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    Integrating Local & Indigenous Knowledge with

    Science & Technology for Flood & Landslide Control:

    Case studies from Japan and other countries

    1. Revival of indigenous methods of flood control in Japan

    2. Validation of omens as indicators for early warning and theirpractical application

    3. Development of hydrological equipment for community early

    warning to monitor concentrated rainfall increasing as a result of

    climate change

    4. Education in Cuba19 April 2013

    Hidetomi Oi

    Ex-JICA Senior Expert on Water Resources Development and Disaster Reduction

    19 April 2013

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    1. Revival of indigenous methods for flood control in Japan

    Retarding basin

    Open levee

    Ring levee

    Base raisingForest beltMattress

    Skeleton

    Secondary levee

    1600s-1800s (Feudal era)

    Variety of indigenous methods

    suitable for local conditions weredeveloped, encouraged by feudal

    governments, as shown in the figure.

    1896-1976 (Meiji era)

    Long high levees were constructed

    to confine floods in the river, applying

    advanced technologies and using

    heavy machines.

    1977-

    Comprehensive Flood Control including construction of rain water storage and infiltration

    facilities in housing development areas to reduce flooding of urban rivers.

    1996-

    Revival of indigenous methods in view of theirresilience against extremes as well as

    environmental merits, allowing inundation but avoiding total destruction and leading to early

    recovery. In 2010 JICA prepared Handbook on Climate Change Adaptation in the Water

    Sector :A Resilient Approach that Integrates Water Management and Community

    Development which emphasized resilience. This shift is being accelerated learning from

    lessons from the tsunami disaster on 11 March 2011.

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    Example of indigenous methods

    Ring leveeRing levees are seen in

    deltas of Ganges-

    Brahmaputra(Bangladesh),

    Ayeyarwadi(Myanmar),

    Kiso(Japan) etc.

    Open levee

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    Forest belts on the river side reduce

    impact of floods and protect levees andhouses etc.

    Forest belts on the inner side reduce

    energy of overflowing floods and protect

    levees and houses etc.

    Forest beltForest belts

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    Traditional river works

    Skeleton works

    Mattress worksMattress works Skeleton works

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    Gabion works

    Bamboo gabionswere used for

    urgent rehabilitation

    works in Japan.

    Gabions are used

    popularly in

    developingcountries.

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    River bank protection with used tires, Trinidad and Tobago

    Slope protection works using

    used tires, Sri Lanka

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    Storage and infiltration have been given priority as a basin approach tomitigate flooding of urban rivers since 1970s

    Storage : roof top, park, playground,

    parking area etc.

    Infiltration :porous pavement

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    Example of storage

    Playground

    Small park and tennis court

    Parking area

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    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48

    Time (Hour)

    Discharge(m3/s) Qp = 880m3/s

    States Quo

    Qp = 1,090 m3/s

    Year 2050 under Secenario B1

    Qp=1,300m3/s

    Year 2050 under Secenario A1FI

    Study on Comprehensive Flood Mitigation for Cavite, Metro

    Manila, Philippines (JICA 2009)An example to address flood problem of urban rivers due to urbanization

    and climate change. The principle is basin approach with emphasis on

    storage (retarding basin, storage ponds), in addition to river works

    (widening, dredging, embankment).

    2008 2050

    Peak discharge 880 m/s 1,300m/s (1.5)

    Inundated house 21,800 houses 74,200 houses (3)

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    Storage ponds in housingdevelopment areas (Cavite, Philippines)

    Retarding basins along rivers(Cavite,Philippines)

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    2. Validation of omens (signs, symptoms) as indicators

    for early warning and their practical application

    Omens had long been used for early warning especially for sediment

    related disasters, but as science/technology developed, such a

    practice gradually diminished.

    However, recent surveys disclosed that although people were

    reluctant to evacuate even with instructions from mayors, they didevacuate if they perceive any omen. It was also disclosed that

    instructions of mayors were not always appropriate in terms of timing

    as well as contents of messages.

    Accordingly, Government (Min. of Land, Infrastructure and

    Transport) conducted a survey to validate omens from scientific pointof view in 2006. As a result of survey of 71 disaster cases, a total of

    30 omens were identified as meaningful indicators for early warning.

    Local governments are considering to incorporate the results of the

    survey into Disaster Management Plan and school curriculum.

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    2

    Survey Sheet

    Rainfall(hourly and

    accumulated)Weather

    conditions

    Government

    actions (centraland local)

    Witnesses

    on omens

    Disaster

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    SLOPE FAILURES

    1. Cracks, Falling of cobbles, Swelling of slopes

    2. Spout of water from slope; Springs become

    muddy.3. Tilting of trees, Trembling of trees

    4. Ground rumbling

    DEBRIS FLOWS

    1. Slope failures in mountain slopes, Falling of

    cobbles

    2. Decrease in river water while rains continue.

    3. Ground rumbling, Sounds of trees being split

    4. Smell of decay

    LANDSLIDES1. Deformation of ground; Cracks in slopes, foot

    path, pavement, walls

    2. Water of wells, streams becomes turbulent.

    3. Sudden decrease in water level (ponds etc.)

    4. Sounds of trees being split

    Progress of hazardous phenomena and omens perceived

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    Supplementary reader for elementary school illustrating

    omens for debris-flows, landslides and slope failures

    respectively

    Omens for the case of debris-flows

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    3. Development of hydrological equipment for community

    early warning

    As a result of climate change, locally concentrated rainfall has been

    increasing, causing flash floods and sediment related disasters.Such localized rainfalls can not be monitored by government

    observation networks and should be monitored at each community

    for timely actions.

    Various equipment have been developed. The one shown below has

    been developed in the Caribbean and Japan which is suitable forcommunity early warning due to following advantages:

    Cheap in cost

    Easy for assembly, operation and maintenance

    Safe observation in the house

    Short, heavy rainfall even in

    the mid-night will be measured without fail due to the alarm device.

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    Ordinary water level gage. It is

    dangerous to go out to the observation

    site to observe the sudden rise of water

    level in the mid-night under heavy storm.

    Workshop for assembling the equipment

    for government staff in Fiji in 2012 (left)

    and in Nepal in 2011(right)

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    Community based landslide

    early warning system,

    developed by Gajamada

    University, Indonesia

    Community flood early warning with a

    sensor of two stainless rods beneath the

    floor, developed by a person of electrical

    appliance shop, Mindanao, Philippines

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    4. Disaster education in Cuba, which supports the most

    advanced in the world in disaster management

    management

    Education startsas early as at

    kindergarten

    At elementary school using

    paper TV

    Disaster Management Club at

    junior high school

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    THANKS