Vaccination – Pros & Cons

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  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons


    Alejandro Ivan Navarro Villarreal

    ID 1581580 Group 304

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons


    What is Vaccination?

    Vaccination is the process of protecting the body againstdisease by means of vaccines.

    A vaccine (from latin vaccacow) is a substance used toproduce active immunity, which is a suspension of pathogenswith decreased virulence. These pathogens are not very

    dangerous anymore, but they are enough to provoke aresponse from the immune system, thereby making theimmune system create antibodies without causing a seriousillness.

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons


    A Brief History of Vaccines

    In the late 1700s (around1796), a British physician,decided to test a hypothesishe had created fromrumors: that by getting

    cowpox, a disease with verymild effects in humans, onecould be protected from thedeadly smallpox. He testedit on a small child, and wassuccessful. Though rejected

    at first, later in the 19thcentury vaccines becamewidespread. During the 20thcentury, most modernvaccines were created, likeSabin oral vaccine or HBV(Hepatitis B vaccine)

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons


    Types of Vaccines

    Live-attenuated: Made with live organisms, which have beenweakened by means of chemicals (like formalin), heat, or othermedia. Example: MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella).

    Live: Made with live organisms, that do not cause seriousdisease. Example: Cowpox.

    Toxoid: Made with altered toxin. Example: Tetanus vaccine. Inactivated: Made with dead organisms. Example: Jonas Salks

    IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine).

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons



    Prophylactic: Prevent disease. Ex. PCV(Pneumococcus vaccine)

    Therapeutic: To treat disease. Ex.Rabies vaccine. There are investigations

    in place for a cancer vaccine.

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons


    Pros of Vaccines

    Provide protectionagainst otherwise fataldiseases.

    Much simpler to makethan medicines likeantibiotics or antivirals.

    Can eradicate

    disease. Extremely effective at

    preventing disease.

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons


    Cons of Vaccines

    May produce anallergic reaction.

    Live vaccines cancause harm to

    pregnant women andimmunosuppressedindividuals.

    May not work at all.

    Highly mutativeviruses (likerotavirus) vaccinesneed to be renewedevery so often.

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons



    The benefits far outweigh the risks; theeconomic advantage is very large (1$spent in vaccination can prevent around

    7 dollars of treatment), the other riskscan easily be eliminated with properprocedure, and the constant rotation of

    rotavirus vaccines is not very often(each year).

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons


    Monoclonal antibodies -Antecedents

    Until 1975, study and use of antibodieswas limited because of the difficulty inisolating significant amounts of a single

    antibody. This is because B-cells only produce

    antibodies when necessary, and not

    enough can be acquired practically fromblood, and B-cells cannot survive forlong in a culture.

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    Monoclonal antibodies -Hybridomas

    A technique developed byKhler and Milstein in 1975 (forwhich they won the Nobel Prizein 1984) solved these problems.The technique iscalled somatic cell

    hybridization Somatic cell hybridization

    consists in fusing an antibody-producing B-cells with myelomacells. The result, a hybridoma,retains the B-cells productivecapabilities and the myelomasability to grow and reproduceindefinitely. This is usually donewith mouse spleen cells.

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons


    Monoclonal Antibodies - Uses

    The usefulness of monoclonal antibodies isimmense: they allow scientists to acquirelarge amounts of a single antibody.

    This allows research of antibodies and usein treatment. They are used as diagnosticand research reagents as well as in humantherapy. There are currently 35 monoclonal

    antibody preparations approved forhumans by the FDA.

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    Monoclonal Antibodies -ProblemsAs they are foreign compounds, the

    immune system may act on them,producing HAMA (Human Anti-Mouse

    Antibodies), which not only eliminatethese antibodies, but may also createkidney-damaging complexes. This issolved through genetic engineering, that

    use human antibodies, and only replacethe variable region with the one providedby the mouse.

  • 8/13/2019 Vaccination Pros & Cons



    https://reader010.{domain}/reader010/html5/0624/5b2f1b3867d74/5b2f1b3fae73a.jpg Cohen, B., & Taylor, J. (2009). Memmler\'s the human body in health

    and disease. (11th Edition ed.). Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Business. Crown, K. (1986). The world book encyclopedia. (A ed., Vol. 10).

    Chicago: World Book Inc.