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Transcript of Weather Ford Cementing Program Handbook)

. Weatherford~--

Weatherford

Cementing Program

-,

Notice: The information in this handbook is given in good faith. However, no warranty is given and Weatherford assumes no liability for advice or recommendations made herein. Published by Weatherford Printed by Gi1comston @ Copyright International Inc. Limited

Litho (Aberdeen)

1986 Weatherford.

All rights reserved.

Acknowledgment

For more than 30 years Weatherford has been striving to improve primary cementation technology and products. This handbook continues the Weatherford tradition by offering a compilation of the most recent technology in cementation. Weatherford has relied on many sources in compiling this handbook and gratefully acknowledges the following authors and publishers: George O. Suman, Jr., Richard e. Ellis, Pat Parker, Clark Clement, W.e. Goins, Clyde Cook, L.G. Carter, Rudy B. Callehan, World Oil, The Oil and Gas Journal, Drilling Magazine, Dowell Schlumberger and The Society of Petroleum Engineers. Please see the Bibliography at the end of the handbook for additional source information.

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WeatherfordIntroduction..Axial Load Zone IsolationCorrosion

Table of Contents

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........

........12

Reasonsfor Cementing Casing.

Blowout PreventionCasing

...

2 3 3 3

Burst Casing Safety Factors Casing Strings

Tension Collapse

String

Design

.......................................4 ... ... 4 ... 45 5 5

Cementing Techniques... .... .Cements and Additivt;s Properties Cement ofAdditives.

... . .... .. ... .. ...

.... ....69 ..10.15

Primary Cementation 6 Secondary Cementation.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .7Rheology of Fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..13

Propertiesof Set Cement...

CementingFailures... Flow Regime ... Displacement VelocityCentralization

...17

Conditioning of Drilling Fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Effect ofDensity... ......... Mud hannel.. ............. C .

...... .

...

.

....18....19.18

...17 ...18

Pipe Movement. .... .... ..... ..... ... ..... .... ..... . .... . .. .20 ... Contamination ofFluids. ..... . . ... ... ..... ..... ....21 Bridging Loss fBottom o Joints... .. ...... .... . . SaltFlow Separation Water. ... ofFree ..

Differential Pressure Sticking. ................ .....

............ .. .... .

...22.. .23 ...23 .23 . ..25

.

Gas Flow. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .24

.... .... ..... .....

Buckling of Pipe. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .26

Mechanical Cementing Aids......Cement Baskets Stop Collars Scratchers Well bore Wipers

Centralizers .... .. ... .. .. ... . .. ... ... .. . .. .. ... . .... .... . ..28 API STD10D .29.31 .31 .31 .32

.28

Hydro-Bonders. .......

Recommended Installation Patterns.. . . .. . . ... . . .. .

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..............

,

Centralizer Placement Calculation.... .

... ..... .

. ... . . .. .33

.....32... .33

Float Equipment.. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . ... . . .. . . . .. . . ... . .. .35 Wiper Plugs.. . . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . ..36 StageTools... . . .. .. . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . ..36 External CasingPackers. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . ..37 Liner Hangers.. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. . ..37Cementing

Heads... . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. . ..37

Casi"g Running ProceduresAssignment of Responsibilities

The Cement Job. . . . .. . . .. . . ... . ... . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . ... . . .. . . . .. .39 Displacement. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . ... . . .. .39Pipe Contact Movement. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .40

...... ... .. .... .... .... ...38 Equipment ......... .... ......... ............. ......38 Check.

...

.38

Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Landing Practices... . . .. . .. . . . .. . . ... . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . ... . . ..40

Evaluation of Cementation Temperature Survey...Radioactivity

..41 ...4141 .41 .43 .44

Tracer Log. . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . .41

Acoustic Logs.. CBL/VDL CET Recommended Job Documentation.. . . . . . . . .. . . ... . .. . . . .. . . . .. Case Histories. . .. . . . .. . . .. . ... . . . .. . . .. .

... . . ... . . . . . . ... . .45

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Weatherford

Primary Cementing Engineering

The goal of this handbook ISto provide information covering the newest technology and products to serve primary cementation requirements. Weatherford has spent in excessof thirty years developing its technological base for training personnel and producing the best primary cementation aids on the market. When an engineer asks how he can best complete his well, all his efforts depend upon a successful "primary" cementation. Assuming cement composition and rheological properties are correct, the most common cause of primary cementation failures is inadequate or incorrect use of cementation aids and technique. Weatherford can solve both of these problems by providing a detailed planning programme for primary cementations, starting with the surface string and extending all the way to the production liner or casing. Weatherford will assist in planning and supervising primary cementations. Discussions between the operator and Weatherford's cementing engineer are encouraged, and if requested, written proposals containing drawings, explanations and recommendations will be submitted. Subjects to consider in planning for the entire primary cementing are comprehensive. They cover the following: Area: Factors of influence. Wellbore: Drilling fluid: Casing: Diameter, depth, temperature, deviation, formation properties. Type, properties, weight, compatibility with cement. Design, size, type of thread, grade of steel, setting depth, floating equipment, centralizers, scratchers, stage tools, circulating swages. Duration and rate of placing casing, circulation time before cementing, pipe movement.PLANReview

Cement composition: Mixing and pumping units: Personnel: Cementing techniques:

Type, volume, weight, flow properties, additives, mixing, influence of field water. Type of mixer, type of cementing head, plugs, spacers, displacing fluids. Responsibilities of involved parties. Pipe movement during and after circulation and placement of cement, use of spacers, rheological programme.

The planning stage covering mechanical cementing aids requires information from the customer for a thorough evaluation, such as: . Casing program (physical properties of pipe). Mud program (weights and rheological properties). . Case history of area (washouts, gas, lithology, etc.). Deviation data (single or multishot data). . Expected type of productive zone. Customer's intention towards "pipe movement" (rotation/reciprocation).

.

. .

. . . .

To summarize, the planning stage of a primary cementation is based on a review of previous cementations, regard for new technology, consideration for advances in materials and an analysis of anticipated costs. The actual operation requires a pre-check of equipment and materials to be used. Qualified supervision and keeping of accurate records are essential.

Rig operation:

The review procedure should include long term well performance and cost analysis as well as reasons for cementing failures.

previous

cementations New trends and methods Technical dvances a inmaterialsCost analysis

REVIEWCompare with previous jobs Long term well perfotmance Long term cost analysis Find reasons for failures

PERFORMPre-check Qualified supervision Accurate recordsFinal check

1

Reasons for Cementing Casing

..

Weatherford

Oil well cementing is the process of mixing and displacing a cement slurry down the casing and back through the annular space behind the pipe. When setting, the cement will establish a bond between the pipe and the formation. No other operation in the drilling process is more important to the producing life of the well than a successfulprimary cementing job. Many factors determine the success or failure of a primary cementing operation. Because a seemingly simple casing job can become complex, each single operation should be properly planned. There are many reasons for cementing casing: To support axial casing load. To bond pipe to formation and to restrict t1uid movement between formations. The cementation also aids in: Reinforcing the casing. Protecting the casing from corrosion. . Preventing blowouts by forming a seal in the annulus. Protecting the casing from shock loads when drilling deeper. Sealing off lost-circulation zones or other troublesome formations.

This test (Fig. 1) simulates the shear or mechanical bond of cement to formation and casing. It is obvious that a remaining mud cake has a substantial impact on the bond strength. The force required to move the cement decr