VTU MBA-TQM 12MBA42 Module 7

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VTU MBA-TQM 12MBA42 Module 7

Transcript of VTU MBA-TQM 12MBA42 Module 7

  • 1. Continuous Improvements By Prof. Raghavendran V

2. Proactive ImprovementsBy. Prof. Raghavendran V2 3. There are some improvements that they wont use hard data but rely on subjective information. Application of these tools has proven useful in process improvement, cost reduction, policy making & deployment and New-Product Development.Proactive Improvements By. Prof. Raghavendran V3 4. The tools are very simple, it is effective and it can be key to finding the root cause of a problem in specific terms and then ask why. You may have to ask why 2 or more times to obtain root cause of the problem.Proactive Improvements By. Prof. Raghavendran V4 5. There are 9 different techniques involved and also called as Management tools Technique. There are listed as follows: 1. Forced Field Analysis 2. Nominal Group Technique 3. Affinity Diagram 4. Interrelationship Digraph 5. Tree Diagram 6. Matrix Diagram 7. Prioritization Matrices 8. Process Decision Program Chart(PDPC) 9. Activity Network Diagram Management Tools & Techniques By. Prof. Raghavendran V5 6. This analysis is used to identify the force & factors that may influence the problem or goal. It helps an organization to better understand promoting & inhibiting forces so that the positives can be reinforced & the negatives can be reduced. The procedure is define the Objective, determine the criteria for evaluating effectiveness of action Forced Field Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V6 7. For Illustration: Objective: Stop Smoking Promoting Forces to stop smokingInhibiting forces to cant stop SmokingPoor HealthHabitSmelly ClothingAddictionCostTasteImpact on othersAdvertisementSetting an ExampleStressThe Benefit are the determination of the positives and negatives, encouraging people to prioritize the competing forces and identify root causes.Forced Field Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V7 8. This provides for issue/idea input from everyone on the team and for effective decisions. For Example: Indian cricket team decides which problem to work on. All players write down on the papers the problems they think is most important. Ranking is consider to evaluate the problem. The highest number is consider as most important problem. Nominal Group Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V8 9. This diagram allows the team to creatively generate large number of issues/ideas and logically group them for problem understanding and possible breakthrough solutions. The procedure is to state the issues in a full sentences, brain storm. (large group must be divided into small groups with appropriate headings) Affinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V9 10. For Illustration for scrambled idea: Fatigue Pitch What are issues involved in losing the world cup for England Ambience of the crowd Big GroundsNot enough experience playersNo form playersFear of TerrorismSpin Tracks No seriousness in playingAffinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V10 11. For Illustration for Ordered idea: What are issues involved in losing the world cup for England About Technical aspects Fatigue PitchNot enough experience playersBig GroundsNo seriousness in playingSpin TracksNo form playersAmbience of the crowdFear of Terrorism About Public FactorsAbout PlayersAffinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V11 12. The Interrelationship Diagraph clarifies the inter relationship of many factors of a complex situation. It allows to team to classify the cause & effect relationships among the all the factors. The procedure is complicated & as follows 1. The team should agree on the issue or problem statement. 2. All the ideas or issues must be laid out Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V12 13. 3. 4. 5.6.Start with first issue & evaluate with the other issue using cause-effect relationship. The second iteration is to compare second issue with other issue and followed by. The entire diagram should be reviewed where necessary. It is good idea to obtain information from others people Upstream or Downstream. The diagram is completed by tallying the incoming & outgoing arrows and placing this information below the box.Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V13 14. Benefits of Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) It allows a team to identify root causes from subjective data systematically. Cause and effect relationships Encourage members to think in multidirectional Develops team harmony and effectiveness. Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V14 15. This tool is used to reduced any broad objective into increasing levels in detail in order to achieve objective. Procedure to choose action oriented objective statement. Secondly, brainstorming, choose the major headings Thirdly, generate the next level analyzing the major heading. Tree Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V15 16. Here diagram allows individuals or teams to identify, analyze and rate the relationship among two or more variable. Data are presented in table form and can be objective or subjective, which can be given symbols with or without numerical values. There are different formats 2 or variables L-shaped (2V), T or C or Y-shaped(3V) and X Shaped (4V). Matrix Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V16 17. By. Prof. Raghavendran V17 18. For Illustration:Tool/ UseCreativityAffinityAnalysisoConsensusActionoIDoTree Diagram oPrioritization MatrixMatrix Diagramo Always FrequentlyOccasionally By. Prof. Raghavendran V18 19. These tools prioritize issues, tasks, characteristics, and based on weighted criteria using combination of tree and matrix diagram techniques. Prioritization matrices are designed to reduce the teams options rationally before detailed implementation planning occurs. Prioritization Matrices By. Prof. Raghavendran V19 20. Construct an L-shaped matrix combing the options Determine implementation criteria Nominal Group technique. Prioritize the criteria using NGT, each member weights the criteria so that total weights equal to 1.00 Rank order the options in terms of importance by each criterion Compute the option importance scoreConstruction of Prioritization Matrices By. Prof. Raghavendran V20 21. Programs to achieve particular objectives do not always go according to plan, and unexpected developments may have serious consequences. The PDPC avoids surprises and identifies possible countermeasures.Process Decision Program Chart By. Prof. Raghavendran V21 22. Plan successful conferencesRegistrationSpeakers LateAudio/Visual Fails Have BackupHave SubstituteFacilitiesPresentationsToo LongUse AV PersonUse Time KeeperBy. Prof. Raghavendran VPDPC22 23. This tool goes by a number of different names and deviations, such as program evaluation and review technique, Critical Path Method, arrow diagram and activity on node. It allows team to schedule a project efficiently. Activity Network Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V23 24. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)6)The team brainstorm/document all the tasks to complete project. The first task is always started from extreme left. Any tasks that can be done simultaneously. Repeat step 2 & 3 until all tasks are placed Number each task & draw connecting arrows. Determine the completion time and post it in the lower left box. Completion times recorded in hours/days/weeks Determine the critical path by completing the four remaining boxes in each task. These boxes are Earliest start time(ES), Earliest Finish(EF), Latest Start(LS) and latest Finish (LF).By. Prof. Raghavendran V24 25. Reactive ImprovementsBy. Prof. Raghavendran V25 26. Reactive Improvements is also known as Statistical Process Control. This is one of the best technical tools for improving product and service quality. There are seven basic technique and they are: 1. Pareto diagram 2. Process flow diagram Some what Statistical 3. Cause and effect diagram 4. Check sheets 5. Graphs- Histogram, Line graphs, Pie charts 6. Scatter diagram 7. Control Charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V26 27. Alfred Pareto conducted extensive studies of the distribution of wealth in Europe. Pareto diagram is a graph of that ranks data classification in descending order of their numerical value of their frequency of occurrence from left to right in accordance with the variables. Variables are problems, complaints, causes, type of non conformities. Pareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V27 28. Pareto Diagram Concepts: 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4Category of dataPareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V28 29. Determine the method of classifying the data (Problem, cause, non conformity and so forth) Decide if rupees, frequency or both are to be used to rank the characteristics. Collect data for an appropriate time interval or use historical data. Summarize the data and rank order categories from largest to smallest. Construct the diagram and find the vital few.Construction of Pareto diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V29 30. Solve the problem: In an recent 1st internal assessment conducted for 7th mechanical students, the following result declared for 48 students 0-14 marks: 31 Students 15-20 marks: 13 Students 21-25 marks: 04 Students. Categorize them using Pareto Diagram.By. Prof. Raghavendran V30 31. 353130 25 20 150-14 15-20 21-251365%10 45 27% 008%Students marksPareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V31 32. It shows different activities of a process operation, for a product or services as it moves through the various processing operations. The diagram makes it easy to visualize the entire system, identify potential trouble spots and locate control activities. Process Flow Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V32 33. For Illustration: let us consider vehicle parking operation in a bus terminus. Customer gets the tkt for Parking Receive tkt from the customerCustomers parks the car Stamp the exit time on ticket Customers comes back to parking lot to leaveRead difference time and collect the time Customers drives the car