UNIT PRICE

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Colum bia H IV CenterG rand Rounds M arch 26 , 2009 The G row th ofD rug U se in Sub-Saharan A frica : Public H ealth and Policy Im plications ErnestD rucker, PhD
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UNIT PRICE. PRODUCTION. A paradoxical peace: HIV in post-conflict states J Becker and E Drucker. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of UNIT PRICE

  • Columbia

    HIV Center Grand Rounds

    March 26 , 2009

    The Growth of Drug Use in

    Sub- Saharan Africa :

    Public Health and Policy Implications

    Ernest Drucker , PhD

  • UNIT PRICEPRODUCTION

  • Chart20

    194019401940194019401940194019401940

    194119411941194119411941194119411941

    194219421942194219421942194219421942

    194319431943194319431943194319431943

    194419441944194419441944194419441944

    194519451945194519451945194519451945

    194619461946194619461946194619461946

    194719471947194719471947194719471947

    194819481948194819481948194819481948

    19491949194919493121949194919491949

    195019501950195019501950195019501950

    4211951195119515691951195119511951

    42119521952195219521952195219521952

    42119531953195319531953195319531953

    195419541954195419547319542421954

    1955195519557919551241955600664

    19562731956695195636219561113867

    1957467230092319574521957160101957

    1958400300019581958823195819581958

    165658233171959195911488019591959

    1960438196019601960196067019601960

    196127719611961196119618256401961

    41325881962196219621962196219626250

    43909781963196351121963177619636250

    196410841964196457501964240019646203

    196510661965196576071965250019656203

    1966135219661966100001966196619661966

    1967213619671967108721967196719671967

    1968250019681968144271968196819681968

    196929551969196919691969196919691969

    197033331970197019702407197019701970

    197133861971197119711971197119711971

    197245435202197219721972197219721972

    197319731973197319731973197319731973

    197419741974197419741974197419741974

    197519751975197519751975197519751975

    197619761976197619761976197619761976

    197719771977197719771977197719771977

    197819781978197819781978197819781978

    197919791979197919791979197919791979

    198019801980198019801980198019801980

    Angola

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)

    Congo (Kinshasa)

    Ivory Coast

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)

    Togo

    Uganda

    Year

    Number of Transfusions

    Number of Blood Transfusions in Selected Countries 1940-1980 with Logarithmic Regression Lines

    All Data

    Location19401941194219431944194519461947194819491950195119521953195419551956195719581959196019611962196319641965196619671968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980

    Angola421421421165641324390

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)273467400582438277588978108410661352213625002955333333864543

    Congo (Kinshasa)2300300033175202

    Ivory Coast79695923

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)312569511257507607100001087214427

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)7312436245282311482407

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)80670825177624002500

    Togo242600111316010640

    Uganda6648676250625062036203

    Log Data

    Angola2.62428209582.62428209582.62428209583.21906033243.61616031283.6424645202

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)2.4361626472.66931688062.60205999132.76492298462.64147411052.44247976912.76937732612.99033885483.03502928223.02775720473.13097669163.32960124843.39794000873.47055748523.52283531373.52968695383.6573427368

    Congo (Kinshasa)3.3617278363.47712125473.52074547153.7161703479

    Ivory Coast1.89762709132.84198480462.965201701

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)2.4941545942.75511226643.70859084523.75966784473.881213416344.03630944374.1591760318

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)1.86332286012.09342168522.55870857052.65513843482.91539983523.05994188813.3814760903

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)1.9030899872.82607480272.91645394853.24944296143.38021124173.3979400087

    Togo2.3838153662.77815125043.04649516434.20439133192.806179974

    Uganda2.82216807942.93801909753.79588001733.79588001733.79260178123.7926017812

    All Data

    Angola

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)

    Congo (Kinshasa)

    Ivory Coast

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)

    Togo

    Uganda

    Year

    Number of Transfusions

    Number of Blood Transfusions in Selected Countries 1940-1980

    Central

    Angola

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)

    Congo (Kinshasa)

    Ivory Coast

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)

    Togo

    Uganda

    Year

    Number of Transfusions

    Number of Blood Transfusions in Selected Countries 1940-1980 with Logarithmic Regression Lines

    East

    East

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    421

    421

    421

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    1656

    1960

    1961

    4132

    4390

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Angola

    Angola Linear

    West

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    273

    467

    400

    582

    438

    277

    588

    978

    1084

    1066

    1352

    2136

    2500

    2955

    3333

    3386

    4543

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry) Linear Plot

    Angola

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    2300

    3000

    3317

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    5202

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Congo (Kinshasa)

    Congo (Kinshasa) Linear Plot

    Cameroon

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    421

    421

    421

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    1656

    1960

    1961

    4132

    4390

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Angola

    Angola Log Scale

    Congo (Kinshasa)

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    273

    467

    400

    582

    438

    277

    588

    978

    1084

    1066

    1352

    2136

    2500

    2955

    3333

    3386

    4543

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)Log Scale

    Ivory Coast

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    2300

    3000

    3317

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    5202

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Congo (Kinshasa)

    Congo (Kinshasa) Log Scale

    Kenya

    Kenya

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    664

    867

    1957

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    6250

    6250

    6203

    6203

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Uganda

    Uganda Linear

    Sierra Leone

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    80

    670

    825

    1962

    1776

    2400

    2500

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?) Linear

    Tanzania

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    312

    1950

    569

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    5112

    5750

    7607

    10000

    10872

    14427

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab) Linear

    Togo

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    664

    867

    1957

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    6250

    6250

    6203

    6203

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Uganda

    Uganda Log Scale

    Uganda

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    80

    670

    825

    1962

    1776

    2400

    2500

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?) Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    312

    1950

    569

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    5112

    5750

    7607

    10000

    10872

    14427

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab) Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    79

    695

    923

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Ivory Coast

    Ivory Coast Linear Plot

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    242

    600

    1113

    16010

    1958

    1959

    1960

    640

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Togo

    Togo Linear Plot

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    73

    124

    362

    452

    823

    1148

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    2407

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp) Linear

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    79

    695

    923

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Ivory Coast

    Ivory Coast Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    242

    600

    1113

    16010

    1958

    1959

    1960

    640

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Togo

    Togo Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    73

    124

    362

    452

    823

    1148

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    2407

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp) Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    421

    421

    421

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    1656

    1960

    1961

    4132

    4390

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Angola

    Angola Linear

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    421

    421

    421

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    1656

    1960

    1961

    4132

    4390

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Angola

    Angola Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    273

    467

    400

    582

    438

    277

    588

    978

    1084

    1066

    1352

    2136

    2500

    2955

    3333

    3386

    4543

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry) Linear Plot

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    273

    467

    400

    582

    438

    277

    588

    978

    1084

    1066

    1352

    2136

    2500

    2955

    3333

    3386

    4543

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)

    Cameroon (Yaounde Hop Yaounde Ctry)Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    2300

    3000

    3317

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    5202

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Congo (Kinshasa)

    Congo (Kinshasa) Linear Plot

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    2300

    3000

    3317

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    5202

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Congo (Kinshasa)

    Congo (Kinshasa) Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    79

    695

    923

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Ivory Coast

    Ivory Coast Linear Plot

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    79

    695

    923

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Ivory Coast

    Ivory Coast Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    312

    1950

    569

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    5112

    5750

    7607

    10000

    10872

    14427

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab) Linear

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    312

    1950

    569

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    5112

    5750

    7607

    10000

    10872

    14427

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab)

    Kenya (Nairobi Red Cross Med Res Lab) Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    73

    124

    362

    452

    823

    1148

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    2407

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp) Linear

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    73

    124

    362

    452

    823

    1148

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    2407

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp)

    Sierra Leone (Connaught Hosp) Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    80

    670

    825

    1962

    1776

    2400

    2500

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?) Linear

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    1955

    1956

    1957

    1958

    80

    670

    825

    1962

    1776

    2400

    2500

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?)

    Tanzania (Dar es Salaam Whole Country?) Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    242

    600

    1113

    16010

    1958

    1959

    1960

    640

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Togo

    Togo Linear Plot

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    242

    600

    1113

    16010

    1958

    1959

    1960

    640

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Togo

    Togo Log Scale

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    664

    867

    1957

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    6250

    6250

    6203

    6203

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Uganda

    Uganda Linear

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

    1946

    1947

    1948

    1949

    1950

    1951

    1952

    1953

    1954

    664

    867

    1957

    1958

    1959

    1960

    1961

    6250

    6250

    6203

    6203

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    1976

    1977

    1978

    1979

    1980

    Uganda

    Uganda Log Scale

  • Estimated Transfusions in SSA by Decade: 1940s 1980s

    Decade

    SSA Pop

    midpoint decade

    - millions

    Range of Reported Trans per 100,000/yr

    Est Trans/year

    SSA Region

    ( Min Max)

    Est Median # of Transf in SSA for decades in Millions

    1940s

    165

    36- 47

    59,400- 77,500

    .68

    1950s

    190

    44- 100

    83,600-190,000

    1.37

    1960s

    244

    157- 265

    383,000- 646,600

    5.15

    1970s

    330

    300 400

    990,000- 1,320.000

    11.55

    1980s

    370

    500 600

    1,850,000- 2,200.000

    20.25

  • DHS Comparative Reports No. 21

    Medical Injection Use and HIV

    in Sub-Saharan Africa

    US AID Oct 2008

    Executive Summary

    This report describes the extent of use of medical injections and blood transfusions,characteristics of medical injection users, and associated knowledge and perceptions about how to avoid

    HIV infection among adult women and men in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. It also examines the association between number of medical injections received and HIV serostatus.

    The analysis is based on data from eight Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS): Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon,

    Lesotho, Malawi, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe, and two AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS): Tanzania and Uganda, conducted between 2003 and 2006.

    In most countries studied, receiving multiple medical injections is significantly positively associated with being HIV-infected, for both women and men. Ever having received a blood transfusion also tends to be positively associated with being HIV-infected.

    The study also finds that knowledge that HIV infection can be avoided by avoiding injections, including medical injections, avoiding having sex with injecting drug users (IDUs), and avoiding blood transfusion remains low in most countries studied. Few adults perceive the risk of HIV infection from having medical injections or blood transfusion.

  • A paradoxical peace:

    HIV in post-conflict states

    Joseph U. Becker a; Ernest Drucker b

    a Department of Surgery, Division of Emergency Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA b

    Departments of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of

    Medicine, New York, NY, USA

    Online Publication Date: 01 May 2008

  • Conflict has traditionally been thought to contribute to the epidemic spread of HIV the post-conflict phase may be a particularly dangerous time for HIV transmission. The post-conflict phase is characterized by a potentially disastrous confluence of factors including:

    Demobilization of combatants,

    the presence of foreign peacekeeping forces, the return of potentially infected soldiers and refugees, high-risk sexual and drug use behaviours ,

    persistent economic and social debilitation.

    concentration of populations into cities and urban areas, A paradoxical peace: HIV in post-conflict statesJ Becker and E Drucker

  • NYT

    March 10, 20092 West Africa Slayings May Signal a New Day

    By LYDIA POLGREENBISSAU, Guinea-Bissau Just after sunset, the general got up from under his favorite mango tree. As he climbed toward his second-floor office, a remote-controlled bomb under the staircase exploded, crumpling the buildings flank into a jumble of rubble.His nemesis, the president, died less than 12 hours later, after heavily armed men fired a rocket-propelled grenade into the front door of his house.

    The drug trade is the nations new scourge. According to United Nations officials, as much as $1 billion a year of cocaine is funneled through the country en route to Europe. Both Mr. Vieira and General Tagme Na Waie were suspected of involvement in drug trafficking, according to diplomats and analysts in the region, an allegation their supporters vehemently denied.

  • VOICE of AMERICA

    Illegal Drugs Ravage West AfricaBy Nico Colombant Dakar, Senegal23 April 2008Nico Colombant's Focus Report - Download (MP3) Nico Colombant's Focus Report - Listen (MP3)

    Illegal drugs coming from South America to rich European markets increasingly are going through West Africa because of its porous borders and vast unpoliced areas. The growing illicit traffic seems to be feeding local drug networks, creating more addicts in Africa. According to a recent study, out of some15 million cocaine addicts in the world, about one million are Africans -- most of them in West Africa. But doctors say they don't have the means to help them

  • BBC NEWS / AFRICA |Monday, 9 July 2007, 00:31 GMT 01:31 UKAfrica - new front in drugs war

    By Joseph WinterBBC News website

    How can you hope to battle organised, rich and ruthless international drugs gangs when there is not even a proper prison in the country?

    This is the problem faced by the authorities in Guinea-Bissau, which some fear could be on its way to becoming Africa's first "narco-state".Guinea-Bissau is the most glaring example of the increasing use of West Africa by Latin American cocaine traffickers to get their wares into Europe. The country is wracked by poverty, coups, political unrest and has a coastline full of uninhabited islands, creeks and swamps, providing the perfect cover

  • MAJOR DRUG TRANSIT ROUTES IN THE East REGION

  • Lt Grn = 10000Gray = UnkNumbers of people who inject drugsSource : SAHRN 2008

  • HIV prevalence rates amongpeople who inject drugs

    More than 50%Not Known (nk)0 - 20%20% - 50%More than 50%Not Known (nk)Blue = 0 - 20% Gray = unknown HIV Prevalence Among IDUs

  • Table 9.2: HIV prevalence rates in prisons in Sub-Saharan Africa

    There are no available data on HCV prevalence rates in prisons.

    rate amongprisonersYearBurkina Faso 11% 1999Cameroon 12% 2005Cote DIvoire 28% 1993Djibouti 6.1% n/aMalawi 6075% n/aNigeria 9% 2004Rwanda 14% 1993Senegal 2.7% 1997South Africa 45% 2006Uganda 8% 2002Zambia 27% 1999

  • NYT November 26, 2008

    Study Cites Toll of AIDS Policy in South Africa

    By CELIA W. DUGGER

    JOHANNESBURG A new study by Harvard researchers estimates that the South African government would have prevented the premature deaths of 365,000 people earlier this decade if it had provided antiretroviral drugs to AIDS patients and widely administered drugs to help prevent pregnant women from infecting their babies.The Harvard study concluded that the policies grew out of President Thabo Mbekis denial of the well-established scientific consensus about the viral cause of AIDS and the essential role of antiretroviral drugs in treating it.

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