verse: 19    sa pūrvasyārdhasadrśamekeṣāmardhasdrśamekeṣām //    In the opinion of some, it becomes half-similar with its predecessor. 

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 12

Paragraph: 12  

Verse: 1    atha lopaḥ    Now for cases of elision. 

Verse: 2    asi //    The a of asi is elided. 

Verse: 3    na garbhaḥsaṃnaddhoyamobhadraḥpūrvaḥ //    But not when garbhaḥ, saṃnaddhaḥ, yamaḥ, or bhadraḥ precedes. 

Verse: 4    yavanahaparaḥ svarapareṣu //    a is elided before y, v, n, and h, when these are followed by a vowel. 

Verse: 5    jakāragnapara udāttaḥ //    Before j and gn, a is elided if acute. 

Verse: 6    movacodadhānasthepūrvaśca //    Before gn, also when preceded by maḥ, vacaḥ, dadhānaḥ, and sthe. 

Verse: 7    abhyāvartinnapūpamapidadhāmyadyānvaditiḥśarmāgnerjihvāmagnayaḥpaprayo'smākamasmedhattāśmāśvāśrutiraśyāmāmāryamannasmatpāśānasminyajñe'stāvyathamānābhidrohamadhāyyado'tho'dugdhāariṣṭāarathāarcantyantarasyāmatrasthānnāyāṅgirasvadakaram //    The a is elided in abhyāvartin, apūpam, api dadhāmi, adyānu, aditiḥ śarma, agner jihvām, agnayaḥ, paprayaḥ, asmākam, asme dhatta, aśmā, aśvā wherever found, aśyāma, amā, aryaman, asmatpāśān, asmin yajñe, astā, avyathamānā, abhidroham, adhāyi, adaḥ, atho, adugdhāḥ, ariṣṭ

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āḥ, arathāḥ, arcanti, antar asyām, atra stha, annāya, aṅgirasvat, and akaram.

Verse: 8    gāhamānojāyamānohetayomanyamānovanaspatibhyaḥpatesridhastapasaḥsvadhāvobhāmito'gnayaāyo'dhvaryokratopūrvaḥ //    An a is elided when preceded by gāhamānaḥ, jāyamānaḥ ketayaḥ, manyamānaḥ, vanaspatibhyaḥ, pate, sridhaḥ, tapasaḥ, svadhāvaḥ, bhāmitaḥ, agnayaḥ, āyo, adhvaryo, and krato. 

Verse: 9    tasminnanudātte pūrva udāttaḥ svaritam //    When the elided a is grave, the preceding dipthong, if acute, becomes circumflex. 

Verse: 10    udātte cānudātta udāttam //    When it is acute, the preceding dipthong, if grave, becomes acute. 

Verse: 11    svaritaśca sarvatra svaritaśca sarvatra //    As also, in every case, if circumflex. 

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 13

Paragraph: 13  

Verse: 1    atha makāralopaḥ //    Now for the omission of m. 

Verse: 2    rephoṣmaparaḥ //    A m is omitted, when followed by r or a spirant. 

Verse: 3    yavakāraparaścaikeṣāmācāryāṇām //    As also, according to some teachers, when followed by y or v. 

Verse: 4    na samsāmiti rāparaḥ //    But not the m of sam and sām, when followed by rā. 

Verse: 5    atha varṇānām //    Now of individual sounds. 

Verse: 6    rkārarkāraraṣapūrvo nakāro ṇakāram samānapade //    Within the same word, a n preceded by r, rB , r, or ṣ, becomes ṇ. 

Verse: 7    vyaveto 'pi //    Even though other sounds are interposed. 

Verse: 8    hiraṇmayam //    Also in hiraṇmayam. 

Verse: 9    pāṇigaṇapuṇyakaṇvakāṇagāṇabāṇaveṇuguṇamaṇipravādeṣu pūrvaḥ   A

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lso, in the inflectional and derivative forms of pāṇi, gaṇa, puṇya, kaṇva, kāṇa, gāṇa, bāṇa, veṇu, guṇa, and maṇi, thefirst nasal is ṇ. 

Verse: 10    paṇipaṇiṃvīyamaṇaūṇyoḥ //    Also in paṇi, paṇim, vīyamāṇaḥ, and ūṇyoḥ. 

Verse: 11    ṭavargaparaḥ //    Also before a lingual mute. 

Verse: 12    caṅkuṇaphaṇatsthūṇauhiṇuyāddhiṇotikauṇeyo'ṇiṣṭhāulbaṇamugaṇāśrutiścupuṇīkābāṇijāyāṇavaścāṭṇārasthāṇuṃtūṇavevīṇāyāmaśloṇayāpaṇetavāṇīḥkalyāṇīkuṇapaṃvāṇaḥśataśoṇāśrutirdhāṇikāmeṇī //    Also in caṅkuṇa, phaṇat, sthūṇau, hiṇuyāt, hiṇoti, kauṇeyaḥ, aṇiṣṭhāḥ, ulbaṇam, ugaṇā wherever found, cupuṇīkā, bāṇijāya, aṇavaś ca, āṭṇāraḥ, sthāṇum, tūṇave, vīṇāyām, aśloṇayā, paṇeta, vāṇīḥ, kalyāṇī, kuṇapam, vāṇaḥ śata, śoṇāwherever found, dhāṇikā, and meṇī. 

Verse: 13    avagraho vrṣaṇchīrṣaṇbrahmaṇakṣaṇcarmaṇcarṣaṇ //    As final of the former member of a compound, ṇ is found in vrṣaṇ, śīrṣaṇ, brahmaṇ, akṣaṇ, carmaṇ, and carṣaṇ. 

Verse: 14    rṇaṣaṇaṣṇamṇarāvṇa ceti prākrtāḥ //    Also in rṇṇ, ṣaṇṇ, ṣṇ, mṇ, and rāvṇ --- these are original. 

Verse: 15    na ṣumno 'gniryuṣmānīto 'nto 'lopātsparśaparo vyavāyeṣu śasacaṭatavarjīyeṣu //    But not in ṣumna, agni, and yuṣmānīta; nor when final; nor after the omission of an a; nor when followed by a mute; nor when ś, s, or a palatal, lingual, or labial mute intervenes. 

Verse: 16    prktasvarātparo lo ḍaṃ pauṣkarasādeḥ pauṣkarasādeḥ // 

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   In the opinion of pauṣkarasādi, l after a mixed vowel becomes ḍ. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 14

Paragraph: 14  

Verse: 1    svarapūrvaṃ vyañjanaṃ dvivarṇaṃ vyañjanaparam //    A consonant preceded by a vowel is doubled, if followed by a consonant. 

Verse: 2    lavakārapūrva sparśaśca pauṣkarasādeḥ //    Likewise, according to pauṣkarasādi, a mute preceded by l or v. 

Verse: 3    sparśa evaikeṣāmācāryāṇām //    According to some teachers, the mute only. 

Verse: 4    rephātparaṃ //    Also a consonant that follows r. 

Verse: 5    dvitīyacaturthayostu vyañjanottarayoḥ pūrvaḥ //    In place, however, of second and fourth mutes, when followed by consonants, is put the preceding mute. 

Verse: 6    rephapūrvayośca nityam //    As also, in all cases, when they follow r. 

Verse: 7    lakārapūrve ca //    And when l precedes. 

Verse: 8    upasargapāthaeṣo'tyātidhāmaparamabhūtepūrveṣu chakhibhujeṣu ca 

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//    Also the preceding mute is inserted before ch, khi, and bhuja, when these follow either a preposition, pātha eṣaḥ, ati, āti, dhāma, parama or bhūte. 

Verse: 9    aghoṣādūṣmaṇaḥ paraḥ prathamo 'bhinidhāna sparśaparāttasya sasthānaḥ //    After a surd spirant followed by a mute is inserted a first mute of the same position with the latter, as abhinidhāna. 

Verse: 10    aghoṣe plākṣeḥ //    According to plākṣi, when the following mute is surd. 

Verse: 11    uttamaparāttu plākṣāyaṇasya //    But according to plākṣāyaṇa, on the contrary, when the following mute is a nasal. 

Verse: 12    prathama ūṣmaparo dvitīyam //    A first mute followed by a spirant is changed into its corresponding aspirate. 

Verse: 13    bāḍabhīkārasyāsasthānaparaḥ //    According to bāḍabhikāra, when the following spirant is not of the same position with it. 

Verse: 14    atha na //    Now for exceptions. 

Verse: 15    avasāne ravisarjanīyajihvāmūlīyopadhmānīyāḥ //    A consonant before a pause is not doubled; 

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nor r, visarjanīya, jihvāmūlīya, or upadhmānīya. 

Verse: 16    ūṣmā svaraparaḥ //    Nor a spirant, when followed by a vowel. 

Verse: 17    prathamaparaśca plākṣiplākṣāyaṇayoḥ //    Or, according to plākṣi and plākṣāyaṇa, when followed by a first mute. 

Verse: 18    ūṣmāghoṣo hārītasya //    According to hārīta, a surd spirant is not doubled. 

Verse: 19    rephaparaśca hakāraḥ //    Nor h, when followed by r. 

Verse: 20    ṭavargaśca tavargaparaḥ //    Nor a lingual mute, when followed by a dental. 

Verse: 21    latavargau yavakāraparau //    Nor l nor a dental mute, when followed by y or v. 

Verse: 22    paraśca //    Nor the following. 

Verse: 23    savarṇasavargīyaparaḥ //    A letter followed by one homogeneous with itself, or one of the same mute-series, is not duplicated. 

Verse: 24    nānuttama uttamaparaḥ //    Unless, indeed, it be a non-nasal followed by a nasal. 

Verse: 25    athaikeṣāmācāryāṇām //    Now for the views of certain teachers. 

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Verse: 26    lakāro haśavakāraparaḥ //    A l is not doubled when followed by h, ś, or v. 

Verse: 27    sparśa sparśaparaḥ //    Nor a mute that is followed by a mute. 

Verse: 28    padāntaśca vyañjanaparaḥ prākrtaḥ //    Nor an original final that is followed by a consonant. 

Verse: 29    udāttātparo 'nudāttaḥ svaritam //    A grave following an acute becomes circumflex. 

Verse: 30    vyañjanāntarhito 'pi //    Even when consonants intervene. 

Verse: 31    nodāttasvaritaparaḥ //    Not, however, when an acute or circumflex follows. 

Verse: 32    nāgniveśyāyanasya //    Not so, according to āgniveśyāyana. 

Verse: 33    sarvo netyeke sarvo netyeke //    Some say not, in all cases. 

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Part No. 15

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Paragraph: 15  

Verse: 1   

 nakārasya rephoṣmayakārabhāvāllupte ca malopācca pūrvasvaro 'nunāskaḥ //    In case of the conversion of n into r, a spirant, or y --- also when the y is omitted --- or in case of the omission of m, the preceding  vowel becomes nasal. 

Verse: 2    naikeṣām //    Some deny this. 

Verse: 3    tatastvanusvāraḥ //    And claim that, on the contrary, anusvāra is inserted after the vowel. 

Verse: 4    srādiṣu caikapada ūṣmaparaḥ //    anusvāra is also inserted in the case of sra etc., in a single word, before a spirant. 

Verse: 5    nāntavikārātpūrvaḥ //    Not before an altered final. 

Verse: 6    apragrahāḥ samānākṣarāṇyanunāsikānyekeṣām //    According to some authorities, the simple vowels, except the pragrahas, are nasalized. 

Verse: 7    padaṃ ca plutam śāṅkhāyanakāṇḍamāyanayoḥ //    As is also, according to śāṅkhāyana and kāṇḍamāyana, a protracted pada. Verse: 8    akārastu samhitāyāmapi //    An a, however, is nasalized in samhitā also. 

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Verse: 9    sarvamekayamaṃ pūrveṣām sarvamekayamaṃ pūrveṣām //    According to the former ones, all is of one pitc h  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 16

Paragraph: 16  

Verse: 1    atha sakāraparāḥ //    Now for cases in which s follows. 

Verse: 2    sraśohapāśa padādayaḥ svarapare //    sra, śo, ha, pā, and śa, at the beginning of a pada, take anusvāra before a s that is followed by a vowel. 

Verse: 3    vikrte 'pi //    Even when the vowel is altered. 

Verse: 4    rāpūrvaśca //    As also, when they are preceded by ra. 

Verse: 5    śamstānantodātte //    Also in śamstā, except when it is accented on the final syllable. 

Verse: 6    aśamsan //    Also in aśamsan. 

Verse: 7    na śasanaṃ viśasanena //    But not in śasanam and viśasanena. 

Verse: 8    mā padādiranudāttaḥ //    mā takes anusvāra when beginning a pada and unaccented. 

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Verse: 9    pumīpūrvaś nityam //    As also when preceded by pu or mī, under all circumstances. 

Verse: 10    sakāyaparaśca //    And when followed by sakāya. 

Verse: 11    nāvagrahapūrvaḥ //    But not when preceded by a former member of a compound. 

Verse: 12    māsimāsumāsomāsāmiti ca //    Nor in māsi, māsu, māsaḥ, or māsām. 

Verse: 13    hipujigājighāchamsine'tamsayadātāmsītkanīyājyāyādrāghīyāraghīyāśreyāhrasīyāvasīyābhūyāmsojakṣivājaghnivājigivājīgivātasthivādāśvādīdivāpapivāpīpivāvidvāviviśivāśuśruvāsasrvā //    The followin words have anusvāra before s: hi, pu, jigā, jighā, chamsine, atamsayat, ātāmsīt, kanīyā, jyāyā, drāghīyā, raghīyā, śreyā, hrasīyā, vasīyā, bhūyāmsaḥ, jakṣvā, jaghnivā, jigivā, jīgivā, tasthivā, dāśvā, dīdivā, papivā, pīpivā, vidvā, viviśivā, śuśruvā, sasrvā. 

Verse: 14    ākārekārokārāḥ siṣiparāḥ padāntayoḥ //    The vowels ā, ī, and ū have anusvāra, when they are followed by si or ṣi final. 

Verse: 15    vikrte 'pi //    Even when the i is altered. 

Verse: 16    anākāro hrasvam sāṃkrtyasya //    According to sāṃkrtya, the vowel, except ā, is short. 

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Verse: 17    na pade dvisvare nityam //    Not, under any circumstances, in a dissylabic word. 

Verse: 18    rjīṣijigāsijighāsyajāsiyajāsidadāsidadhāsivartayāsi ca //    Nor in rjīṣi, jigāsi, jighāsi, ajāsi, yajāsi, dadāsi, dadhāsi, and vartayāsi. 

Verse: 19    damsanābhyodamsobhirdamsaṃvrṣadamśodamśukādamṣṭrābhyāṃ paraḥ //    In damsanābhyaḥ, damsobhiḥ, damsam , vrṣadamśaḥ, damśukā, and damṣṭrābhyām, anusvāra is taken in the latter place. 

Verse: 20    mamsyemamsataiyamsadyamsanvamsatevamsagaḥ //    Also in mamsye, mamsatai, yamsad, yamsan, vamsate, and amsagaḥ. 

Verse: 21    unna vamśam //    Also in vamśam, after ut or na. 

Verse: 22    akramstakramsyateramsyatebhramśate //    Also in akramsta, kramsyate, ramsyate, and bhramśate. 

Verse: 23    ramhyai ca //    And also in ramhyai. 

Verse: 24    aikāra ukhyasya nitāntaḥ //    The ai, according to ukhya, is excessive. 

Verse: 25    viritri saṃkhyāsu //    Also in vi, ri, and tri, in numerals, except in su. Verse: 26    śimśumāraḥśimṣatsamśvāsamsrāsamsrṣṭasamskrtyasamkrtasamśitasam

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śitākimśilakimśilā //    Also in śimśumāraḥ, śimṣat, samśvā, samsrā, samsrṣṭa, samskrtya samkrta, samśita, samśitā, kimśila, and kimśilā. 

Verse: 27    sitrdr hakāraparaḥ //    Also after si, tr, or dr, when h follows. 

Verse: 28    mamhiṣṭhasya ca //    As also, in mamhiṣṭhasya. 

Verse: 29    ādiramhatiramho'mhoramhomugatyamhāamhaso'mhasāmśamamśubhiramśabhuvāmśvamśūamśavo'mśuramśumamśūnamśunāmśoramśāyopāmśvamśau //    Also, after the first vowel, in amhatiḥ, amhaḥ, amhoḥ, amhomuc, atyamhāḥ, amhasaḥ, amhasā, amśam, amśubhiḥ, amśabhuvā, amśu, amśū, amśavaḥ, amśuḥ, amśum, amśūn, amśunā, amśoḥ, amśāya, upāmśu, and amśau // 

Verse: 30    avagraha udātto 'mse 'msāyāmsābhyāmamsāviti //    Also in amse, amsāya, amsābhyām, and amsau, when accented on the first syllable. 

Verse: 31    nāsāvā nāsāvā //    But not in asāv ā. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 17

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Verse: 1    tīvrataramānunāsikyamanusvārottameṣviti śaityāyanaḥ //    śaityāyana says that the nasal quality is stronger in anusvāra and the nasal mutes. 

Verse: 2    samam sarvatreti kauhalīputraḥ //    kauhalīputra says that it is the same everywhere. 

Verse: 3    anusvāre 'ṇviti bhāradvājaḥ //    bhāradvāja says it is faint in anusvāra. 

Verse: 4    nākārasya rephoṣmayakārabhāvāllupte ca malopāccottaramuttaraṃ tītrataramiti sthaviraḥ kauṇḍinyaḥ //    Old kauṇḍinya says that when n is converted into r, or into a spirant, or into y(with loss of the y), or when m is lost, it is stronger in each case successively. 

Verse: 5    vyañjanakālaśca svarasyātrādhikaḥ //    And to the vowel is added, in this case, the time of a consonant. 

Verse: 6    svāravikramayordrḍhaprayatnataraḥ pauṣkarasādeḥ //    pauṣkarasādi says the utterance of svāra and vikrama is attende d  with firmer effort. 

Verse: 7    prayatnaviśeṣātsarvavarṇānāmiti śaityāyanaḥ //    śaityāyana says, of all the letters, according to their difference of effort. 

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Verse: 8    nātivyaktaṃ na cāvyaktamevaṃ varṇānudiṅgayet / payaḥpūrṇamivāmatram harandhiro yathāmati // ityātreya ātreyaḥ  //    ātreya says, one must utter the sounds not over-distinctly and not indistinctly; taking, as it were, a vessel filled with drink, steady, according to the sense. 

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 18

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Verse: 1    okāraṃ tu praṇava eke 'rdhatrtīyamātraṃ bruvate //    As praṇava, some utter o with two and a half moras. 

Verse: 2    udāttānudāttasvaritānāṃ kasmimściditi śaityāyanaḥ //    śaityāyana says it is to be utterd with either one of acute, grave, or circumflex. 

Verse: 3    dhrtapracayaḥ kauṇḍinyasya //    According to kauṇḍinya, it is a sustained pracaya. 

Verse: 4    madhyamena sa vākprayogaḥ //    That application of the voice is with middle tone. 

Verse: 5    svaritaḥ plākṣiplākṣāyaṇayoḥ //    According to plākṣi and plākṣāyaṇa, it is circumflexed. 

Verse: 6    udātto vālmīkeḥ //    According to vālmīki, it is acute. 

Verse: 7    yathāprayogaṃ vā sarveṣāṃ yathāprayogaṃ vā sarveṣām //    All allow that it may also be according to the application. 

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 19

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Verse: 1    svaritayormadhye yatra nīcam syādudāttayorvānyatarato vodāttasvaritayoḥ sa vikramaḥ //    Where a syllable of low tone occurs between two circumflex syllables, or two acute, or two of which either one is acute and the other circumflex,  that is vikrama. 

Verse: 2    pracayapūrvaśca kauṇḍinyasya //    As also, according to kauṇḍinya, when a pracaya precedes. 

Verse: 3    dviyama eke dviyamapare tā aṇumātrāḥ //    According to some, in a circumflex syllable that is followed by a circumflex, quarter moras are so. 

Verse: 4    tasyāmeva prakrtau //    In that very material. 

Verse: 5    na pūrvaśāstre na pūrvaśāstre //    Not in the former teaching. 

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Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 20

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Verse: 1    ivarṇokārayoryavakārabhāve kṣaipra udāttayoḥ //    When i, ī, and u are converted into y or v, the accent is kṣaipra, if they were acute. 

Verse: 2    sayakāravakāraṃ tvakṣaraṃ yatra svaryate sthite pade 'nudāttapūrve 'pūrve vā nitya ityeva jānīyāt //    But where a syllable containing a y or v is circumflexed in a fixed word, begin preceded by a grave syllable, or not preceded by anything, that is to be known as nitya. 

Verse: 3    api cennānāpadasthamudāttamatha cetsāmhitena svaryate sa prātihataḥ //    If, moreover, there is an acute standing in another word, then, if there be a circumflex resulting from a rule ofcombination, it is prātihata. 

Verse: 4    tasmādakāralope 'bhinihataḥ //    After such a one, in case of the loss of an a, it is abhinihata. 

Verse: 5    ūbhāve praśliṣṭaḥ //    Where an ū results, it is praśliṣṭa. 

Verse: 6    padavivrttyāṃ pādavrttaḥ //    Where there is a hiatus between two words, it is pādavrtta. 

Verse: 7    udāttapūrvastairovyañjanaḥ //    Where an acute precedes, it is tairovyañjana. 

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Verse: 8    iti svāranāmadheyāni //    These are the names of the circumflex accents. 

Verse: 9    kṣaipranityayordrḍhataraḥ //    In the kṣaipra and nitya, the effort is firmer. 

Verse: 10    abhinihate ca //    As also in the abhinihata. 

Verse: 11    praśliṣṭaprātihatayormrdutaraḥ //    In the praśliṣṭa and prātihata, it is gentler. 

Verse: 12    tairovyañjanapādavrttayoralpataro 'lpataraḥ //    In the tairovyañjana and pādavrtta, it is feebler. 

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 21

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Verse: 1    vyañjanam svarāṅgam //    The consonant is adjunct of a vowel. 

Verse: 2    tatparasvaram //    And it belongs to the following vowel. 

Verse: 3    avasitaṃ pūrvasya //    A consonant in pause belongs to the preceding vowels. 

Verse: 4    saṃyogādi //    Also the first consonant of a group. 

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Verse: 5    pareṇa cāsamhitam //    And one that is not combined with the following vowel. 

Verse: 6    anusvāraḥ svarabhaktiśca //    Also anusvāra and svarabhakti. 

Verse: 7    nāntasthāparamasavarṇam //    But not a consonant that is followed by a semivowel, if dissimilar with it. 

Verse: 8    nāsivyāḥ //    Nor the nose-sounds. 

Verse: 9    sparśaścoṣmapara ūṣmā cetparaśca //    Nor a mute that is followed by a spirant --- provided the following spirant is likewise in the same case. 

Verse: 10    svaritātsamhitāyāmanudāttānāṃ pracaya udāttaśrutiḥ //    Of grave syllables following a circumflex in saṃhitā there is pracaya, having the tone of acute. 

Verse: 11    nodāttasvaritaparaḥ //    But not when an acute or circumflex follows. 

Verse: 12    sparśādanuttamāduttamaparādānupūrvyānnāsikyāḥ // After a non-nasal mute, when it is followed by a nasal, are inserted,  in their order, nose-sounds. 

Verse: 13    tānyamāneke //    Some call these yamas. 

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Verse: 14    hakārānnaṇamaparānnāsikyam //    After h, when followed by n, ṇ, or m, is inserted nāsikya. 

Verse: 15    rephoṣmasaṃyoge rephasvarabhaktiḥ //    In the combination of r and a spirant, there is a svarabhakti of r. 

Verse: 16    na krame prathamapare prathamapare //    But not in case of krama, when a first mute follows the spirant. -------------------------------------------------------------------------

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 22

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Verse: 1    śabdaḥ prakrtiḥ sarvavarṇānām //    Tone is the material of all articulate sounds. 

Verse: 2    tasya rūpānyatve varṇānyatvam //    In the difference of form of the former consists the difference of the latter. 

Verse: 3    tatra śabdadravyāṇyudāhariṣyāmaḥ //    Here we will instance the offices of terms. 

Verse: 4    varṇakārau nirdeśakau //    varuṇa and kāra are indicatory. 

Verse: 5    cāpītyanvādeśakau //    ca and api are implicative. 

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Verse: 6    tvathaiveti vinivartakādhikārakāvadhārakāḥ //    tu, atha, and eva are exceptional, introductory, and restrictive, respectively. 

Verse: 7    veti vaibhāṣikaḥ //    vā is alternative. 

Verse: 8    neti pratiṣedhakaḥ //    na is prohibitive. 

Verse: 9    āyāmo dāruṇyamaṇunā khasyetyuccaiḥkarāṇi śabdasya //    Tension, hardness, smallness of aperture, are producers of high tone. 

Verse: 10    anvavasargo mārdavamurutā khasyeti nīcaiḥkarāṇi //    Relaxation, softness, wideness of aperture, are producers of low tone. 

Verse: 11    mandramadhyamatārāṇi sthānāni bhavanti //    Soft, middle, and loud are the three qualities. 

Verse: 12    tatraikavimśatiryamāḥ //    In them are twenty-one tones. 

Verse: 13    rgvirāmaḥ padavirāmo vivrttivirāmaḥ samānapadavivrttivirāmastrimātro dvimātra ekamātro 'rdhamātraityānuūrvyeṇa //   The verse-pause, pada- pause, pause for hiatus, and  pause for hiatus  in the interior of a word, are respectively of threemoras, two moras, one mora, anda a half-mora. 

Verse: 14    yadyañjanāntaṃ yadu cāpi dīrgham saṃyogapūrvaṃ ca tathānunāsikam // etāni sarvāṇi gurūṇi vidyāccheṣāṇyato 'nyāni tato laghūni // 

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   A syllable that ends with a consonat, one that has a long vowel, one that preceedes a conjuction of consonants, one that is nasal --- all these are to be accounted heavy; the rest, other than these, are light. 

Verse: 15    

avyañjanāntaṃ yaddhrasvamasaṃyogaparaṃ ca yat / ananusvārasaṃyuktametallaghu niṣodhatai tallaghunibodhata //    A syllable that does not end with a consonat, that has a short vowel, and that is not followed by a conjunction ofconsonants, and one that is not combined with anusvāra --- know that to be light. 

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 23

Paragraph: 23  

Verse: 1    atha varṇaviśeṣotpattiḥ //    Now for the origin of the differences of articulate sounds. 

Verse: 2    anupradānātsamsargātsthānātkaraṇavinyayāt / jāyate varṇavaiśeṣyaṃ parimāṇācca pañcamād iti //    The differentiation of articulate sounds arises from emission, closure, position, disposition of producing organ, and, fifthly, from quantity. 

Verse: 3    varṇaprktaḥ śabdo vāca utpattiḥ //    Sound combined with articulation is the orgin of voice. 

Verse: 4    sapta vāca sthānāni bhavanti //    Of voice, there are seven qualities. 

Verse: 5    upāmśudhvānanimadopabdimanmandramadhyamatārāṇi //    Namely, inaudible, murmur, whisper, mumbling, soft, middle, 

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and loud. 

Verse: 6    karaṇavadaśabdamamanaḥprayogamupāmśu //    "Inaudible" is without sound, without application of mind, but with articulating action. 

Verse: 7    akṣaravyañjanānāmanupalabdhirdhvānaḥ //    "Murmur" is inaudibleness of syllables and consonants. 

Verse: 8    upalabdhirnimadaḥ //    "Whisper" is their audibleness. 

Verse: 9    saśabdamupabdimat //    "Mumbling" is the same, with sound. 

Verse: 10    urasi mandraṃ kaṇṭhe madhyamam śirasi tāram //    "Soft" is in the chest, "middle" in the throat, "loud" in the head. 

Verse: 11    mandrādiṣu triṣuṃ sthāneṣu saptasapta yamāḥ //    In the three qualities beginning with "soft," there are seven tones each. 

Verse: 12    krṣṭaprathamadvitīyatrtīyacaturthamandrātisvāryāḥ //    Namely, krṣṭa, first, second, third, fourth, mandra, and atisvārya. 

Verse: 13    teṣāṃ dīptijopalabdhiḥ //    Of these, the perception is born of brightness. 

Verse: 14    dvitīyaprathamakrṣṭāstraya āhvārakasvarāḥ //    "Second," "first," and krṣṭa are the three tones of the āhvārakas. 

Verse: 15    mandrādayo dvitīyāntāścatvārastaittirīyakāḥ //    The four beginning with mandra and ending with "second" are those of 

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the taittirīyas. 

Verse: 16    dvitīyānmandrastaittirīyāṇāṃ trtīyacaturthāvanantaraṃ taccaturyamamityācakṣate //    According to the taittirīyas, the mandra proceeds from the "second," and the "third" and "fourth" come next after: this they style the tone-quaternion. 

Verse: 17    tasmindviyamāntarā vrttiḥ //    In it, progression is by intervals of two tones. 

Verse: 18    tāmupadekṣyāmaḥ //    That progression we will set forth. 

Verse: 19    taccaturyamamityuktam //    That is what is called the quaternion of tones. 

Verse: 20    kramivakramasaṃpannāmadrutāmavilambitām / nīcoccasvārasaṃpannāṃ vadeddhrtavatīm samāṃvadeddhrtavatīm samāmiti //    It must be uttered with krama and vikrama, not hurried, not delayed, with grave, acute, and circumflex accent, with pracaya, and even. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-PratisakhyaPart No. 24

Paragraph: 24  

Verse: 1    atha catasraḥ samhitāḥ //    Now for the four texts. 

Verse: 2    padasamhitākṣarasamhitā varṇasamhitāṅgasamhitā ceti // 

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   Word-text, syllable-text, letter-text, and member-text, namely. 

Verse: 3    nānāpadasaṃdhānasaṃyogaḥ padasamhitetyabhidhīyate //    Conjuction of independent words by euphonic combination is called word-text. 

Verse: 4    yathāsvamakṣarasamhitādīnāmapyevam //    And in like manner with the syllable-text and the rest, in accordance with their several names. 

Verse: 5    gurutvaṃ laghutā sāmyam hrasvadīrghaplutāni ca / lopāgamavikārāśca prakrtirvikramaḥ kramaḥ // svaritodāttanīcatvam śvāso nādo 'ṅgameva ca / etatsarvaṃ tu vijñeyaṃ chandobhāṣāmadhīyatā //    Heaviness, lightness, evenness; short, long, and protracted quantity; elision, increment, and euphonic alteration; natural state , vikrama, krama; circumflex, acute, and grave quality; breath, tone, and adjunction --- all this must be understod by him  who reads the Veda language. 

Verse: 6    padakramaviśeṣajño varṇakramavicakṣaṇaḥ / svaramāmtrāvibhāgajño gachedācāryasamsadaṃ gachedācāryasamsadamiti  //    He who understands the distinctions of the pada-krama, who is versed in the varṇa-krama, and knows the divisions of accent and quantity, may go and sit with the teachers.