VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND ADAPTATION carlacaroca@sapo.pt

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Transcript of VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND ADAPTATION carlacaroca@sapo.pt

VULNERABILITYASSESSMENTANDADAPTATIONSTRATEGYBYPORTUGALANDMALAYSIA

Carla P.C. Caroa1 and Sim Lay Mei21 Centro de Geologia da UL CeGUL, University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Geology

Department, Edifcio C6, Piso 4, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal

carlacaroca@sapo.pt2 School of Humanities, 11800, University Science of Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

limei1938@gmail.com

Climate changeSources

Change earths surface (plate tectonics),

Change in earths atmosphere (dust, gases),

Structural changes in the Sun (fluctuations in solar output),

Variations in earths orbit and axis,

(Society: use of fossil fuels)

Consequences Floods, Droughts, Hurricanes, Volcanoes activity, Greenhouse, Earthquakes, Soil loss, Fires, Famine, Diseases, Pests, Extinctions,

http://www.geografia-ensino.com/2014/03/paises-membros-da-uniao-europeia-em.html; 20/03/2016

In Portugal, developed country located in Europe

https://www.google.pt/search?q=imagens+inunda%C3%A7%C3%B5es+em+lisboa+hoje&biw=1536&bih=750&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjjz6bFpITMAhXBExoKHWotCIkQsAQIGg&dpr=1.25#imgdii=iuQOCVWQQ76TwM%3A%3BiuQOCVWQQ76TwM%3A%3BLkJXF8RlNouKuM%3A&imgrc=iuQOCVWQQ76TwM%3A; 10/04/2016

Floods(Lisbon city)

Droughts

https://www.google.pt/search?q=imagens+de+neve+em+Lisboa&biw=1536&bih=750&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi7pd6dpoTMAhWC1RoKHeixC0kQsAQISQ#tbm=isch&q=seca+em+Portugal&imgrc=k3n58Tza6rq96M%3A; 10/04/2016

http://zap.aeiou.pt/mau-tempo-lisboa-metade-das-1300-ocorrencias-1176; 10/04/2016

Hail and/or snow in coastal areas (Lisbon city October 2013)

Costa da Caparica sea invasion, March2007

http://biogeodopedro11.blogspot.pt/2007_03_01_archive.html; 13/04/2016

Retreat of the coastline

http://visao.sapo.pt/actualidade/sociedade/2016-01-15-Furacao-Alex-passou-a-cerca-de-20-quilometros-a-leste-da-Terceira; 10/04/2016

Hurricanes

Near to Azores Portugal January2016

http://pt.distance.to/Mal%C3%A1sia/Portugal; 19/03/2016

Malaysia, a developing country located in Asia, on the opposite side of the Earth

Severedroughts

Source:TheMalaymailonline,21st April2016

HeatWave

Source:R.Mahgeshan,TheMalaymailonline,21st March2016

A farmer not able to replant his paddy field due to severe drought brought by heatwave

Tasek Takong (man-made lake) located near the Perak-Thai border dried up four years ago during the prolonged hot and dry spell.

4yearsago

NOW

Source:TheStraitsTimes,17th April2016

Flashfloods

Source:Freemalaysiatoday,12th May2016

Kuala Lumpur, capital city of Malaysia

Source:TheStarOnline,4th June2016

A tree uprooted by the hailstorm crashing a car in Kuala Lumpur

Falling trees after hailstorm

Source:TheStarOnline,4th June2016

Office mess after the storm in Kuala LumpurViolent Storms

Water resource vulnerability to climate change

Malaysia PortugalAvailability and quality of water for:

DomesticIndustrial

AgriculturalTourism (beach, pool)

Hydroelectric power generationThermo-electric systems

DamsEnvironment (such as droughts, floods, erosion

(loss of soil and coastline, landscape degradation), loss of biodiversity and increase

in diseases/pests)

Malaysia Portugal

Greatest potential vulnerability to climate

change impacts.

Since 2004, after the tsunami and enormous flood events, has: Department of Environment

[subsidiary of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE)]

Since 2009, has: Ministry of Energy, Green

Technology and Water (KeTTHA) (policy-making on the climate change issues);

Technology and Ministry of Science, Innovation (MOSTI) and Malaysian Meteorological Department (subsidiary of MOSTI) (monitoring the climate change, impacts and study the projection of future climate change scenarios).

Malaysia PortugalSince 2010, has: A National

Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (ENAAC);

A National Programme for Climate Change (PNAC);

A Strategic Planfor Water Supplyand SanitationWastewater(PENSAAR)

Malaysia Portugal Adaptation measures and

to integrate into sectoralpolicies (ENAAC);

Develop a competitive andlow-carbon andcontributes to stimulateresearch, innovation andknowledge productionand involve society in thechallenges of climatechange (PNAC);

Reduction of emissionsof greenhouse gasessince global warming willhave-to remain well below2C, 1,5C preferred.(COP21).

policy-making on the climate change issues which include the renewable energy policy and feed-in tariff regime;

Monitoring the climate change, impacts and study the projection of future climate change scenarios;

A voluntary reduced of up to 40% in terms of carbon emission intensity of GrossDomesticProduct(GDP) by the year 2020 compared to 2005 levels (UNFCC, 2014)

Promoting efficient water uses, strengthening and diversification of water sources (waste water from different supplies, seawater for desalinated and for electricity),

Control quality water to supply the population,

Maintaining the operating conditions of drainage systems and wastewater treatment,

Risk urban flood control, Increase the number of

technical-scientific literature disclosing them. (PENSAAR)

Proposed adaptation measures/strategies in Malaysia/Portugal water resources

PortugalMalaysiaIn Tenth Malaysian Plan: Development and

improvement of water sector infrastructure;

Development of water supply in rural areas;

In the Eleventh Malaysia Plan: Improve and strengthen the

regulations of the water services industry framework, which include:

- expansion of water supply network, - capacity of the water treatment plants.

As regards climate change in:

PortugalMalaysia

Portuguese Environmental Agency

(APA)

who proposes, develops,

monitors and exercises

authority functions for

the environmental

liability regime.

Ministry of Science, Technology and

Innovation (MOSTI)

who is monitoring the

climate change, impacts

and study the

projection of future

climate change

scenarios

Final Considerations

Malaysia Portugal

Several plans,

some of which without a

local technical-scientific

and update.

Management of climate

change without the

support of knowledge of

public bodies (NGOs)

and private and research

organization in all

phases of impact.

- Climate change is natural on planet Earth;

- Human activities do not allow to restore balance

(examples: nuclear testing and exploitation of oil and

other resources);

- Water is an essential resource for life of all;

- Climate change is changing everything we knew;

- Currently, it is a mystery how will our future;

- If we continue to practice what we have been doing,

quickly extinguish;

It is recalled that:

More technical and scientific studies,

Application of good socioeconomic and environmental

practices.

Water is an essential resource for life of all.

It is urgent to determine the impacts of climate

change and identify the most appropriate

measures in this case in the field of water,

with