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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALCOHOL AWARENESS, ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES Candace Small A Thesis Submitted to the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Arts Department of Psychology University of North Carolina Wilmington 2010 Approved by Advisory Committee __Nora Noel Sally MacKain ___ _Richard Ogle Chair Accepted by Dean, Graduate School

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    Candace Small

    A Thesis Submitted to the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Partial Fulfillment

    of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Arts

    Department of Psychology

    University of North Carolina Wilmington


    Approved by

    Advisory Committee

    __Nora Noel Sally MacKain ___

    _Richard Ogle Chair

    Accepted by

    Dean, Graduate School




    ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................................................... iii 

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................................................ iv 

    DEDICATION .................................................................................................................................................. v 

    LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................................. vi 

    INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 1 

    METHOD ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 

    Participants ........................................................................................................................................... 10 

    Measures .............................................................................................................................................. 12 

    Procedure.............................................................................................................................................. 14 

    RESULTS ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 

    DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................................. 18 

    REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 29 

    APPENDIX A. ................................................................................................................................................ 32 





    Alcohol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs among Americans. When used

    irresponsibly, alcohol has the potential to cause numerous and severe consequences. Treatment

    and prevention programs often assume that increased alcohol-related knowledge should

    minimize excessive use and negative consequences. This study examined the relationship

    between alcohol knowledge, quantity and frequency of alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative

    consequences in three groups of people: a sample of undergraduate college students, a

    community sample, and a sample of high-risk drinkers. My hypotheses were that individuals

    who scored lower on an alcohol awareness measure would drink more and more frequently than

    those who scored higher and individuals who scored lower on an alcohol awareness measure

    would have suffered more alcohol-related negative consequences than those who scored higher.

    Neither hypothesis was supported. In fact, for the undergraduate sample results supported the

    opposite: those who had higher alcohol awareness drank more and suffered more consequences.

    Other significant results, implications, and limitations were discussed.




    First and foremost I would like to thank my mentor, Dr. Richard Ogle for his faith in my

    abilities, his constant words of encouragement, and his ability to offer guidance while still

    allowing me my independence.

    I am also very grateful for all the support I have received from my family, my husband,

    and my in-laws, who have all shared in the anxieties and joys of my accomplishments.

    Finally, thanks also goes out to my committee for their patience, counsel, and inspiration.



    I would like to dedicate this thesis to my brother, Justin Haney, who taught me to stay

    strong and never give up, even in the face of extreme adversity.



    LIST OF TABLES Table Page

    1. Between Samples Comparison – Means and Standard Deviations .......................................... 24

    2. Correlations between AAQ Score and QFI, DRINC, AEQ, and SCL-90 – College ................ 25

    3. Correlations between AAQ Score and QFI, DRINC, AEQ, and SCL-90 – DMV ................... 26

    4. Correlations between AAQ Score and QFI, DRINC, AEQ, and SCL-90 – DWI .................... 27

    5. Stepwise Linear Regression ...................................................................................................... 28 




    A recent nationwide survey conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health

    Services Administration (SAMHSA) indicated that 82.3% of the US population, ages 12 and

    older, have consumed alcohol in their lifetime, 65.7% in the past year, and 51.1% in the past

    month. This survey also revealed that over 31 million Americans drove under the influence of

    alcohol in the past year and approximately 8.5 million Americans suffered from alcohol

    dependence. What was even more compelling about this survey was that 7.5% of the entire

    population (over 18.5 million people) met criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse. Of these

    individuals, over 18% were below the legal drinking age of 21. This number may not sound very

    large, but it translates into approximately 3.5 million alcohol-abusing or alcohol-addicted

    teenagers (Office of Applied Studies, 2008).

    Even outside of the context of a diagnosable condition such as alcohol dependence or

    abuse, the impact of alcohol related consequences is a significant public health problem that

    impacts a number of different demographics – especially college students (Ham and Hope,

    2003). A study done by Hansen, Fearnow-Kenny, Wyrick, Dyreg, and Beau (2001) identified

    several alcohol-related negative consequences experienced by a sample of college students. In

    this study, students reported problems such as nausea/vomiting or feeling tired, memory loss,

    feeling sad or blue, physical injury, feeling nervousness or irritability, having unplanned or

    unprotected sex, getting into physical fights, having interpersonal problems, having problems at

    work or school, hurting another person, spending too much money, driving after drinking,

    engaging in illegal activities, problems with appetite, problems with sleep, and having regrets

    about something they did while drinking. Of these, the most commonly reported were

    nausea/vomiting or feeling tired, feeling sad or blue, and spending too much money (Hansen,


    Fearnow-Kenny, Wyrick, Dyreg, and Beau, 2001). In a similar study, the consequences most

    often reported by students were having a hangover, being sick or vomiting after drinking, and

    experiencing blackouts. Other consequences reported were becoming rude, obnoxious or

    insulting, engaging in sexual experiences that were later regretted, driving after drinking, getting

    into physical fights, and damaging property (Lee, Geisner, Patrick, and Neighbors, 2010). An

    alarming part of this study was that most students perceived these consequences as relatively

    benign even though some of them have the potential for severe legal ramifications and some

    represent symptoms of potentially fatal effects of alcohol on the body.

    During a drinking episode, individuals are likely to experience more than one negative

    consequence (Usdan, Martin, Mays, Cremeens, Weitzel, and Bernhardt, 2008). One study found

    that over half of participants reported experiencing multiple adverse consequences on one

    drinking occasion. Participants in the same study reported that even positive consequences of

    drinking (e.g. feeling good, having a good time, etc) were often accompanied by one or more

    negative consequences (Usdan, Martin, Mays, Cremeens, Weitzel, and Bernhardt, 2008).

    The above mentioned studies demonstrate that alcohol is a widely used and widely

    abused drug, and has the potential to cause numerous and sometimes serious consequences.

    However, not everyone who drinks experiences adverse consequences. Some studies suggest that

    the amount of alcohol consumed may have an effect on the quantity and/or frequency of

    consequences experienced. Neal and Carey (2007) found that the more alcohol an individual

    drinks, the more likely they are to experience negative consequences. More specifically, they

    found that for every 0.01 increase in an individual’s blood alcohol concentration, the odds of

    experiencing an adverse consequence went up by 1.15. Another study found that “risky single-

    occasion drinking” (i.e. 5 drinks or more on one occasion) resulted in more legal problems,


    accidents, fights, and immediate health problems (e.g. headaches, sickness, blackouts) than

    drinking the same amount of alcohol over a longer time period. In other words, individuals who

    drink larger amounts of alcohol at one time experience more negative consequences (Kuntsche,

    Plant, Plant, Miller, and Gmel, 2008).

    Studies have shown that individuals who binge drink are more likely to report negative

    consequences than drinkers who do not binge drink (Sheffield, Darkes, Del Boca, and Goldman,

    2005). Researchers have defined binge drinking as having five or more drinks for a male or four

    or more drinks for a female during one drinking episode (Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, and

    Rimm, 1995). Binge drinking has been linked to many short-term as well as long-term negative

    outcomes including most of the consequences listed in the previous studies (Jennison, 2004;

    Wechsler and Nelson, 2001) as well as the development of depressive symptoms (Paljärvi,

    Koskenvuo, Poikolainen, Kauhanen, Sillanmäki, and Mäkelä, 2009), use of other substances

    such as tobacco, marijuana, cocaine and other illicit drugs (Jones, Oeltmann, Wilson, Brener, and

    Hill, 2001), and development of alcohol abuse and dependence (Jennison, 2004).

    An important question to ask is why do some people drink more than others and suffer

    more negative consequences from alcohol use? The answer is likely multi-factorial, but could, in

    part, be lack of knowledge. The relationship between alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol

    involvement has been examined in a small number of studies. Gonzalez and Broughton (1994)

    conducted a study proposing a relationship between alcohol knowledge and alcohol

    consumption. They compared two national samples of college students to examine the changes

    that occurred in alcohol knowledge and consumption over a decade. In 1981 and again in 1991,

    researchers recruited a sample of college students who visited Daytona Beach, Florida for spring

    break. Using an exhibit booth at a College Expo event called “The BACCHUS College of


    Alcohol Knowledge,” they were able to administer a short 10-item true/false knowledge

    questionnaire to 1,881 students in 1981 and 1,487 students in 1991. Results showed that the

    percentage of drinkers significantly decreased over the decade. Also, the percentage of light

    drinkers significantly increased, whereas the percentage of moderate and heavy drinkers

    significantly decreased. Finally, they found that the alcohol knowledge score significantly

    increased from 1981 to 1991 (Gonzalez and Broughton, 1994). These results suggest that

    knowledge about alcohol may in fact influence drinking patterns.

    In another study on alcohol-related knowledge, researchers examined the relationship

    between drinking behaviors and alcohol knowledge among a group of college students at a small

    private university in the Southeast. They administered the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ)

    to a group of 129 undergraduates and found that alcohol knowledge was inadequate in that only

    41% of the participants answered less than 50% of the items on the knowledge questionnaire

    correctly. They also found that more than half of the students reported engaging in binge

    drinking. In this study, the most frequently reported negative consequences of drinking were

    hangover and vomiting (Coll, Draves, and Major, 2008). The results of these studies taken as a

    whole suggest that great knowledge may reduce consequential alcohol consumption.

    Given the extensive scope of alcohol use, misuse, and related consequences, many

    organizations have turned to alcohol education as a method of prevention with the hope that

    increasing alcohol-related knowledge will lower the number of consequences experienced by

    individuals. Several college campuses now require students to complete alcohol education

    courses as a method of primary as well as secondary prevention. A study by Borsari and Carey

    (2005) utilized students who had committed a violation of a school alcohol policy and were

    referred for further education. Participants were divided into two groups: an Alcohol Education


    (AE) group and a Brief Motivational Intervention (BMI) group. Participants in the AE group

    were taught information common to many alcohol education programs in the US including topics

    such as BAC and tolerance, normative quantity and frequency of drinking, alcohol-related

    problems, alcohol expectancies, and the influence of setting and expectancy on drinking.

    Participants in the BMI group were taught the same information, but were also exposed to

    motivational interviewing and the harm reduction model. Data analysis revealed that both groups

    decreased alcohol consumption following the programs. Both groups also showed a decrease in

    alcohol-related problems following the programs, although the BMI group showed a greater

    decrease than the AE group. These effects were maintained as shown by a 3-month as well as a

    6-month follow-up. Although the BMI group decreased alcohol-related problems more than the

    AE group, what is important is that both groups decreased alcohol consumption and related

    problems (Borsari and Carey, 2005). These results indicate that knowledge alone may be enough

    to change drinking patterns and behavior.

    Web- and computer-based programs have become an effective way for college

    administrators to reach large numbers of students, thus these programs are beginning to be

    utilized for alcohol education and harm prevention. One such program is College Alc. College

    Alc is an internet-based alcohol education course that delivers to students current research

    findings regarding college alcohol use and drinking norms, consequences, harm prevention

    strategies, and treatment options in the form of graphics, interactive animations, readings,

    quizzes, and video clips. A study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of this program for

    incoming freshmen at a public university in Northern California found that the program helped to

    reduce the frequency of heavy drinking and negative consequences among students who were

    regular drinkers before beginning their college career (Bersamin, Paschall, Fearnow-Kenney, and


    Wyrick, 2007). Other web- or computer-based alcohol education programs that have proven to

    be potentially effective methods of prevention include Alcohol 101 (Donohue, Allen, Maurer,

    Ozols, and DeStefano, 2004) and (Chiauzzi, Green, Lord, Thum,

    and Goldstein, 2005).

    In North Carolina, and in many other states in the US, substance abuse treatment

    programs have become a mandatory task for those convicted of a driving while impaired (DWI)

    offense in order to prevent recidivism. Most of these programs require some alcohol education

    component (Dill and Wells-Parker, 2006). In 1997, a study was done in California to assess the

    effectiveness of three types of outpatient alcohol education and treatment programs for people

    convicted of driving under the influence (DUI). The first type was a 3-month program for first-

    time offenders and consisted of a minimum of 10 hours of education, 10 hours of counseling, and

    10 hours of education/counseling. The second program was for individuals convicted of a second

    DUI within 7 years of receiving their first conviction. This program lasted 18 months and

    required at least 12 hours of education and 52 hours of counseling. The third and final program

    was for offenders with 3 or more DUI convictions within a 7-year period. It had a duration of 30

    months and consisted of 18 hours of education, 117 hours of counseling, and 120-300 hours of

    community service. The study consisted of a sample of 88,552 offenders in the 3-month

    program, 27,293 offenders in the 18-month program, and 32,787 offenders in the 30-month

    program. In all three programs, treatment proved to not only be an effective method of reducing

    DUI recidivism, but proved to be more effective than license revocation alone (Deyoung, 1997).

    Up until 2009, the treatment program for DWI offenders in North Carolina was Alcohol

    and Drug Education Traffic School (ADETS). In 2009, a new educational program called

    PRIME for Life was mandated to replace ADETS. PRIME for Life is designed to alter attitudes


    toward drinking and drug use, increase abstinence, and reduce high-risk drinking and drug use

    (Prevention research institute, 2008). A study by Knighton (2002) aimed to assess the

    effectiveness of PRIME for Life. Participants were given a survey before and after completing

    the program. Results revealed that after completing PRIME for Life, participants were better able

    to identify who is at risk for developing alcoholism, held fewer risky beliefs associated with

    high-risk drinking, and increased individual consciousness of risk for developing alcoholism

    (Knighton, 2002). It is unknown as to whether this increased awareness was related to changes in

    drinking; however, from this study and those cited above, there is reason to believe that

    increased knowledge reduced negative consequences. It must be noted though that most of these

    studies are conducted on college students or people arrested for DUI – little data exists on

    community samples.

    The purpose of this study will be to examine the relationship between alcohol awareness,

    alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. Many previous studies in this

    area have tended to focus exclusively on college students, and for good reason. College students

    in general seem to be notorious for drinking, drinking in large amounts, and experiencing an

    abundance of alcohol-related negative consequences. In fact, one nationwide study estimates that

    at least 1,700 college students are killed unintentionally and an additional 600,000 are injured

    because of alcohol each year (Hingson, Heeren, Winter, and Wechsler, 2005). Several factors

    may contribute to students’ high-risk drinking patterns. First of all, many colleges have a Greek

    system (i.e. fraternities and sororities). On average, members of the Greek system drink more

    often, drink in greater amounts, and engage in more risky behaviors than non-Greek students

    (Scott-Shelden, Carey, and Carey, 2008). Also, many students reach the legal drinking age of 21

    while in college. Lewis, Lindgren, Fossos, Neighbors, and Oster-Aaland (2009) found that


    students in their study reported heavier drinking on the week of their 21st birthday and 60% of

    those students reported experiencing alcohol-related negative consequences during that week

    (most of which were hangovers, vomiting, and blackouts). College sporting events tend to

    increase alcohol consumption among students. One study found that over half of participants

    drank on days when there were football games at the university, and a significant percentage of

    those students drank more alcohol for longer periods of time and experienced more adverse

    consequences than on other drinking days (Glassman, Dodd, Sheu, Rienzo, and Wagenaar,

    2010). Finally, school holidays such as Spring Break tend to cause increased drinking and related

    consequences for college students. Lee, Lewis, and Neighbors (2009) found that approximately

    70% of participants in their study drank during Spring Break and almost 40% of those students

    experienced negative alcohol-related consequences of some sort during that time. Because

    college students are a high-risk group, I included a sample of undergraduate college students in

    my study.

    Although college students are a high-risk group, it is important consider a broader sample

    of the population when assessing alcohol knowledge and drinking behavior because there are

    many other high-risk groups that do not fall into the category of college student. For example,

    Donnelly, Mowery, and McCarver (1998) found that substance abuse knowledge was extremely

    limited among a group of inner-city, African-American, postpartum mothers with known

    substance use during pregnancy. Not only are the mothers in this group high-risk, but as their

    children grow into adolescence, they might be as well. Other high-risk groups prevalent in the

    general community may include military personnel (Stahre, Brewer, Fonseca, and Naimi, 2009)

    and individuals with psychological disorders such as Depression (Conner, Pinquart, and Gamble,


    2009), Bipolar I and II (Chengappa, Levine, Gershon, and Kupfer, 2000), and Schizophrenia (Drake

    and Mueser, 2002).

    It is also important to assess alcohol awareness of the general public because even if

    being uneducated about substances doesn’t contribute to personal substance use problems,

    individuals with inadequate knowledge may not recognize substance use problems in others

    when attention to the problem is severely needed. Griffiths, Stone, Tran, Fernandez, and Ford

    (2007) assessed alcohol knowledge in a sample of hospital nurses. Results revealed that nurses

    were generally ignorant about the recommended maximum daily consumption of alcohol, the

    signs and symptoms of alcohol dependence, and signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and

    overdose. Most of the nurses in the sample disclosed that they did not feel competent to care for

    someone with alcohol-related problems. These findings are especially troubling considering the

    high number of medical problems and hospital admissions that are due to alcohol use (Griffiths

    et al, 2007).

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between alcohol knowledge, quantity and

    frequency of alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences in a sample of

    undergraduate college students as well as a sample of high-risk drinkers and a sample of the

    general public. This is an extension of prior studies in that multiple domains of alcohol

    knowledge were assessed and the three different groups were compared in a single study.

    Possible moderators of this relationship including impulsivity, psychopathology, and alcohol

    expectancies were examined. It is important to note that the purpose of this study is not to

    evaluate prevention programs, but rather to gain a better understanding of the relationship

    between knowledge and consequences. My hypotheses were 1) individuals who score lower on

    an alcohol awareness measure will drink more and more frequently than those who score higher



    and 2) individuals who score lower on an alcohol awareness measure will have suffered more

    alcohol-related negative consequences than those who score higher.



    Participants were recruited from three locations. The first group (64% of the overall

    sample) consisted of 380 undergraduate students enrolled in psychology courses at the

    University of North Carolina at Wilmington. These students were recruited using an online sign-

    up system for psychology studies at the university. Within this sample, 63% (n=240) of

    participants were female and 37% (n=140) were male. The age of participants in this group

    ranged from 18 to 48, with an average age of 19.5 years (SD=2.34). Regarding race, 83.2%

    (n=316) were Caucasian, 4.2% (n=16) were African American, 3.4% (n=13) were Hispanic,

    1.6% (n=6) were Native American, 2.6% (n=10) were Asian, 4.5% (n=17) were Bi-racial/Multi-

    racial, and 0.5% (n=2) identified with “Other.” All participants in this sample had completed at

    least 12 years of education with the most years completed being 18 and the average being 13.5


    The second group (21% of the overall sample) was a community sample of 123

    individuals which were recruited through the local Department of Motor Vehicles. I chose to

    recruit participants at the DMV because it provides a more representative sample of the

    community and it is a place where individuals will have ample time to fill out questionnaires as

    they wait in line. The participants in this sample consisted of 62% (n=76) females and 38%

    (n=47) males. The ages were widely varied with a range of 18 to 88 years of age and an average

    of 37.5 years (SD=15.39). Regarding race, 78.5% (n=95) were Caucasian, 13.2% (n=16) were

    African American, 5.8% (n=7) were Hispanic, 0.8% (n=1) were Native American, 0.8% (n=1)



    were Asian, and 0.8% (n=1) identified with “Other.” The number of years of education

    completed reported by participants in this group ranged from 7 to 19 years, with an average of

    14.4 years (SD=2.40).

    The third group (15% of the overall sample) consisted of 87 DWI offenders enrolled in

    the PRIME for Life program at a local substance abuse treatment center. In order to qualify for

    this program, the individual must have been a first-time DWI offender who proved to have a

    blood alcohol content of 0.14 or less at the time of their offense, and did not meet criteria for

    substance abuse or dependence. Within this sample, 31% (n=27) of participants were female and

    69% (n=60) were male. Ages ranged from 18 to 57 years, with an average of 31.3 years

    (SD=9.14). Regarding race, 95.3% (n=82) were Caucasian, 1.2% (n=1) were African American,

    1.2% (n=1) were Native American, 1.2% (n=1) were Asian, and 1.2% (n=1) identified with

    “Other.” The number of years of education reported by participants varied greatly in this group,

    ranging from 8 to 22 years, with an average of 14 years (SD=2.19).

    The combined sample included 590 participants. Fifty-eight percent (n=343) of the

    participants were female and 42% (n=247) male. Ages ranged from 18 to 88 years, with an

    average of 25 years (SD=11.05). Regarding race, 84% (n=493) were Caucasian, 5.6% (n=33)

    were African American, 3.4% (n=20) were Hispanic, 1.4% (n=8) were Native American, 2%

    (n=12) were Asian, 2.9% (n=17) were Bi-racial/Multi-racial, and 0.7% (n=4) identified with

    “Other.” The number of years of education in the overall sample ranged from 7 to 22, with an

    average of 13.7 years (SD=1.76).

    There were significant differences between groups regarding age (F(2, 573)=264.47,




    group was significantly older than the UNCW and DWI groups. Concerning education, the

    UNCW group had significantly less years of education than both the DWI and DMV groups;

    however, there was no significant difference for years of education between the DWI and DMV

    groups. It appears that the main differences in race between groups were due to the substantially

    higher number of Caucasians in the DWI group and African Americans in the DMV group.


    Each participant completed a battery of questionnaires including a measure for

    demographics, quantity and frequency of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, impulsivity,

    psychopathology, alcohol-related negative consequences, and alcohol knowledge.

    Demographics Questionnaire. This questionnaire determines general demographics such as race,

    age, sex, level of education, and relationship status.

    Quantity and Frequency Index (QFI; Cahalan and Cisin, 1968). This questionnaire assesses

    alcohol usage occurring in the last 90 days preceding the individual’s participation in the study.

    Specifically, it inquires about such variables as total number of days when alcohol was

    consumed, average number of drinks per day, and the most amount of alcohol consumed in one


    Drinkers Inventory of Consequences Lifetime Version (DRINC-2L; Miller, Tonigan, and

    Longabaugh, 1995). This self-report measure provides 50 items meant to assess negative

    consequences the individual has experienced from drinking at any point over their lifetime. The

    five subscales scored are physical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, social responsibility and impulse

    control. There is also a sum total score. Example items include, ““I have missed days at work or

    school because of my drinking” and “I have gotten into a physical fight while drinking.”



    Reliability of this measure ranges from 0.72 to 0.87 for all of the subscales and the sum total


    Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ; George, Frone, Cooper, Russell, Skinner, and Windle,

    1995). This self-report measure includes 40 true/false items meant to assess the individuals

    beliefs about the effects alcohol has on them. It divides into eight scales including global

    positive, power and aggression, social and physical pleasure, sexual enhancement, careless

    unconcern, cognitive and physical impairment, social expressiveness and tension reduction.

    Example items include, “Alcohol makes me feel closer to people” and “Drinking increases male

    aggressiveness.” Reliability for all of the scales is good, ranging from 0.83 to 0.92.

    UPPS Impulsivity Inventory (UPPS; Whiteside and Lynam 2001). This questionnaire is a 46-

    item self-report measure used to assess four specific personality pathways to impulsive behavior.

    The four pathways include sensation-seeking, urgency, lack of premeditation, and lack of

    perseverance. Sensation-seeking refers to an individual’s preference for excitement and

    stimulation, as well as their openness to new experiences. Urgency measures an individual’s

    tendency to give in to strong impulses when under the influence of negative affects such as

    depression, anxiety, and anger. Lack of premeditation refers to the individual’s ability to think

    through the consequences of a behavior before acting. Lack of perseverance measures an

    individual’s ability to complete tasks despite boredom, difficulty, or fatigue. All four scales show

    good reliability ranging from 0.83 to 0.89.

    Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90R; Derogatis, 1994). This instrument is a 90-item self-

    report measure used to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of

    psychopathology. It scores into 10 subscales including somatization, obsessive-compulsive,

    interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation,



    psychoticism, and a global severity index. The subscales all have good reliability, ranging from

    0.75 to 0.90.

    Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 1975). The original Student Alcohol Questionnaire

    is a 70-item self-report measure that breaks down into four subscales: Quantity/Frequency

    Patterns, Problems Resulting from Drinking, Knowledge of Alcohol and Attitudes Toward

    Drinking. We decided to use different, more in depth measures for quantity/frequency, problems

    resulting from drinking, and attitudes toward drinking, therefore, the only part of the SAQ

    included in this study is the Knowledge of Alcohol subscale. The Knowledge of Alcohol

    subscale consists of 35 questions to which the participant may answer “true”, “false”, or “do not

    know.” Example items include, “Alcohol is usually classified as a stimulant” and “Liquor mixed

    with soda pop will affect you faster than liquor drunk straight.” This subscale has good reliability

    at 0.85. We divided the questions into 8 further subscales including pharmacology, drinking

    norms, composition of alcoholic beverages, risks/consequences of alcohol use,

    classifications/definitions, history of alcohol, alcohol addiction/abuse, and treatment of alcohol

    addiction. In order to adequately measure each of these subscales of knowledge, we added 25

    true/false questions to the questionnaire. The added questions were obtained from empirically

    validated information found in the PRIME for Life instruction manual and participant



    The undergraduate student participants signed up for the study online through the

    university’s website using a system called SONA. When they showed up to the site of the study

    on the date and time that they registered for, they were given an informed consent form and



    administered the battery of questionnaires. Upon completion, they were assigned credit for

    participation through the SONA system.

    For the community sample (DMV sample), individuals were asked to participate as they

    wait in line for their number to be called. Those who agreed to participate were given the

    informed consent and then the battery of questionnaires.

    As mentioned before, our last sample of participants was recruited from a local substance

    abuse treatment center. Participants in the Prime for Life program were asked to participate in

    the study as they waited for group to begin on their first day. Those who volunteered were then

    administered an informed consent and then a questionnaire battery.


    Concerning alcohol consumption, only 16% (n=97) of participants reported abstention

    from any alcohol in the past 90 days, and only 4% (n=26) reported never having had a drink in

    their lifetime. The average number of drinking days in the past 90 days was 24.4 (SD=21.5). The

    average number of drinks on a typical weekday was 2.96 (SD=4.17) and on a typical weekend

    day was 6.34 (SD=4.65). The largest number of drinks consumed in a 24-hour period ranged

    from 0 to 52, with an average of 9.91 (SD=7.10). There were significant differences between

    groups regarding the average number of drinks consumed on a typical weekend day

    (F(2,442)=14.31, p



    reported drinking 20 or more drinks on one occasion. Approximately 4% (n=24) of the total

    sample reported that they currently had an alcohol or drug problem and 12% (n=69) reported

    having a past problem with alcohol or drugs. Over 7% (n=42) of participants reported that they

    had attended a self-help group for themselves and 7% (n=42) reported that they had received

    some type of treatment for alcohol or drugs. Table 1 displays differences between groups

    regarding alcohol consumption.

    The consequences most frequently endorsed by participants were having a hangover after

    drinking (84.6%), being sick or vomiting after drinking (73.9%), saying or doing embarrassing

    things while drinking (71.8%), and taking foolish risks while drinking (61.3%). Others that were

    endorsed at a disturbing rate were “When drinking, I have done impulsive things that I regretted

    later” (54.8%), I have gotten into trouble because of drinking. (47.7%), I have driven a motor

    vehicle after having three or more drinks” (47.1%), “I have smoked tobacco more when I am

    drinking” (43.7%), I have had an unwanted sexual experience while drinking or intoxicated”

    (28%), “While drinking or intoxicated, I have been physically hurt, injured, or burned” (27.3%).

    Consequences endorsed least often included losing a marriage or close love relationship because

    of drinking (3%), not being a good parent because of drinking (3%), and being suspended/fired

    from a job/school because of drinking (3.5%). Total score on the DRINC-2L ranged from 0 to 45

    (out of a possible 50), with an average of 11.59 (SD=8.83). There were significant differences

    between groups on total consequences (F(2, 574)=10.00, p



    There were no significant differences for reported consequences between the college and DMV

    groups. Table 1 displays differences between groups regarding negative consequences.

    Regarding alcohol knowledge, 41% of the overall sample answered less than 50% of the

    questions correctly. Number of questions answered correctly ranged from 6 to 53 (out of 60 total

    questions), with an average of 31 (SD=7.86). Regarding the eight subscales, participants scored

    higher on the Addiction/Abuse scale than all other scales with an average of 58% correct, and the

    Risks/Consequences scale with an average of 57% correct. Participants scored lowest on the

    Classifications scale with an average of 47% correct and the Treatment scale with an average of

    48% correct. There were no significant differences between groups on overall alcohol

    knowledge. However, there were significant differences between groups on many of the

    subscales including Pharmacology (F(2, 587)=6.68, p



    negatively correlated with several AEQ subscales including global positive (r=-0.10, p



    groups of individuals: a sample of college students, a sample of the general public (DMV), and a

    sample of high-risk drinkers (DWI). Regarding alcohol consumption, over half of the total

    sample reported binge drinking in the past 90 days, with many participants reporting drinking 15

    or more drinks on one occasion and several others reporting drinking 20 or more drinks on one

    occasion. These numbers are concerning for many reasons. First of all, binge drinking to this

    extreme consuming could indicate a raised tolerance which is a symptom of alcohol dependence.

    Second, consuming too much alcohol on one occasion can lead to overdose and/or death.

    The college sample tended to drink in higher quantities than both the DMV and DWI

    samples, yet the DWI sample (i.e. the sample of high-risk drinkers) reported experiencing a

    greater number of consequences than both the college and DMV samples. Having a hangover

    after drinking, being sick or vomiting after drinking, saying or doing embarrassing things while

    drinking, and taking foolish risks while drinking were the consequences reported most frequently

    by participants. Many participants also endorsed doing impulsive things that they later regretted

    while drinking, getting into trouble because of drinking, driving while intoxicated, smoking more

    cigarettes when drinking, having unwanted sexual experiences while drinking, or being

    physically hurt, injured, or burned while drinking. Several of these items are especially alarming

    because they suggest consequences of drinking that may pose a serious risk or harm to the

    individual or others around them.

    Alcohol knowledge was extremely limited with 41% of the overall sample answering less

    than 50% of the questions correctly. This is the exact percentage found in the Coll, Draves, and

    Major (2008) study mentioned previously. There were no differences in overall knowledge

    between groups, however; there were differences on knowledge subscales between groups. The

    college group scored higher on the Pharmacology and Classifications scales than the DMV



    group, but scored lower than the DMV group on the Addiction/Abuse scale and lower on the

    Treatment scale than both the DMV and the DWI groups. The explanation for these differences

    could be first-hand experiences. As mentioned before, the college sample drank in higher

    quantities than both the DMV and DWI samples. Having more experience with higher quantities

    of alcohol may have given them more knowledge regarding the effects of alcohol (i.e.

    pharmacology) and about how alcohol is described (i.e. classified). Significant correlations

    between knowledge of pharmacology, classifications, as well as composition (i.e. what different

    types of alcohol are made of) and quantity/frequency of alcohol use in the college sample further

    support this notion. Being that the DMV and DWI samples were significantly older than the

    college sample, they are more likely to have been through an addiction and/or treatment before

    and therefore gained knowledge through experience. The data showed that there was, in fact, a

    significant correlation between age and treatment history. The data also revealed that there were

    differences between groups regarding reports of having a current or past alcohol or drug

    problem. Consistent with the differences in knowledge on the Addiction/Abuse scale, the

    differences that existed were between the DMV and college groups. The DMV group had more

    knowledge of Addiction/Abuse than the college sample and was also more likely to have

    reported a current or past alcohol or drug problem.

    My hypotheses were that greater alcohol awareness would be associated with less

    quantity and frequency of alcohol use and with fewer negative consequences. Neither hypothesis

    was supported by our data. In fact, for the college sample, the opposite relationship was found. In

    this sample, a higher level of alcohol knowledge was correlated with higher alcohol consumption

    as well as more negative consequences. In all three samples, quantity and frequency of alcohol



    use predicted more adverse consequences. In the college sample, more alcohol knowledge along

    with higher alcohol consumption predicted consequences.

    One explanation for these results could, again, be experience. Participants may have

    gained alcohol awareness through their own experiences with alcohol and its effects,

    consequences, etc. For example, one of the questions on the AAQ was, “For individuals who

    suffer from alcoholism, withdrawal from alcohol can result in seizures.” Obviously an individual

    who has actually experienced seizures as a result of withdrawal from alcohol would have more

    knowledge on the subject. The study results support this notion in that the AAQ Pharmacology

    scale was significantly, positively correlated with quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption

    in all three samples. This could imply that those who drink more know more about the effects of

    alcohol through first-hand experiences. Also, in the college and DMV groups, more knowledge

    of Risks/consequences was significantly, positively correlated with having experienced more

    consequences, indicating that those who have experienced more adverse effects from alcohol

    know more about the possible adverse effects of alcohol.

    Another explanation may be the failure of this study to gather a timeline of consequences

    from participants. In other words, it could be that those who are more educated about alcohol do

    currently experience less consequences; however, the DRINC-2L measures consequences over a

    lifetime and as a result, I am unable to determine whether the consequences they experienced

    occurred before or after their acquired alcohol knowledge. For example, in the college sample,

    knowing more about treatment was positively correlated with having more consequences.

    Students who violate campus alcohol policy are often referred for outpatient substance abuse

    treatment; therefore, their knowledge of treatment could be a result of their having to seek

    treatment as a result of consequences. For future studies, a simple solution to this problem would



    be to include the DRINC-2R (Miller, Tonigan, and Longabaugh, 1995) which establishes

    consequences experienced over the previous 90 days.

    This study contains a number of limitations. First of all, the Alcohol Awareness

    Questionnaire may not have been the most accurate test of knowledge. Although participants

    were instructed to answer “Don’t Know” to questions that they genuinely did not know, the

    True/False format of the test would give them a 50% chance of getting the question right if they

    guessed. A multiple choice format may have lessened the chances of guessing correctly. Another

    limitation may be that this study was based on self-report. Participants, especially students or

    DWI offenders in the treatment program, may have held back when answering questions about

    quantity/frequency and consequences for fear of getting in some type of trouble with

    administrators. Also, the DMV and DWI samples were much smaller than the college sample. I

    may have been able to find more significant results in those groups if I had been able to include

    more participants. Finally, this study is correlational rather than experimental therefore, no

    cause-and-effect conclusions can be drawn from the results.

    Whether my hypotheses were supported or not, one thing is most certainly clear: those

    who drink more and more often are at a higher risk for experiencing more negative consequences

    from alcohol. Therefore, a major implication of this study is the extreme need for continued

    effective substance abuse prevention programs in the US, not only for college students, but for

    the general public. Effective prevention programs could lead to less alcohol consumption and

    therefore fewer alcohol-related problems in our society. Many of the alcohol-related problems

    discussed in this study may seem minor, but the reality is that alcohol use and abuse can have

    serious consequences. Alcohol is involved in an astounding number of homicides, physical

    assaults, sexual assaults, and child abuse cases (National Institutes of Health, 1997). Drunk



    driving causes a tremendous number of injuries and deaths across the nation every single day

    (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Alcohol use has also been linked to liver

    disease (NIH, 1998) and cancer (NIH, 1993). If education alone is not enough to prevent harm

    from alcohol, we must figure out what is. Future studies should be aimed at finding the most

    effective forms of prevention. If we could figure out how to stop the problem before it starts,

    then we wouldn’t have a problem to begin with.



    Table 1

    Between Samples Comparison – Means and Standard Deviations_________________________

    Measure College DMV DWI Alcohol Consumption

    Number of drinking days in the past 90 days 22.98 (SD=19.71) 27.75 (SD=27.31) 28.14 (SD=21.65)

    Number of drinks consumed on a typical weekday 3.06 (SD=3.38) 2.98 (SD=7.06) 2.50 (SD=2.92) Number of drinks consumed on a typical weekend day 7.10 (SD=4.37) 4.64 (SD=5.31) 4.56 (SD=4.16) Largest number of drinks consumed in a 24-hour period 10.88 (SD=6.80) 6.51 (SD=7.94) 9.04 (SD=6.17)

    Negative Consequences

    Total 10.94 (SD=7.50) 10.84 (SD=10.86) 15.48 (SD=10.33) Physical 2.64 (SD=1.66) 2.63 (SD=1.95) 2.96 (SD=1.98) Interpersonal 1.67 (SD=1.42) 1.91 (SD=2.46) 2.56 (SD=2.51) Intrapersonal 1.72 (SD=1.88) 1.76 (SD=2.24) 2.28 (SD=2.17) Social Responsibility 1.78 (SD=1.86) 1.46 (SD=2.01) 2.36 (SD=2.01) Impulse Control 3.13 (SD=2.55) 3.08 (SD=3.20) 5.51 (SD=2.91)

    Alcohol Knowledge Total 31.01 (SD=7.26) 30.98 (SD=8.31) 31.71 (SD=9.65) Pharmacology 5.54 (SD=1.85) 4.85 (SD=2.05) 5.11 (SD=2.06) Norms 4.37 (SD=1.30) 4.48 (SD=1.41) 4.20 (SD=1.51) Risks/Consequences 4.00 (SD=1.26) 3.85 (SD=1.39) 4.01 (SD=1.60) Addiction/Abuse 3.95 (SD=1.34) 4.25 (SD=1.41) 4.21 (SD=1.38) Composition 4.51 (SD=1.89) 4.53 (SD=1.91) 4.91 (SD=2.24) Treatment 2.69 (SD=1.47) 3.29 (SD=1.56) 3.14 (SD=1.62) History 3.52 (SD=1.25) 3.43 (SD=1.41) 3.38 (SD=1.48) Classifications 2.93 (SD=1.30) 2.59 (SD=1.14) 2.75 (SD=1.42)



    Table 2 Correlations between AAQ Score and QFI, DRINC, AEQ, and SCL-90 – College_____________

    Pharm Norms Risks Abuse Comp Treat Hist Class Total # of Drinking days in the past 90 days 0.14* 0.03 0.09 0.13* 0.19*** 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.19**

    # of drinks on a typical weekday 0.14* 0.05 0.01 0.08 0.17** -0.01 0.01 0.13* 0.14*

    # of drinks on a typical weekend day 0.17** 0.10 0.06 0.07 0.23*** 0.03 0.07 0.14* 0.20***

    Largest # of drinks in 24 hours 0.15* 0.08 0.05 0.08 0.25*** 0.03 0.06 0.13* 0.19***

    DRINC Total Score 0.25*** 0.10 0.24*** 0.18*** 0.30*** 0.19*** 0.06 0.19***0.31***

    AEQ – Global Positive -0.11* -0.09 -0.02 -0.04 -0.13* -0.01 -0.08 0.01 -0.10*

    AEQ – Power/ Aggression -0.10 -0.09 -0.08 -0.12* -0.19*** -0.06 -0.00 -0.10* -0.15**

    AEQ – Social/Phys. Pleasure -0.24***-0.19*** -0.13* -0.14** -0.27*** -0.09 -0.06 -0.18***-0.27***

    AEQ – Sex -0.06 -0.08 0.00 -0.09 -0.12* -0.05 0.04 -0.08 -0.09

    AEQ – Careless Unconcern -0.02 -0.09 -0.05 -0.06 -0.13* -0.01 0.02 -0.11* -0.09

    AEQ – Cog./Phys. Impairment -0.15** -0.09 -0.08 -0.14** -0.17** -0.06 -0.05 -0.11* -0.17**

    AEQ – Social Express. -0.13* -0.07 -0.04 -0.08 -0.15** 0.02 -0.01 -0.11* -0.12*

    AEQ - Tension Reduction -0.21***-0.12* -0.11* -0.16** -0.26*** -0.05 -0.07 -0.12* -0.24***

    SCL-90 – Global Severity 0.09 0.04 0.15** 0.03 0.05 0.12* 0.09 0.01 0.11*

    Note. *p



    Table 3

    Correlations between AAQ Score and QFI, DRINC, AEQ, and SCL-90 – DMV_______________

    Pharm Norms Risks Abuse Comp Treat Hist Class Total # of Drinking days in the past 90 days 0.01 0.11 -0.00 0.07 0.06 0.10 0.10 0.22 0.12

    # of drinks on a typical weekday 0.04 0.01 0.05 -0.00 0.18 -0.03 0.16 -0.04 0.08

    # of drinks on a typical weekend day 0.26* 0.12 0.05 0.02 0.18 0.03 0.07 0.16 0.20

    Largest # of drinks in 24 hours 0.29* 0.26* 0.09 0.02 0.19 0.03 0.05 0.21 0.25* DRINC Total Score 0.06 -0.03 0.19* 0.11 0.10 0.16 -0.03 0.10 0.12

    AEQ – Global Positive -0.05 0.02 -0.15 -0.01 0.05 -0.10 0.03 -0.04 -0.02

    AEQ – Power/ Aggression -0.12 -0.02 -0.24* -0.06 -0.04 -0.10 -0.06 -0.12 -0.13

    AEQ – Social/Phys. Pleasure -0.30** -0.04 -0.38*** -0.02 -0.14 -0.24* -0.08 -0.13 -0.25*

    AEQ – Sex -0.01 0.04 -0.12 -0.03 0.08 -0.03 0.05 0.03 0.01

    AEQ – Careless Unconcern -0.15 -0.03 -0.23* -0.01 0.01 -0.15 -0.10 -0.01 -0.12

    AEQ – Cog./Phys. Impairment -0.16 0.08 -0.27** 0.02 -0.06 -0.18 -0.08 -0.17 -0.15

    AEQ – Social Express. -0.08 0.01 -0.34*** 0.00 -0.00 -0.20* -0.02 -0.10 -0.11

    AEQ - Tension Reduction -0.07 0.05 -0.22* -0.07 0.08 -0.12 -0.00 0.05 -0.05

    SCL-90 – Global Severity -0.02 -0.03 0.13 0.05 0.00 0.03 -0.05 -0.08 -0.01

    Note. *p



    Table 4

    Correlations between AAQ Score and QFI, DRINC, AEQ, and SCL-90 – DWI_______________

    Pharm Norms Risks Abuse Comp Treat Hist Class Total # of Drinking days in the past 90 days 0.23 0.02 0.27 -0.11 0.27 0.26 0.02 0.13 0.23

    # of drinks on a typical weekday 0.13 -0.09 -0.04 -0.11 -0.05 -0.04 0.11 -0.14 -0.05

    # of drinks on a typical weekend day 0.26* 0.27* 0.21 0.07 0.08 -0.02 0.11 0.01 0.18

    Largest # of drinks in 24 hours 0.11 0.18 0.13 -0.00 -0.10 -0.21 -0.09 0.06 0.01

    DRINC Total Score 0.21* 0.22* 0.11 0.04 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.24* 0.20

    AEQ – Global Positive 0.03 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05 -0.01 -0.03 0.06

    AEQ – Power/ Aggression -0.13 -0.12 0.06 0.10 0.08 0.09 0.01 0.06 0.03

    AEQ – Social/Phys. Pleasure -0.24* -0.06 -0.14 0.07 -0.01 -0.00 -0.02 0.04 -0.05

    AEQ – Sex -0.11 0.08 -0.08 0.11 0.12 0.03 0.11 0.04 0.05

    AEQ – Careless Unconcern -0.18 -0.17 -0.19 -0.13 -0.16 -0.08 -0.08 -0.22 -0.20

    AEQ – Cog./Phys. Impairment -0.24* -0.10 -0.13 -0.07 -0.03 -0.10 0.01 -0.06 -0.12

    AEQ – Social Express. -0.14 -0.08 -0.02 0.11 0.04 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00

    AEQ - Tension Reduction -0.21 -0.07 -0.03 0.07 -0.08 0.00 -0.00 0.08 -0.04

    SCL-90 – Global Severity 0.14 0.04 0.02 0.11 0.18 -0.04 0.08 0.07 0.11

    Note. *p



    Table 5

    Stepwise Linear Regression_______________________________________________________

    B Significance R² College

    Number of drinking days in the past 90 days 0.19 0.005**

    Number of drinks consumed on a typical weekday 0.02 0.76

    Number of drinks consumed on a typical weekend day 0.23 0.03*

    Largest number of drinks consumed in a 24-hour period 0.12 0.24 0.27***

    AAQ Score 0.13 0.02* 0.29*

    DMV Number of drinking days in the past 90 days -0.10 0.53

    Number of drinks consumed on a typical weekday 0.21 0.18

    Number of drinks consumed on a typical weekend day -0.02 0.93

    Largest number of drinks consumed in a 24-hour period 0.47 0.06 0.30**

    AAQ Score 0.12 0.34 0.32

    DWI Number of drinking days in the past 90 days -0.08 0.65

    Number of drinks consumed on a typical weekday 0.19 0.26

    Number of drinks consumed on a typical weekend day -0.33 0.09

    Largest number of drinks consumed in a 24-hour period 0.66 0.003** 0.32*

    AAQ Score 0.23 0.16 0.37 _____________________________________________________________________________ Note. *p




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    Appendix A. Demographic Form

    Please provide the following information:

    1. Gender: _________________

    2. Age: ___________________

    3. Race:

    ______ Caucasian

    ______ African American

    ______ Hispanic

    ______ Native American

    ______ Asian

    ______ Bi-racial/Multi-racial

    ______ Other: _____________________

    4. Years of education completed ______.

    5. Current relationship status (check one).

    _____ Married

    _____ Single

    _____ Engaged

    _____ Divorced



    Alcohol Awareness Questionnaire (AAQ)


    The questions will either be True or False. If you do not know the answer to the question, DO NOT GUESS.

    If you think the answer is TRUE, write "1" for true.

    If you think the answer is FALSE, write "2" for false.

    If you do not know the answer, write "0" on the line.

    1) Drinking milk before drinking an alcoholic beverage will slow the absorption of alcohol into the body. _____

    2) In America, drinking is usually considered an important socializing custom in business, for relaxation and for improving interpersonal relationships. _____

    3) A blood alcohol content of 0.1% is the legal definition of alcohol intoxication in most states, in regards to driving. _____

    4) A person cannot become an alcoholic by just drinking beer. _____

    5) Wines are mad by fermenting grains. _____ 6) There is a medication available for the treatment of alcoholism that blocks the

    effects of alcohol on the brain.                 _____ 

    7) Alcohol was used for centuries as a medicine in childbirth, for sedation and surgery. _____

    8) Alcohol is usually classified as a stimulant. _____

    9) Liquor mixed with soda pop will affect you faster than liquor drunk straight. _____ 10) Gulping of alcoholic beverages is a commonly accepted drinking pattern in this

    country. _____ 

    11) Approximately 10% of fatal highway accidents are alcohol related. _____

    12) A sign of alcohol dependence is increased tolerance. _____



    13) Alcoholic beverages do not provide weight-increasing calories. _____

    14) Alcoholics Anonymous is the only free method of treatment for individuals with alcoholism. _____

    15) Wines throughout history have been commonly drunk at religious ceremonies and family gatherings. _____

    16) Alcohol is not a drug. _____

    17) A 150 pound person, to keep his blood alcohol concentration below the legally intoxicated level, would have to drink fewer than 3 beers in an hour. _____

    18) It is estimated that approximately 85% of the adult Americans who drink misuse or abuse alcoholic beverages. _____

    19) Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is generally not harmful to the body. _____

    20) For individuals who have alcoholism, withdrawal from alcohol can result in seizures. _____

    21) Table wines contain from 2-12% alcohol by volume. _____

    22) Methadone Maintenance can be used in the treatment of alcoholism. _____

    23) Drinking of alcoholic beverages has been common in the U.S.A. since the Puritans

    first settled here. _____

    24) Proof on a bottle of liquor represents half the percent of alcohol contained in the bottle. _____

    25) To prevent getting a hangover, one should sip one's drink slowly, drink and eat at the same time, space drinks over a period of time, and not drink over one's limit. _____

    26) Many people drink to escape from problems, loneliness and depression. _____

    27) You cannot die from an overdose of alcohol. _____

    28) Some people are born with a higher biological risk for developing alcoholism than others.                      _____ 

    29) Distilled liquors (whiskey, gin, vodka, etc.) Usually contain about 15-20% alcohol by volume. _____

    30) There is a medication used in the treatment of alcoholism that makes individuals violently ill if they consume alcohol while taking it. _____



    31) Alcohol has only been used in a very few societies throughout history. _____

    32) The definition of binge drinking is 10 or more drinks for a male and 8 or more for a female.                      _____ 

    33) Responsible drinking can result in relaxation, enhanced social interactions, and a

    feeling of well-being. _____

    34) The most commonly drunk alcoholic beverage in the united States are distilled liquors (whiskey, gin, vodka). _____

    35) Cirrhosis of the liver is incurable and irreversible. _____ 36) Individuals who have a family history of alcoholism are four times more likely to

    develop alcoholism themselves. _____

    37) An ounce of whisky contains about 60 calories. _____ 38) Alcoholics Anonymous is a nationwide support group that teaches alcoholics to

    moderate their drinking. _____

    39) Americans drank more alcohol per capita in the 1800s than they drink today. _____

    40) A “standard drink” refers to ½ ounce of pure alcohol in any alcoholic beverage. _____

    41) It takes about as many hours as the number of beers drunk to completely burn up the alcohol ingested.                    _____ 

    42) Many people drink for social acceptance, because of peer group pressures, and to gain adult status. _____

    43) When an individual consuming alcohol experiences a blackout, they have lost consciousness. _____

    44) If you don’t have withdrawal symptoms when you are not drinking, then you are

    not addicted to alcohol. _____

    45) Liquors such as gin, scotch and whiskies are usually distilled from mashes made from Fermenting grains. _____

    46) Inpatient treatment centers are meant to help people who are addicted to drugs and not alcohol. _____

    47) The 21st Amendment to the US Constitution outlawed the production and sale of alcohol.                      _____ 



    48) If alcohol is a depressant, that means it can make you feel sad when you drink it. _____

    49) A blood alcohol concentration of .02% causes a person to be in a stupor. _____

    50) The United States lacks a national consensus on what constitutes the responsible use of

    alcoholic beverages. _____

    51) A person who drinks 2 drinks everyday will experience more problems from drinking than a person who drinks 8 drinks every Friday night but doesn’t drink for the rest of the week.                      _____

    52) Approximately 3.5% of the American population suffers from alcoholism. _____

    53) Beer usually contains from 2-12% alcohol by volume. _____

    54) The first beers were produced in Egypt. _____ 55) Eating while drinking will have no effect on slowing down the absorption of alcohol

    in the body. _____

    56) There is usually more alcoholism in a society that accepts drunken behavior than in

    a society that frowns on drunkenness. _____

    57) The amount of alcohol in one 12 ounce beer is the same as the amount of alcohol in one ounce of 100 proof liquor. _____

    58) Drinking coffee or taking a cold shower can be an effective way of sobering up. _____

    59) The amount of alcohol in a 4 oz glass of wine (12% alcohol) is the same as the amount of alcohol in a 1 ½ ounce shot of 80 proof liquor.          _____ 

    60) Liquor taken straight will affect you faster than liquor mixed with water. _____




    1. Frequency of alcohol use in last three months: a. If you have never had an alcoholic beverage (beer, wine or liquor) in your life, check here and go on to I c. b. If you have not had any alcoholic beverage in the LAST THREE MONTHS, check here and go on to I c. c. If you checked I a or I b, please check the reasons for deciding not to drink (check all that apply)

    1. Not old enough (it's illegal) 2. Religious or moral disapproval of alcohol use 3. Health Reasons (e.g. illness, pregnancy) 4. Concern that you might have (or develop) an alcohol problem 5. Other (specify)

    d. If you did not check I a, b, or c, please answer the following questions: 2. During the LAST THREE MONTHS (about 90 days) about how many days would you estimate that you drank at least one alcoholic beverage? (Think about weekends, parties, stressful events, celebrations with friends, meals, and so on). Remember to estimate between 1 and 90 days: Days a. During the LAST THREE MONTHS (about 90 days), have you experienced a major change on your drinking habits?

    1. No, my drinking stayed the same as usual 2. Yes, I quit drinking altogether 3. Yes, I started drinking for the first time 4. Yes, I started drinking much more than I usually do 5. Yes, I started drinking much less than I usually do

    3. Quantity of alcohol used in the last three months People often drink more than one type of alcoholic beverage on a given day. In addition, their drinking often varies depending on whether it is a weekday or weekend. Therefore, we want you to think of a TYPICAL WEEKDAY on which you drank, and estimate the amounts of each of these three beverages you had to drink. (Example: "On Thursdays, when I would get together with friends, I would drink about three 12 oz beers and two mixed drinks") a. Estimated average drinking on a TYPICAL WEEKDAY in the LAST THREE MONTHS:



    b. Estimated average drinking on a TYPICAL WEEKEND DAY in the LAST THREE MONTHS: c. Finally, of all the days in the last three months, what is the LARGEST AMOUNT of alcohol you have had in one 24 hour period?

    OTHER SUBSTANCE USE How often have you used any of these psychoactive substances? For the column labeled “Ever,” mark Y for yes and N for No. For the columns labeled “Last 3 mo” and “Past 30 days,” code frequency of use according to the following scale: 0 = Never 1 = 1 or 2 times in the last three months 2 = once per month 3 = once every two weeks 4 = once per week 5 = 2 - 4 times per week 6 = almost everyday Substance Frequency of Use Ever Last 3 mos. Past 30 days Caffeine ___ ___ Nicotine ___ ___ Marijuana/Hashish ___ ___ Cocaine/Crack ___ ___ Meth/Amphetamines (not prescribed) ___ ___ Heroin ___ ___ Hallucinogens ___ ___ Inhalants ___ ___



    Do you feel you currently have a drinking or drug problem? N Y Have you ever in the past had a problem with any of these substances? N Y Have you ever attended a self-help group (like Alcoholics Anonymous, or Women for Sobriety, or Narcotics Anonymous) for yourself? N Y Have you ever had treatment for an alcohol or drug problem? N Y Do, or did, any of your family members have an alcohol or drug problem? N Y



    SCL – 90

    Below is a list of problems people sometimes have. Please read each one carefully and circle the number that best describes how much this problem has distressed or bothered you during the past 7 days including today. Please do not skip any items.

    0 1 2 3 4

    Not at all A little bit Moderately Quite a bit Extremely

    1. Headaches. 0 1 2 3 4 2. Nervousness or shakiness inside. 0 1 2 3 4 3. Repeated unpleasant thoughts that won’t leave your mind. 0 1 2 3 4 4. Faintness or dizziness. 0 1 2 3 4 5. Loss of sexual interest or pleasure. 0 1 2 3 4 6. Feeling critical of others. 0 1 2 3 4 7. The idea that someone else can control your thoughts. 0 1 2 3 4 8. Feeling others are to blame for most of your troubles. 0 1 2 3 4 9. Trouble remembering things. 0 1 2 3 4 10. Worried about sloppiness or carelessness. 0 1 2 3 4 11. Feeling easily annoyed or irritated. 0 1 2 3 4 12. Pains in the heart or chest. 0 1 2 3 4 13. Feeling afraid in open spaces or on the streets. 0 1 2 3 4 14. Feeling low in energy or slowed down. 0 1 2 3 4 15. Thoughts of ending your life. 0 1 2 3 4 16. Hearing voices that other people do not hear. 0 1 2 3 4 17. Trembling. 0 1 2 3 4



    18. Feeling that most people cannot be trusted. 0 1 2 3 4 19. Poor appetite. 0 1 2 3 4 20. Crying easily. 0 1 2 3 4 21. Feeling shy or uneasy with the opposite sex. 0 1 2 3 4 22. Feelings of being trapped or caught. 0 1 2 3 4 23. Suddenly scared for no reason. 0 1 2 3 4 24. Temper outburst that you could not control. 0 1 2 3 4 25. Feeling afraid to go out of your house alone. 0 1 2 3 4 26. Blaming yourself for things. 0 1 2 3 4 27. Pains in lower back. 0 1 2 3 4 28. Feeling blocked in getting things done. 0 1 2 3 4 29. Feeling lonely. 0 1 2 3 4 30. Feeling blue. 0 1 2 3 4 31. Worrying too much about things. 0 1 2 3 4 32. Feeling no interest in things. 0 1 2 3 4 33. Feeling fearful. 0 1 2 3 4 34. Your feelings being easily hurt. 0 1 2 3 4 35. Other people being aware of your private thoughts. 0 1 2 3 4 36. Feeling that others do not understand you or are unsympathetic. 0 1 2 3 4 37. Feeling that other people are unfriendly or dislike you. 0 1 2 3 4 38. Having to do things very slowly to insure correctness. 0 1 2 3 4 39. Heart pounding or racing. 0 1 2 3 4 40. Nausea or upset stomach. 0 1 2 3 4



    41. Feeling inferior to others. 0 1 2 3 4 42. Soreness of your muscles. 0 1 2 3 4 43. Feeling that you are watched or talked about by others. 0 1 2 3 4 44. Trouble falling asleep. 0 1 2 3 4 45. Having to check and double-check what you do. 0 1 2 3 4 46. Difficulty making decisions. 0 1 2 3 4 47. Feeling afraid to travel on buses, subways, or trains. 0 1 2 3 4 48. Trouble getting your breath. 0 1 2 3 4 49. Hot or cold spells. 0 1 2 3 4 50. Having to avoid certain things, places, or activities because they frighten you. 0 1 2 3 4 51. Your mind going blank. 0 1 2 3 4 52. Numbness or tingling in parts of your body. 0 1 2 3 4 53. A lump in your throat. 0 1 2 3 4 54. Feeling hopeless about the future. 0 1 2 3 4 55. Trouble concentrating. 0 1 2 3 4 56. Feeling weak in parts of your body. 0 1 2 3 4 57. Feeling tense or keyed up. 0 1 2 3 4 58. Heavy feelings in your arms or legs. 0 1 2 3 4 59. Thoughts of death or dying. 0 1 2 3 4 60. Overeating. 0 1 2 3 4 61. Feeling uneasy when people are watching or talking about you. 0 1 2 3 4 62. Having thoughts that are not your own. 0 1 2 3 4 63. Having urges to beat, injure, or harm someone. 0 1 2 3 4



    64. Awakening in the early morning. 0 1 2 3 4 65. Having to repeat the same action such as touching, counting, or washing. 0 1 2 3 4 66. Sleep that is restless or disturbed. 0 1 2 3 4 67. Having urges to break or smash things. 0 1 2 3 4 68. Having ideas or beliefs that others do not share. 0 1 2 3 4 69. Feeling very self-conscious with others. 0 1 2 3 4 70. Feeling uneasy in crowds, such as shopping or at a movie. 0 1 2 3 4 71. Feeling everything is an effort. 0 1 2 3 4 72. Spells of terror or panic. 0 1 2 3 4 73. Feeling uncomfortable about eating or drinking in public. 0 1 2 3 4 74. Getting into frequent arguments. 0 1 2 3 4 75. Feeling nervous when you are left alone. 0 1 2 3 4 76. Others not giving you proper credit for your achievements. 0 1 2 3 4 77. Feeling lonely even when you are with people. 0 1 2 3 4 78. Feeling so restless you couldn’t sit still. 0 1 2 3 4 79. Feelings of worthlessness. 0 1 2 3 4 80. The feeling that something bad is going to happen to you. 0 1 2 3 4 81. Shouting or throwing things. 0 1 2 3 4 82. Feeling afraid that you will faint in public. 0 1 2 3 4 83. Feeling that people will take advantage of you if you let them. 0 1 2 3 4 84. Having thoughts about sex that bother you a lot. 0 1 2 3 4 85. Feeling you should be punished for your sins. 0 1 2 3 4



    86. Thoughts and images of a frightening nature. 0 1 2 3 4 87. The idea that something serious is wrong with your body. 0 1 2 3 4 88. Never feeling close to another person. 0 1 2 3 4 89. Feelings of guilt. 0 1 2 3 4 90. The idea that something is wrong with your mind. 0 1 2 3 4




    INSTRUCTIONS: Here are a number of events that people sometimes experience as a result of drinking alcohol. Read each one carefully and circle the number that indicates whether this has EVER happened to you (0=No, 1=Yes). If an item does not apply to you, circle zero (0).

    YES NO 1. I have had a hangover or felt bad after drinking. 1 0 2. I have felt bad about myself because of my drinking. 1 0 3. I have missed days of work or school because of my drinking. 1 0 4. My family or friends have worried or complained about my drinking. 1 0 5. I have enjoyed the taste of beer, wine, or liquor. 1 0 6. The quality of my work has suffered because of my drinking. 1 0 7. My ability to be a good parent has been harmed by my drinking. 1 0 8. After drinking, I have had trouble with sleeping, staying asleep, or nightmares.1 0 9. I have driven a motor vehicle after having three or more drinks. 1 0 10. My drinking has caused me to use other drugs more. 1 0 11. I have been sick and vomited after drinking. 1 0 12. I have been unhappy because of my drinking. 1 0 13. Because of my drinking, I have not eaten properly. 1 0 14. I have failed t