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Managing Historic Cities Grer les villes historiques
27Convention France-UNESCO pour le patrimoine
Managing Historic Cities Grer les villes historiques
World Her it age
NIO MUN MO D RI
United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization
World Heritage Convention
E W O RLD H
Managing Historic Cities
Grer les villes historiques
Cover Photo: Historic Areas of Istanbul UNESCO/ R.Van Oers Supervision, Editing and Coordination: Ron van Oers and Sachiko Haraguchi, UNESCO World Heritage Centre Coordination of the World Heritage Papers Series: Vesna Vujicic-Lugassy, UNESCO World Heritage Centre French Editing: Marie Noel Tournoux, UNESCO World Heritage Centre Translation: Caroline Lawrence Genevive Boisset Sylvie Fourcade Anne Sauvetre Graphic design: Original layout by Recto Verso Realization by UNESCO/CLD Photos and images presented in the texts are the copyrights of the authors unless otherwise indicated.
DisclaimerThe ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. World Heritage Centre UNESCO 7, place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 SP France Tel : 33 (0)1 45 68 15 71 Fax : 33 (0)1 45 68 55 70 Website: http://whc.unesco.org UNESCO, 2010 All rights reserved. ISBN 978-92-3-004175-5 Published in September 2010 by UNESCO World Heritage Centre. This publication was prepared with the support of the Governments of the Netherlands and France.
ForewordThe World Heritage Cities Programme is one of six thematic programmes formally adopted by the World Heritage Committee.1 It was set up after the 25th session of the World Heritage Committee in 2001 as part of a new multi-year programming approach by the Secretariat. It aimed at providing a framework that would facilitate States Parties to seek, and international donors to offer, technical and financial support in conformity with a set of defined needs following the strategic objectives of the World Heritage Committee. In order to avoid a dispersal of limited means over a multitude of urban heritage projects worldwide, the Cities Programme aims to address those issues or cases that appear before the World Heritage Committee and require urgent attention. Under the Cities Programme, the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) Initiative was launched in 2005 to raise awareness of the need to safeguard historic cities by including inherited values and cultural significance of their wider context into strategies of conservation and urban development. It had become apparent that protection and conservation of living historic cities by way of conservation areas or otherwise geographically limited special districts was no longer sufficient to cope with the increasing pressures exerted on them. The HUL Initiative emerged from the international conference, World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture Managing the Historic Urban Landscape, held in Vienna (Austria) in May 2005, which issued the Vienna Memorandum. The Vienna Memorandum, developed with the cooperation of the World Heritage Centres partner organizations in this initiative,2 was an important starting point for rethinking urban conservation principles and paradigms, which have been the subject of a series of international expert meetings organized by UNESCO. Several of the papers delivered at these meetings are collected in this volume. All these efforts are focused on the development of a new international standard-setting instrument for the safeguarding of historic urban landscapes, scheduled for adoption by UNESCOs General Conference in 2011. This updated tool for urban conservation is much needed to facilitate the proper protection and management of living historic cities: not only those inscribed on the World Heritage List comprising almost half the cultural heritage properties but also those that have national or regional importance.
Francesco Bandarin Director, UNESCO World Heritage Centre
Other thematic World Heritage programmes concern Earthen Architecture, Marine Environment, Forests, Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Sustainable Tourism (http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities). International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), International Union of Architects (UIA), International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA), International Federation for Housing and Planning (IFHP), Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC), Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC), and more recently, the International Association of Impact Assessment (IAIA).
Table of ContentsForeword Francesco Bandarin Managing cities and the historic urban landscape initiative an introduction Ron van Oers Selected papers Urban planning challenged by historic urban landscape Bruno Gabrielli Historic cities in the 21st century: core values for a globalizing world Stefano Bianca Urban morphology and historic urban landscapes Jeremy Whitehand Marrying the old with the new in historic urban landscapes Julian Smith Reflection on historic urban landscapes as a tool for conservation Jukka Jokilehto Visual analysis: tools for conservation of urban views during development Hal Moggridge Urbanization and cultural conservation a summary of policies and tools in the United States Jeffrey Soule Lessons from history in the conservation of historic urban landscapes Robert Adam From individual structures to historic urban landscape management the French experience Daniel Duch Historic urban landscapes: concept and management Dennis Rodwell AnnexesAnnex A : Selection of key international instruments Annex B : Policy guide on historic and cultural resources, American Planning Association Annex C : Urban Heritage on the World Heritage List (as at July 2009)Page 106 Page 110 Page 113 Page 19 Page 3 Page 7
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Managing cities and the historic urban landscape initiative an introductionRon van Oers Coordinator, UNESCO World Heritage Cities Programme
Setting the sceneWith the current size and projected increase of the world population living in urban areas,3 together with the lack of policies to recognize and facilitate sustainable use of heritage assets, the pressures on historic cities will continue to rise, making historic urban landscape conservation a most daunting task. As a direct consequence, the time allocated at World Heritage Committee sessions to debating the impacts of contemporary development in or adjacent to World Heritage-designated cities has increased dramatically. Ranging from traffic and tourism pressures to high-rise constructions and inner city functional changes, the issues negatively impacting on the cultural-historic significance of urban World Heritage sites are numerous, often interrelated and increasing in complexity. Parallel to the rapid diffusion of economic globalization, there seems to be a tendency towards a concentration of urban regeneration and development projects in historic inner cities. Indeed, as Saskia Sassen has observed, the downtowns of cities and key nodes in metropolitan areas receive massive investments in real estate and telecommunications, while low-income city areas and the older suburbs are starved for resources. These trends are evident, with different levels of intensity, in a growing number of major cities in the developed world and increasingly in some of the developing countries that have been integrated into the global financial markets (Sassen, 1999, p. 152). Increasingly these developments pose threats to the authenticity and integrity structural or visual of historic cities and their inherited urban landscapes, as expressed by local communities and specialized conservation groups such as ICOMOS. When the outstanding universal value of World Heritage-designated cities or urban areas is jeopardized, the World Heritage Committee will intervene to express its concerns and demand a redirection of proposed urban projects. In particular over the last few years the number as well as intensity of debates at the annual sessions of the World Heritage Committee has increased significantly, suggesting an inadequate framework to address matters of contemporary development within historic urban contexts. Some recent figures are provided to illustrate the current crisis in urban conservation.4 At its 31st session in Christchurch, New Zealand (June/July 2007), the World Heritage Committee reviewed a total of eighty-four State of Conservation reports for cultural properties (from a total of 830 World Heritage sites inscribed at the time), prepared by the World Heritage Centre in collaboration with its Advisory Bodies ICOMOS, IUCN and ICCROM. Thirty-three reports focused on potential harmful impacts of urban development and regeneration projects, including threats posed by infrastructure projects, contemporary architecture and tall buildings: an alarming 39 per cent of the cultural World Heritage sites reported to the Committee.5 (Other impacts included natural disasters, regional conflicts and lack of ma