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CHIEF TAXONOMIC SUBDIVISIONS and ORGAN SYSTEMS of the Animal PhylaPhylum ClassesMammalia Aves Reptilia AmphibiaEndomesodermal pouches give rise to coelom Primitive gut Blastocoel (later obliterated) Blastopore Radial Cleavage

Skin and ExoskeletonStratified epidermis with keratinized layer, hair, nails, scales, dermis, glands Stratified epidermis with keratinized layer, feathers, scales, beaks, claws, dermis

EndoskeletonVertebrae, cartilage, bone,

Muscular Motor

Digestive

RespiratoryLungs

ExcretoryPronephros, mesonephros (embryonic), metanephros in adult Pronephros, mesonephros (embryonic), metanephros in adult Pronephros, mesonephros (embryonic), metanephros in adult

Circulatory4-chambered heart with two artria and two ventricles; closed system; hepatic portal 4-chambered heart with two artria and two ventricles; closed system; hepatic and renal portal

ReproductiveDioecious; gonads, ducts, copulatory organs

Nervous

Sensory

Vertebrae, cartilage, bone Alimentary canal typically divided into mouth with jaws, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, cecum, large intestine, anus; accessory glands present (liver, pancreas, salivary glands: Embryologically, the basic plan is a stomodeum (ectodermal), a midgut (endodermal), and a proctodeum (ectodermal)

Lungs

Dioecious; gonads, ducts, copulatory organs (in some)

Special sense organs of taste, smell, hearing; eyes

Stratified epidermis with Vertebrae, cartilage, keratinized layer and scales, bone dermis

Lungs

3-4 chambered heart with Dioecious; gonads, ducts, two atria and 1-2 ventricles; copulatory organs closed system; hepatic and renal portal 3-chambered heart with two artria and one ventricle; closed system; hepatic and renal portal 3-chambered heart with two atria and one ventricle; closed system; hepatic and renal portal 2-chambered heart ; closed system; hepatic and renal portal 2-chambered heart; closed system; hepatic and renal portal 2-chambered heart; closed system; hepatic portal Dioecious; gonads, ducts Dorsal tubular brain and spinal cord with cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves

Stratified epidermis partly cornified (keratinized), dermis, glands Stratified epidermis, dermal scales, glands

Vertebrae, cartilage, bone

Branchial gill slits, gills, lungs, skin

Pronephros (embryonic), opisthonephros in adult

CHORDATABody segmented; axial notochord, which may be permanent or temporary; dorsal tubular nerve cord; paired gill slits in pharynx at some stage, postanal tail at some stage; endostyle or thyroid gland NOTE: Subphyla Urochordata and Cephalochordata are protochordates (having no cranium or vertebral column). The remaining classes belong to subphylum Vertebrata.

Sarcopterygii Actinopterygii Chondrichthyes Cephalaspidomorphi Myxini Cephalochordata

Cranium,vertebrae, cartilage, bone

Smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles arranged in patterns of gross units

Branchial gill slits, gills, lungs

Pronephros (embryonic), opisthonephros in adult

Dioecious; gonads, ducts

Stratified epidermis, dermal scales, glands

Cranium,vertebrae, cartilage, bone

Branchial gill slits, gills

Pronephros (embryonic), opisthonephros in adult

Usually dioecious; gonads, ducts, copulatory organs (in some) Dioecious; gonads, ducts, copulatory organs

Special sense organs of taste, smell, hearing; eyes; lateral-line; electroreceptors

DEUTEROSTOMIAAnus derived from blastopore, mouth a new for- a-m tion; cleavage mostly radial; all deuterostomes are eucoelomate; in nonchordates, endomesoderm arises from pouches from primitive gut (enterocoelous); in chordates, endomesoderm arises from splitting of me-sodermal bands (schizocoelous)* * The width of these bars suggests the relative number of species in each group.

Stratified epidermis, dermis, placoid scales, glands Stratified epidermis, dermis (corium), glands

Cranium, vertebrae, cartilage

Branchial gill slits, gills

Pronephros (embryonic), opisthonephros in adult

Persistent notochord; cartilaginous cranium and neural arches Persistent notochord; fibrous cranium; cartilaginous pharyngoskeleton Notochord, connective tissue Muscles (myotomes), cilia

Alimentary canal without jaws or distinct stomach

Branchial gill slits, gills

Pronephros (embryonic), mesonephros (opisthonephros) in adult Pronephros, mesonephros

Monoecious, gonad, no duct

Dorsal tubular nerve cord and brain; cranial and spinal nerves Dorsal tubular nerve cord and brain; cranial and spinal nerves Dorsal tubular nerve cord, spinal nerves Special sense organs of taste, smell, and hearing; degenerate eyes; lateralline; elcectroreceptors Cerebral eye, epidermal sensory cells

Stratified epidermis, dermis, glands

Alimentary canal without jaws or stomach

Branchial gill slits, gills

2-chambered heart with atrium and ventricle; accessory hearts; closed system; hepatic portal

Monoecious, gonad, no duct

Anus

Simple epidermis, cuticle

Endostyle; alimentary canal; pharynx Endostyle; alimentary canal; pharynx

Branchial gill slits

Many nephridia (solenocyte No heart; dorsal and ventral type) aorta, hepatic portal; closed system Body surface; nephrocytes store wastes in excretory vesicles Tubular heart; open sinus channels

Dioecious; gonads, no ducts

Tunicata Asteroidea Ophiuroidea

Outer cellulose tunic or gelatinous covering; mantle of epidermis and dermis

Notochord, connective tissue

Muscles, cilia

Branchial gill slits

Monoecious; gonads, ducts; sexual and asexual in some

Dorsal tubular ganglion (larva), nerves (adult)

Ocelli, sensory cells, statocysts (chiefly in larva)

HemichordataCiliated epidermis, thin cuticle Alimentary canal, eversible stomach Papulae (dermal branchiae); podia Bursae Body surface, coelomocytes, pyloric ceca Bursae, coelomocytes Mostly dioecious; gonads (usually 10); asexual by fission in some Mostly dioecious; gonads, bursal ducts; asexual by fission Mostly dioecious; gonads, ducts Nerve ring, radial nerves, and subepidermal plexus Nerve ring, radial nerves Eye spots, sensory cells in epidermis

Syncytial epidermis in most; little ciliation Dermal endoskeleton with calcareous plates (microscopic in Holothuroidea); spines, connective tissue; hydrostatic and hydraulic fluid pressure Circular and longitudinal muscle fibers, watervascular system and podia, tentacles (in some), pedicellariae (in Echinoidea and Asteroidea)

Alimentary canal, no anus

Sensory cells in epithelium

Kingdom Animalia

ECHINODERMATABody unsegmented and usually pentamerous (in parts of 5 each); with secondary radial symmetry; calcareous endoskeleton of plates or spicules; water vascular system and podia (tube feet)

Echinoidea Holothuroidea Crinoidea

Ciliated epidermis, thin cuticle

Alimentary canal, masticatory apparatus (Aristotles's lantern) Alimentary canal, retractile oral tentacles Alimentary canal

Peristomial gills, podia

Coelomocytes carry waste to gills, podia and axial gland Coelomocytes and respiratory tree

Coelomic fluid; coelomocytes; hemal and perihemal systems

Circumoral nerve ring, radial nerves, subepidermal plexus Nerve ring, radial nerves, and subepidermal plexus Oral, hyponeural, and aboral systems of rings, radial nerves

Sensory cells in epithelium, especially on podia, spines, and pedicellariae Statocysts, sensory cells in epidermis and podia

Epidermis, thin cuticle

Respiratory tree, podia, skin

Dioecious; monoecious (few); single gonad, duct Dioecious; indefinite gonads

Syncytial epidermis, thin cuticle

Body surface, especially the podia

Coelomocytes

Sensory cells and free nerve endings in epidermis and podia

Nematomorpha Kinorhyncha

Foregut, midgut, hindgut

Tracheae

Malpighian tubules

InsectaAlimentary canal Tracheae Malpighian tubules

Compound and simple eyes, antennae, tympanic organs, hair sensillae, sensory pits Eyes, antennae

Diplopoda PriapulidaAlimentary canal Tracheae Malpighian tubules Simple eyes, antennae Open system of heart, arteries, hemocoel, sinuses

Tardigrada

ChilopodaEpidermis, molting chitinous cuticle Connective tissue, hydrostatic and hydraulic fluid pressure Striated muscles, jointed appendages Alimentary canal, gastric mill Branchiae (gills), body surface (in some) Antennal or maxillary glands

EcdysozoaGrow by molting; locomotion not by cilia; common set of homeobox genes

ARTHROPODA

Dioecious (most); gonads, ducts, copulatory organs

Cerebral ganglia, double ventral nerve cord with ganglia

Body segmented, but somites often modified and specialized; jointed appendages; chitonous cuticle; no cilia*

Crustacea

Compound eyes, statocysts, antennules, antennae

* To represent the Arthropoda accurately would require 280 units

Pentastomida Onychophora

Arachnida

Foregut, midgut, hindgut, stomach with ceca

Tracheae, book lungs, gills

Malpighian tubules, coxal glands

Simple eyes, sensory hairs, pedipalps, no antennae

Protozoan GroupsUnicellular; singly or in co--l o- ies; cytoplasmic level of n organization; with dif-er-f en-iated organelles t

Chaetognatha Nematoda RotiferaVermiform, cylindrical, no circular muscles, microscopic to 1 m, free-living and parasitic

MerostomataEpidermis cellular or syncytial, cuticle manylayered Syncytial epidermis, cuticle, lorica (in some) Hydrostatic p