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Transcript of Water Pollution - Weebly Water Pollution 2 Pollution Two types of pollution Point pollution –...

  • Water Pollution

    1

    The Epidemic… (Intro for Poison Pump)

    In 1854, hundreds of people living in London died during a cholera

    epidemic. The disease spread from India to London.

    Cholera is characterized by rapid dehydration resulting from

    vomiting, diarrhea and sweating. Victims may suffer only mild

    symptoms or can die in less than an hour.

    Dr. John Snow, considered the father of epidemiology, is

    credited with tracking and identifying the source and

    transmission agent of the 1854 cholera epidemic.

    Your team has been given the same information that Dr. Snow

    possessed. As a team your mission is to try to solve the

    mysterious epidemic.

    You have been given a Broad Street Area map, a set of victim

    cards and a marker. Using the information make a chart

    comparing all common characteristics among the victims. Use

    the marker to mark the location of the victims.

    The class will share their conclusions (locating and explaining

    the source of the epidemic) with the other teams. Additional

    information uncovered by Dr. Snow will then be provided to all

    teams. Teams will be given time to confirm or revise their

    original conclusions. After confirming or revising, teams will

    again share their conclusions.

  • Water Pollution

    2

    Pollution

    Two types of pollution

    Point pollution – pollution that comes from a single identifiable

    source such as a pipe that dumps oil or toxic chemicals from a

    factory in to a lake, stream, or river. (It is a source you can point

    to.) Some towns use septic tanks, which can pollute the ground

    water.

    Non-point Pollution – pollution that cannot be traced to a specific

    point, but comes from many places

    We are concerned about non-point pollution; because with the

    development, this is the main problem in Atlanta. The city of

    Atlanta is working diligently to repair the damage they have done

    in the past by allowing factories to dump sewage and other

    chemicals in the Chattahoochee.

    Examples of Non-point:

     Thermal pollution – heating the water causes the level of

    dissolved oxygen to lower. With less oxygen in the water,

    fish and other aquatic life can be harmed or killed.

    Caused by: Storm run-off

     Sediments – soil, sand, silt, clay wash from land into the

    creeks. Caused by poor construction practices. Large

    quantities are considered pollution. (Silt screens)

    1. Cause flow to slow down

    2. Suffocate fish and shellfish

    3. Darkens the color of water making it attract sunlight,

    causes the water to heat up (What does this do to level

    of oxygen?)

    4. Slows down plant growth that provides oxygen

     Metals and Plastics – remain in the water, are not

    biodegradable, can be poisonous for most forms of life

  • Water Pollution

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     Nutrients - Concentration of nitrogen and phosphorous –

    these are used for plant growth Ex. Fertilizers, household

    detergents These cause algae in the water to bloom and

    multiply – As the algae dies, oxygen is needed to decompose

    the algae. (When the oxygen is depleted, what happens?)

     Acid Rain - rain that has been affected by pollution in the

    air, When water becomes too acidic or basic, sensitive fish

    and other organisms cannot survive

     Pesticides – designed to kill or limit the growth of weeds

    and insects on crops and lawns. These flow into the creeks

    or groundwater causing chemical imbalance in the water.

    © 2006 Dee Shore. Used with permission.

  • Water Pollution

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    © 2006 Dee Shore. Used with permission.

  • Water Pollution

    5

    © 2006 Dee Shore. Used with permission.

  • Water Pollution

    6

    What’s in the Water Pollutants

    Sediment – (brown M&M’s)

    This is caused by run-off from land into the creeks and streams due to

    construction. This slows down the flow of the river and can suffocate fish

    and macroinvertebrates. Because sediment turns the water brown, the water

    is heated and therefore can cause thermal pollution.

    Organic Wastes (yellow M&M’s)

    Wastewater treatment plants and food processing plants release organic

    wastes that bacteria consume. If too much waste is released, the bacterial

    populations increase using up the dissolved oxygen.

    Fertilizers (red M&M’s)

    This is caused primarily by run-off into streams. During heavy rain,

    fertilizers from lawns flow into the creeks and streams. Increased amounts

    are found near agriculture farms. Fertilizers contain nitrogen and

    phosphorous which cause large amounts of algae to bloom in the water.

    When the algae die, it decreases the amount of dissolved oxygen in the

    water.

    Petroleum Products (green M&M’s)

    Oil and gas travel into the water from ships, oil refineries, auto service

    stations, and streets. These spills can kill aquatic life, and gasoline and oil

    can leak into the ground water through damaged underground tanks.

    Thermal - Heated or Cooled Water (blue M&M’s)

    Heated water, also known as thermal pollution, decreases water’s ability to

    dissolve oxygen. Electric power plants use large quantities of water in their

    steam turbines. The heated water is often returned to streams. Water is also

    heated by run-off from hot pavement and asphalt. Water temperature can

    drop in temperature as well causing problems for fish that require warmer

    water to survive. Example: Buford Dam lowers the temperature in the

    Chattahoochee River to 55 degrees (F) because the outtake of water is from

    the base of the dam. Native trout cannot survive in this temperature.

    Pesticides, Herbicides, and Fungicides (orange M&M’s)

    This pollution results from man’s attempt to limit the pests and weeds that

    grow in lawns and gardens. The growth in Atlanta has increased the amount

    of pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides present in the Chattachoochee River

    watershed.

  • Water Pollution

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    Excel Directions for What’s in the Water?

    1. In Column A-1, write Pollutant 2. In Column A-2, write Organic waste 3. In Column A-3, write Petroleum 4. In Column A-4, write Sediment 5. In Column A-5, write Thermal 6. In Column A-6, write Pesticides 7. In Column A-7, write Fertilizers 8. In Column B-1, write # of Pollutants 6 Fill in the data you gathered on B-2 through B-7

    7. Press Save as to save your work. Place work in your number.

    Example:

    Pollutant # of pollutants

    organic waste 10

    Petroleum 5

    Sediment 22

    Thermal 8

    Pesticides 14

    Fertilizers 12

    8. Highlight your data: A-2 through B-7 9. Go to insert and locate the charts 10. Select the Chart Type: Pie 11. Go to design and select the fifth one. 12. Give a title for your chart. Pollutants found in _______________

    Creek 13. Insert a text box at the bottom right of the graph. Add your names. 14. Save your work. 15. Print to a color printer.

  • Water Pollution

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    Temperature

    Water temperature is extremely important to a waterway. It can

    +affect the waterway by changing it physically, biologically, and

    chemically.

    The ways humans change the temperature in waterways:

     Thermal pollution (most serious)

    o Industries discharging water used to cool machinery

    o Storm water runoff from warmed paved surfaces

    o Cutting down trees reduces shade

    o Soil erosion makes water turbid causing the sun’s rays

    to be absorbed.

    Results from temperature change:

    As the temperature rises, photosynthesis and plant growth

    increase. The plants become overcrowded and die. The bacteria

    decomposing the decaying material consume more oxygen.

    Procedure:

    1. Open the kit over a grassy area. Carefully, take the

    thermometer out of the backpack.

    2. Take the air temperature first. (Celcius and Fahrenheit)

    3. Take the water temperature.

     Select a place in the center of the creek where the

    thermometers will not be disturbed. Use the same

    location and depth of water each week to keep this

    assessment consistent.

     Place the thermometers in the water one at a time. Be

    gentle with these. They can break easily and we do not

    want to cause any damage to the creek.

    4. Wait 5 minutes for each.

    5. Record your results.

    Air Temperature: _____  F _____  C

    Water Temperature _____  F _____  C © 2006 Dee Shore. Used with permission.

  • Water Pollution

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    1. What is thermal pollution?

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    2. How does soil erosion cause a change in temperature?