Unesco Estudiantes Ged2006

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  • 1. I N S T I T U T E f o r S T AT I S T I C SGLOBAL EDUCATION DIGEST 2006Comparing Education Statistics Across the World UNESCO

2. 200 6 GLOBAL EDUC ATION DIGE S TComparing Education Statistics Across the World [] UNESCO Institute for Statistics Montreal, 2006 3. UNESCO The constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was adopted by 20 countries at the London Conference in November 1945 and entered into effect on 4 November 1946. The Organization currently has 191 Member States and six Associate Members. The main objective of UNESCO is to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, culture and communication in order to foster universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights and fundamental freedoms that are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations. To fulfill its mandate, UNESCO performs five principal functions: 1) prospective studies on education, science, culture and communication for tomorrows world; 2) the advancement, transfer and sharing of knowledge through research, training and teaching activities; 3) standard-setting actions for the preparation and adoption of internal instruments and statutory recommendations; 4) expertise through technical co-operation to Member States for their development policies and projects; and 5) the exchange of specialised information. UNESCO is headquartered in Paris, France. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical office of UNESCO and is the UN depository for global statistics in the fields of education, science and technology, culture and communication.UIS was established in 1999. It was created to improve UNESCOs statistical programme and to develop and deliver the timely, accurate and policy-relevant statistics needed in todays increasingly complex and rapidly changing social, political and economic environments. UIS is based in Montreal, Canada.Published in 2006 by:UNESCO Institute for Statistics P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 CanadaTel: (1 514) 343-6880 Fax: (1 514) 343-6882 Email: publications@uis.unesco.org http://www.uis.unesco.org UNESCO-UIS 2006Ref: UIS/SD/06-01 ISBN: 92-9189-028-6 Design: Sabine Lebeau / les souris zles Original cover design: JCNicholls Design Photo credits: UNESCO/G.Malempr Printing: Tri-Graphic Printing Limited The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.To access the electronic version of data tables, see www.uis.unesco.org/publications/GED2006. 4. ForewordThe state of tertiary education the focus of analysis in this years Global Education Digest (GED) in a country or region is a potent indicator of human capital and, thus, of human development and well-being. The growing ranks of university-level students and graduates represent a positive result of global efforts to promote educational participation and achievement at all levels. In turn, these new teachers, doctors, scientists and lawyers will no doubt help pull the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) particularly the goals on education, health and the rights of girls and women into a sustainable reality.More generally, the growth in tertiary enrolment and graduation is associated with the steady rise in social and economic globalisation and mobility. This report contributes significantly to the understanding of what is being called the internationalisation of tertiary education. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) assembled and analysed a wide range of data for this task, extracting the most from what is available and highlighting gaps in current data collection.This report introduces the concept of internationally mobile students those who study in foreign countries where they are not permanent residents. It advances several new indicators to track the flows of these students whose numbers jumped by 41% between 1999 and 2004. These indicators ask: How many students, and what percentage of the student body, go abroad and where do they go? What are the impacts on countries of origin and on host countries? What are the factors that push and pull these students?Other evidence presented in this report shows that low- and middle-income countries are playing catch-up with North America and Western Europe in terms of tertiary enrolment, leading to some startling changes in the rankings of countries. The report also examines the gender balance in education, as well as in fields of study. This study reflects factors like national wealth, labour market structure and gender opportunities.High-income countries have more than double the share of graduates in health- related fields than low-income countries. A similar gap is evident in engineering, computing and sciences. As for gender balance, not only is gender parity in tertiary enrolment rare, but female students are overwhelmingly clustered in education and non-science fields. There are different patterns of gender disparity in tertiary education, but the most prevalent is one that favours men. 3 5. FOREWORDThe UIS is responsible for monitoring progress on international education-relatedtargets, such as the MDGs and Education for All (EFA) goals. We initiate, supportand participate in activities around the world that contribute to ongoing efforts toimprove data quality. For example, a number of regional workshops on educationstatistics are taking place in 2006 for statisticians and policymakers in Member States.These intensive exchanges lead to improvements in the scope and comparability ofdata across countries by implementing international measurement standards. At the heart of the Digest are the indicator tables: they present a wide range of thebest data available for all levels of education. This year we have introduced a numberof positive changes in the Digest. The new reference school year is now harmonisedwith OECD and Eurostat countries and fosters more timely reporting. Countries andtheir data are grouped by a larger number of regions (the same as those used inthe EFA Global Monitoring Report) and there are now more regional averages forindicators. For the first time in the Digest, new statistical tables provide data that take intoaccount the flows of international students. For example, for each country oforigin we name the top five destinations for students who go abroad to study. Wealso introduce a new indicator the outbound mobility ratio that will appear infuture GED editions. Secondary and tertiary tables now include the share of privateenrolment. Adult and youth literacy rates have also been added as part of UIS effortsto present a wider range of data sources on education and learning. This report is accompanied by an interactive database accessible online atwww.uis.unesco.org/publications/GED2006 or on CD-ROM (see section on OnlineResources). In this database, users will find additional indicators and time seriesbeyond those presented in the print version of the Digest. Key indicators in theonline database are updated twice a year and thus provide access to the most timelyinternational education data available.Michael MillwardDirector a.i.UNESCO Institute for Statistics 4 6. ContentsForeword 3Acknowledgements 6Tertiary education: Extending the frontiers of knowledge 7Readers guide50Statistical tables55 1. Pre-primary education / ISCED 0 / Enrolment and teaching staff56 2. Primary education / ISCED 1 / New entrants66 3. Primary education / ISCED 1 / Enrolment and teaching staff76 4. Measures of progression and completion in primary education / ISCED 1 86 5. Secondary education / ISCED 2 and 3 / Enrolment and repeaters 96 6. Secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education / ISCED 2, 3 and 4 / 106Teaching staff and post-secondary non-tertiary enrolment 7. Upper secondary (ISCED 3) graduation and entry to tertiary (ISCED 5) education 116 8. Tertiary education / ISCED 5 and 6 / Enrolment and teaching staff120 9. Internationally mobile students in tertiary education by host country and region of origin 130 10. International flows of mobile students at the tertiary level132 11. Tertiary education / ISCED 5 and 6 / Graduates by field of education138 12. School life expectancy148 13. Education expenditure, spending as a % of gross domestic product and by nature154 14. Education expenditure, sources as a % of gross domestic product 160 15. Adult and youth literacy170ANNEX A / Glossary177ANNEX B / Definitions of indicators 183ANNEX C / International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED97)187ANNEX D / Regions 190Online resources192UIS publications193 5 7. AcknowledgementsThis Global Education Digest is based on data provided by the countries or territories covered in this publication. We would like to express our gratitude to all those statisticians who, in each country and territory, took the time to respond to the UIS, UOE or WEI questionnaires as well as our requests for clarification. We would also like to express our thanks to the international organizations, in particular the United Nations Statistics and Population Divisions, the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat and other specialised institutions, that supplied additional information and statistics to complement those gathered directly by the UIS.This publication is possible thanks to the work and coordination of various individuals