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Unesco Desarrollo Infantil

Transcript of Unesco _ Asq

  • United Nations

    Cultural Organization

    Commissioned by UNESCO within the framework of the Holistic Early Childhood Development Index

    The Review of Care, Education and

    Child Development Indicators in Early Childhood

  • 1

    Review of care, education and child development indicators in ECCE

    Desk review prepared for UNESCO on existing indices and indicators

    Alfredo R. Tinajero and Anas Loizillon

    ED/BHL/BAS/2012/PI/H/1 REV.

  • 2

    Review of care, education and child development indicators in ECCE

    Alfredo R. Tinajero and Anas Loizillon

    Table of contents

    Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 3

    Acronyms ................................................................................................................................................ 4

    1. Introduction to early childhood development................................................................................ 5

    2. What are the essential characteristics of the HECDI? .................................................................. 13

    3. What indicators and indices are commonly used worldwide to measure child development, developmental care and education? .................................................................................................... 18

    4. Issues and challenges regarding child development, developmental care and education indicators .............................................................................................................................................. 28

    5. What recommendations can be made to further the design of the HECDI? ................................ 42

    Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................... 47

    Appendices ............................................................................................................................................ 56

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    Summary

    This report will contribute elements for the design of a Holistic Early Childhood Development Index (HECDI) for use worldwide to monitor progress towards the achievement of Education for All (EFA) goal 1. The need for the HECDI was recently acknowledged at the World Conference on Early Childhood Care and Education, held in Moscow in September 2010.

    This report, part of a series of desk reviews to prepare the development of the HECDI, will critically and analytically review existing early childhood indices and indicators in the areas of child development, developmental care and education from birth to the age of 8. This vast area includes access to quality formal early care and learning programmes and measures of cognitive and socio-emotional development, as defined and produced by the EFA convening agencies, critical lead organizations that support early childhood care and education (ECCE) and regional representations of Member States.

    The purpose of this review is to answer the following questions: (1) Which characteristics are crucial to the HECDI? (2) What indices and indicators are commonly used worldwide to measure child development, developmental care and education? (3) What recommendations can be made for the inclusion of child development, developmental care and education measures in the HECDI? On the basis of the existing literature, we develop a framework within which we evaluate existing indices and indicators in this area. The reviewed composite indices were found to lack indicators of early cognitive and socio-emotional development, maternal health and well-being, quality of caregiver-child interaction, quality of early learning programmes, and screening for childrens disabilities. Most of these gaps can be filled by existing measurements of child development also discussed in this report.

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    Acronyms

    AEDI Australian Early Development Index AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ANER Adjusted net enrolment ratio ASQ-SE The Ages and Stages Questionnaires Social Emotional CARICOM Caribbean Community and Common Market DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid ECCE Early childhood care and education ECD Early childhood development EDI Early Developmental Instrument EFA Education for All EGRA Early Grade Reading Assessment ELDS Early Learning and Development Standards FCI Family Care Indicators FDQ Functional Development Growth Chart Questionnaire FEAS Functional Emotional Assessment Scale GDP Gross Domestic Product GER Gross enrolment ratio GMCD Guide for Monitoring Child Development GNI Gross National Income GNP Gross National Product GPI Gender parity index HECDI Holistic Early Childhood Development Index HIPCs Heavily Indebted Poor Countries HIV Human immunodeficiency virus ISCED97 International Standard Classification of Education (1997) ITN Insecticide treated nets LDCs Least developed countries LTP Learning Through Play Program MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (UNICEF) NER Net enrolment ratio ODA Official development assistance OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD-DAC OECDs Development Assistance Committee PRIDIS Programa Regional de Indicadores de Desarrollo Infantil SEGC Social Emotional Growth Chart TQ Ten Questions screen for child disabilities UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

    UNESCO-UIS UNESCO Institute for Statistics UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund WHO World Health Organization

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    1. Introduction to early childhood development

    1.1 Early human development

    The stage of life from conception to age 5 is conceptualized as a period of experience-based brain development and as a critical stage for the programming of neurobiological pathways that can affect health, learning and behaviour during the entire life cycle (Tinajero and Mustard, 2011). The early years of life are also seen as one of the worlds most significant social determinants of health (WHO, 2008) and as a time when social environments and experiences get under the skin (Hertzman and Boyce, 2010).

    A life trajectory refers to the course that development can take as a result of the gene-environment interaction. In this interaction epigenetic effects1

    Early experiences through the sensing pathways set how different parts of the brain develop and function. During the early years of life there is constant interplay between the developing sensing pathways, the L-HPA pathway (limbic system-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis), gene function and the immune system. The L-HPA pathway and the hormone cortisol play a central role in the programming of neurobiological pathways. All sensing pathways play a major role in brain development. The sense of touch particularly in the early stages of life seems to play a crucial role in the development of the brain and the biological pathways (Mustard, 2006).

    also come into play. Various studies have proven that adverse early experiences can have a long-lasting effect on an individuals health (coronary heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity, ageing, memory loss, mental health, substance abuse and premature death), learning (school achievement and school dropout) and behaviour (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and antisocial behaviour) throughout the life cycle (Early Years Study II, 2007).

    Early experiences affect the formation of synapses among neurons. Children develop in sequential stages (development in earlier stages affects development in later stages). The sensing pathways develop before the language pathways, which develop before the higher cognitive function (Mustard, 2011). Figure 1 shows that the most sensitive period for the development of the sensing pathways is during the first few months of life and that the most sensitive period for the development of language pathways is around the third trimester of the first year and extends beyond the fourth year of life (Thompson and Nelson, 2001). This evidence supports the need to implement high-quality early child development programmes during the early stages of life.

    1 Activation or deactivation of gene function. Epigenetics is also referred to as the biological processes which modify the

    products produced from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) without modifying DNA (Mustard, 2011). Experiences such as nutrition, stimulation, stress and teratogens can activate epigenetic processes.

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    Figure 1: Phases of human brain development

    0 1 4 8 12 16

    AGE

    Sensing

    Pathways

    (vision, hearing)

    Language

    Higher

    Cognitive Function

    3 6 9-3-6

    Months Years

    Adapted from: Thompson and Nelson, 2001.

    During the course of life, there is a potential development ceiling that can be heightened, depending on the quality of early experiences (Hertzman, 1999; Hertzman and Boyce, 2010). Early experiences also shape population gradients in health, learning and behaviour.

    The development of the brain and the biological pathways can be influenced by biological risk factors (e.g. malnutrition, infectious diseases and, teratogens), social risk factors (e.g. caregiver sensitivity and responsiveness) and contextual risk factors (e.g. maternal depression) (Walker et al., 2007). It is estimated that around 200 million children under five years of age in developing countries are not reaching their developmental potential (Grantham McGregor et al., 2006). The most prevalent developmental risk fac