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  • University of Huddersfield Repository

    McCabe, Mark

    Godfrey of Bouillon: Representations of Kingship and Masculinity on the First Crusade

    Original Citation

    McCabe, Mark (2015) Godfrey of Bouillon: Representations of Kingship and Masculinity on the  First Crusade. Masters thesis, University of Huddersfield. 

    This version is available at http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/27860/

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  • GODFREY OF BOUILLON: REPRESENTATIONS OF

    KINGSHIP AND MASCULINTIY ON THE FIRST

    CRUSADE

    MARK MCCABE

    A thesis submitted to the University of Huddersfield in partial fulfilment of the requirements

    for the degree of Masters by Research in History

    The University of Huddersfield

    September 2015

  • 2

    Copyright statement

    i. The author of this thesis (including any appendices and/or schedules to this

    thesis) owns any copyright in it (the “Copyright”) and s/he has given The

    University of Huddersfield the right to use such copyright for any administrative,

    promotional, educational and/or teaching purposes.

    ii. Copies of this thesis, either in full or in extracts, may be made only in accordance

    with the regulations of the University Library. Details of these regulations may be

    obtained from the Librarian. This page must form part of any such copies made.

    iii. The ownership of any patents, designs, trademarks and any and all other

    intellectual property rights except for the Copyright (the “Intellectual Property

    Rights”) and any reproductions of copyright works, for example graphs and

    tables (“Reproductions”), which may be described in this thesis, may not be

    owned by the author and may be owned by third parties. Such Intellectual

    Property Rights and Reproductions cannot and must not be made available for

    use without the prior written permission of the owner(s) of the relevant

    Intellectual Property Rights and/or Reproductions

  • 3

    Abstract

    This thesis uses a gendered reading of twelfth-century narratives of the First Crusade

    (1096-99) to analyse their presentation of Godfrey of Bouillon (d.1100), one of the crusade

    leaders and first Latin ruler of Jerusalem. Godfrey’s short reign has meant many modern

    historians consider his life a myth and that most of our knowledge of him was created after

    his death. This has caused these historian to place little value on researching him. However,

    using masculinity as an analysis of his deeds allows us to gain ideas about kingly

    masculinity in the twelfth-century, and how these ideas were disseminated through

    narratives.

    This thesis encompasses many of the twelfth-century crusade narratives which are

    disregarded by crusade historians because they were not eye witness to the events they

    describe. However this large corpus of texts can be better utilised to give us more ideas and

    knowledge about twelfth-century Western European thinking on the ideas of crusading,

    kingship, war, politics and religion. This means all texts regarding the First Crusade in the

    twelfth century have value for the insight they offer in this regard.

    Masculinity is not something gained through passing a certain age, it had to be learned, and

    therefore this work focuses on kingly masculinity which is the apex of masculinity and would

    have been used to inspire many of the warrior classes to go on crusade or how to act in

    general. These texts helped form the construction of their masculinity by their didactic

    nature, and they would have learned to be an ‘ideal man’ through the precedents set by

    their forbearers. As such these texts are deconstructed in this thesis to show exactly what

    constituted kingly masculinity in the twelfth-century.

  • 4

    Table of Contents

    Abstract ................................................................................................................... 3

    Table of Contents ...................................................................................................... 4

    List of abbreviations ................................................................................................... 5

    Introduction .............................................................................................................. 6

    Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................... 11

    Methodology ........................................................................................................ 11

    Sources ............................................................................................................... 18

    Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................... 23

    The Election of Godfrey ......................................................................................... 23

    Chapter 3 ............................................................................................................... 29

    The Leader........................................................................................................... 29

    Chapter 4 ............................................................................................................... 39

    The Warrior.......................................................................................................... 39

    Chapter 5 ............................................................................................................... 53

    The Pious ............................................................................................................. 53

    Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 65

    Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 68

    Word count: 24,665

  • 5

    List of abbreviations

    AA

    CA

    FC

    GF

    GN

    GP

    PT

    RA

    RC

    RM

    WT

    Albert of Aachen, History of the Journey to Jerusalem,

    Volume 1: Books 1-6 The First Crusade 1095-1099, ed.

    and trans. by Susan Edgington, (Farnham, 2013)

    The Chanson d’Antioche An Old French Account of the

    First Crusade, ed. and trans. by Susan B. Edgington

    and Carol Sweetenham, (Farnham, 2011)

    Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to

    Jerusalem, 1095-1127, trans. by Frances Rita Ryan, ed.

    By Harold S. Fink, (New York, 2011)

    Gesta Francorum et Aliorum Hierosolimitanorum, ed.

    and trans. by Rosalind Hill, (London, 1962)

    Guibert of Nogent, The Deeds of God through the

    Franks, ed. and trans. by Robert Levine, (Teddington,

    2008)

    Gilo of Paris, Historia vie Hierosolimitane, ed. and trans.

    by Christopher W. Grocock and J. Elizabeth Siberry,

    (Oxford, 1997)

    Peter Tudebode, Historia de Hierosolymitano Itinere,

    ed. and trans. by John Hugh Hill and Laurita Hill,

    (Philadelphia, 1974)

    Raymond of Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt

    Iherusalem, ed. and trans. by John Hugh Hill and

    Laurita L. Hill. (Philadelphia, 1968)

    Ralph of Caen, Gesta Tancredi: A History of the

    Normans on the First Crusade, ed. and trans. by

    Bernard S. Bachrach, and David Steward Bachrach,

    (Abingdon, 2005)

    Robert the Monk, Historia Iherosolimitana, ed. and

    trans. by Carol Sweetenham, (Aldershot, 2006)

    William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the

    Sea, ed. and trans. by E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey.

    (New York, 1943)

  • 6

    Introduction

    In 1095 Godfrey of Bouillon, a minor noble from Lower Lorraine, heeded Pope Urban II’s call

    for an armed pilgrimage to the Holy Land to liberate Holy Sepulchre from its Muslim

    occupiers. Godfrey’s exemplary conduct throughout the campaign and its incredible success

    led him to receive the highest distinction. Following the conquest of Jerusalem in July 1099

    he was electe